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2009 Report on Global and China's Electric-Vehicle (EV) Markets
Petroleum crisis and worsening environmental pollution has been forcing automobiles to diversify their fuels and electrify their power. Against such a background, worldwide extensive attention is being paid to electric vehicles that are highly fuel efficient, of low or zero emission.
Many countries have listed R&D of electric vehicles in their governmental programs. For example, the U.S. government has entered an agreement on PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles) with the US three automobile giants, which are Chrysler, Ford and General Motors. The EU also developed programs for electric vehicles and energy ?C the Framework Program, EU Demonstration Fuel Cell R&D Program, EU Program for R&D of Fuel Cells for Buses, and EU Program for Electric Vehicles for Urban Transport etc. Japan, being extremely populous and comparatively small-sized, and being the second in the world as for ownership of cars, pays great attention to R&D of electric vehicles, especially in the area of hybrid vehicles, where Japan is a leader in the world. Japan has programs for developing low-pollution vehicles and for promoting them, and dedicated demonstration programs for fuel cells etc.
To Put New-Energy Vehicles in Mass Production: Hybrid Vehicles
Electric vehicles fall into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), pure electric vehicles (PEV) and fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEV). So far only HEV are in mass production.
About 400,000 HEV were sold in 2006 worldwide, and the similar figure was 1 million in 2008, 2.1 million are expected to be sold in 2010, and 6 million in 2015.
Currently, the demand for HEV mainly comes from the U.S. and Japan, with Toyota and Honda as the major suppliers. Generally speaking, the production of HEV has become an industry, and the production capacity will be much large in the future. China also has plans for HEV, with goals to deliver an annual output of 1 million HEV by 2012, accounting for 10% of the total output of cars in China.
Bottleneck in PEV production: performance of batteries
Nickel-metal hydride batteries and Li-ion batteries are two the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. But the mass production of nickel-metal hydride batteries would make resources of nickel metal fall short and the rare earth for hydrogen-storage alloy would fall short too, while Li-ion batteries have problems of safety and reliability, which have to be overcome.
The ultimate trend of automobiles: fuel-cell vehicles
Fuel-cell vehicles would be the end of the development of automobiles. A fuel-cell vehicle would be really of zero emission, while it is also very fuel efficient, noiseless, without vibration and of long service life. But for fuel-cell vehicles, the major problems (i.e. bottlenecks) have to be solved are: The cost is high because fuel cells use platinum as the catalyst and have to use proton exchange membrane. In addition, it's difficult to obtain, seal and transport hydrogen, the fuel.
1.1 Definitions and Categories
1.1.1 Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV)
1.1.2 Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
1.1.3 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
1.2 Development Environment of Electric Vehicles (EV)
1.2.1 Social Environment
22.214.171.124 Influence of Energy Industry on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
126.96.36.199 Influence of Environmental Protection on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
1.2.2 Influence of Governmental Polices on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
188.8.131.52 Favorable Governmental Polices on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
184.108.40.206.1 The U.S. Polices on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
220.127.116.11.2 Japanese Polices on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
18.104.22.168.3 Polices of Other Countries on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
22.214.171.124 China's Favorable Polices on Development of Electric Vehicles (EV)
126.96.36.199.1 What are the Favorable Policies?
188.8.131.52.2 Promotion of EV and EV Market in China
184.108.40.206.3 Construction of Ancillary Facilities for Production of Batteries for EV in China
220.127.116.11.4 Summary of Chinese Polices on EV
Chapter Two: Development of EV in the World
2.2 R&D and Market of EV
2.2.1 HEV in the World
18.104.22.168 Practical Application and Promotion
22.214.171.124 Market Distribution (Manufacturers and Their Geographical Distribution )
126.96.36.199 Forecast of Development
2.2.2 Fuel-Cell Vehicles in the World
188.8.131.52 Practical Application and Promotion
2.2.3 PEV in the World
184.108.40.206 Practical Application and Promotion
2.2.4 Comparison of Different EV
2.2.5 Developing Trend of EV in the World
220.127.116.11 Super-Mini-Cars with only Batteries as Power Sources
18.104.22.168 Drive Motors to Diversify
22.214.171.124 Hybrid Vehicles
126.96.36.199 Fuel-Cell Vehicles Coming into Focus
2.3 EV in the World's Major Countries and Regions
188.8.131.52 Development of EV
184.108.40.206.1 Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV)
220.127.116.11.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
18.104.22.168.3 Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
22.214.171.124 Programs for Development of EV
126.96.36.199 EV in Major European Countries
188.8.131.52.3 Other Countries
184.108.40.206 EU Program for Development of EV
220.127.116.11 Development of EV
18.104.22.168.1 Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV)
22.214.171.124.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
126.96.36.199.3 Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
188.8.131.52 The U.S. Program for Development of EV
Chapter Three: Overview of China's Electric-Vehicle Industry, 2008
3.1 Industrial Chain of China's Electric-Vehicle Industry
3.1.1 Electric Vehicle Assembly
3.1.2 EV Parts
3.1.3 Demonstration Project of EV
3.1.4 Brands of PEV
3.2 Standard of EV in China
3.2.1 Current Situation
3.2.2 Standard of HEV in China
184.108.40.206 Base of Standard
220.127.116.11 Type and Property of Standard
18.104.22.168 Reference to International Standard and Standard from Developed Countries
22.214.171.124 Effect and Limitation of Standard
3.3 R&D of EV in China
3.3.1 PEV (Pure Electric Vehicles)
3.3.2 HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
3.3.3 FCEV (Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles)
3.4 Market and Development Trend of EV in China
3.4.2 Awareness of EV and the Intention of the Public of Buying EV in China
3.4.3 The Rapid Growth of Both Output and Consumption of Vehicles Means Great Market Potential for EV in the Future
3.4.4 It's Critical to Achieve Breakthrough in Technology
3.4.6 Favorable Policies are Needed to Promote EV in China
3.4.7 Constraints on EV Development in China
126.96.36.199 Constraints on China's R&D of EV all by Itself and on Intellectual Property
188.8.131.52 Macro-Policy Constraints
184.108.40.206 Talent Constraints
3.4.8 China is a Promising Leader in the World's EV Market
3.4.9 Dynamics of EV in Some Regions of China
220.127.116.11 Chongqing Having Established EV R&D Center
18.104.22.168 Jilin Province's PEV being Able to Cover 300 km with a Single Charge
22.214.171.124 EV from Jinan (Shandong Province) Forcing into European and the U.S. Markets
126.96.36.199 Government of Hunan Province to Purchase EV
188.8.131.52 Campaign of "1,000 EV in Each of Ten Large Cities" Having been Initiated in Wuhan
3.5 EV in Olympic Games
3.5.1 Pure Electric Buses
3.5.2 Fuel-Cell Buses
3.5.3 Hybrid Buses
3.5.4 Pure Electric Convenience Vehicles
3.5.5 Fuel-Cell Cars
3.5.6 Hybrid Power Cars
3.5.6 Pure Electric Sanitation Vehicles
3.6 Problems to be Solved in Promoting Electric Vehicles
3.7 Technological Improvement and Developing Trend of Electric Vehicles in China
3.7.1 Batteries for Electric Vehicles
3.7.2 Electric Motors and Control Technology
3.7.3 Research Conducted by Xi'an Jiaotong University on Electric Vehicles
184.108.40.206 Electric Motors and Control
220.127.116.11 Brake-Energy Reclaiming/Controlling System
18.104.22.168 Working Condition Monitoring System
22.214.171.124 Motion Control System
3.7.4 Dynamics of EV Technology in China
126.96.36.199 A Fuel-Cell Vehicle that China Developed all by Itself Succeeding in being Charged and Started for the First Time at -10°C
188.8.131.52 Progress in Laser Welding of Key Parts (of Engines) Made of Special Materials
184.108.40.206 Breakthrough Being Achieved by Chinese Academy of Sciences and FAW Which Made Joint Effort to Develop Rare Earth/Mg Alloy
220.127.116.11 Dynamics of R&D of LiFePO4 Batteries
Chapter Four: Upstream Industries of EV Industry in China
4.1 Research on Li-ion Batteries in China
4.1.2 Advantages China Enjoys in Developing Li-ion Battery Vehicles
4.1.3 Three Major Problems China Has in Research on Li-ion Batteries
4.1.4 China's Schedule of Developing Li-ion Battery Vehicles
4.2 Development of Control System for EV in China
4.2.1 Control System for EV
4.2.2 Energy Management System
4.2.3 Brake-Energy Reclaiming/Controlling System
4.2.4 Control System for Motion of Electric Motors
4.2.5 Electric-Powered Steering System
4.2.6 Control System for Power Assembly
4.3 Super Capacitors in EV
4.3.1 What is a Super Capacitor?
4.3.2 Super Capacitors in EV
4.4 Suppliers of Batteries for EV
4.4.1 Shenzhou Science & Technology (Hunan) Co., Ltd.
4.4.2 Qingdao Aucma Newpower Technology
4.4.3 Chunlan Group (Jiangsu)
4.4.4 Thunder Sky Energy Group (Shenzhen)
4.4.5 Shenzhen Zhongxing Automobile Manufacturing
4.4.6 Henan Huanyu Power Source Company Ltd.
4.5 Suppliers of Fuel Cells for EV
4.5.1 Shen-Li High-Tech (Shanghai)
4.5.2 Boneng Tongke Fuel Cell System (Shanghai)
4.5.3 Fuyuan Century Fuel-Cell Power (Beijing)
4.5.4 Sunrise Power (Dalian) Co,. Ltd.
4.5.5 Asia Special Dragon Electronic Technology (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd.
4.5.5 Huayuan Hydrogen Energy Technology Development (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd.
4.6 Suppliers of Electric Motors for EV
4.6.1 Taishan New Power Electrical Machinery (Tai'an)
4.6.2 STK (Shanghai)
4.6.3 Huandian Technologies (Lanzhou)
4.6.4 Glelec (Shenzhen)
4.7 Suppliers of Super Capacitors for EV
4.7.1 Aowei Technology Development (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
4.7.2 Sino Power Star Co., Ltd. (SPSCAP)
4.8 Suppliers of Battery Chargers for EV
4.8.1 Zhongchuang Electronics (Xuxhou) Co., Ltd.
4.8.2 Beijing Aosiyuan Technology & Science Co., Ltd.
4.8.3 Qiangneng Electric (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.
4.8.4 Wanghua Hengyuan Electronic Equipment Factory (Fushun)
Chapter Five: Development of EV in Major Carmakers in the World
5.1 Development of EV in Major Carmakers in the World
18.104.22.168 R&D of EV
22.214.171.124.1 PEV (Pure Electric Vehicles)
126.96.36.199.2 Hybrid Vehicles
188.8.131.52.3 FCEV (Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles)
184.108.40.206 Sales of Hybrid Vehicles
220.127.116.11 Plans for Development
18.104.22.168 R&D of EV
22.214.171.124.1 PEV (Pure Electric Vehicles)
126.96.36.199.2 Hybrid Vehicles
188.8.131.52.3 FCEV (Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles)
184.108.40.206 Sales of Hybrid Vehicles
220.127.116.11 Plans for Development
5.1.3 Mitsubishi Motors
18.104.22.168 R&D of EV
22.214.171.124.1 PEV (Pure Electric Vehicles)
126.96.36.199.2 Hybrid Vehicles
188.8.131.52.3 FCEV (Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles)
184.108.40.206 Plans for Development
5.1.6 Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. (FHI)
5.1.13 PSA Peugeot Citroën
5.2 Dynamics of Foreign EV Makers, 2009
5.2.1 Lotus Announces New Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Group
5.2.2 Mitsubishi to Make iMiEV under the Name of PSA Peugeot Citroën
5.2.3 Nissan and NEC to Invest US$1.1bn in Production of Li-ion Batteries
5.2.4 Intel's Former Chairman Suggesting Intel Enter EV Industry
5.2.5 Bosch: To Keep a Sober Mind on EV
5.2.6 Michelin Setting up Joint Venture in China to Produce Power Systems for EV
5.3 Development of Major China's Home Carmakers in EV Industry
5.3.1 Qingyuan Electric Vehicles (Tianjin)
5.3.4 Dongfeng Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.
5.3.7 Wangxiang EV Co., Ltd.
5.3.8 CSR Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.
5.3.9 Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC)
5.4 Dynamics of China's Home EV Makers, 2009
5.4.1 FAW to Put EV in Mass Production
5.4.2 SAIC to Sell Hybrid Brands of Its Own in 2010
5.4.3 Haimai Displayed its First EV in Shanghai Auto Show, 2009
5.4.4 Ruihua (Group) Started Environmental Electric Bus Program Together with Jiangling Motors Group
Chapter Six: Investing in China's EV Market
6.3 Investment Advices and Summary
- Qingdao Aucma Newpower Technology
- Chunlan Group (Jiangsu)
- Thunder Sky Energy Group (Shenzhen)
- Shenzhen Zhongxing Automobile Manufacturing
- Henan Huanyu Power Source Company Ltd.
- Suppliers of Fuel Cells for EV
- Shen-Li High-Tech (Shanghai)
- Boneng Tongke Fuel Cell System (Shanghai)
- Fuyuan Century Fuel-Cell Power (Beijing)
- Sunrise Power (Dalian) Co,. Ltd.
- Asia Special Dragon Electronic Technology (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd.
- Huayuan Hydrogen Energy Technology Development (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd.
- Suppliers of Electric Motors for EV
- Taishan New Power Electrical Machinery (Tai'an)
- STK (Shanghai)
- Huandian Technologies (Lanzhou)
- Glelec (Shenzhen)
- Suppliers of Super Capacitors for EV
- Aowei Technology Development (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
- Sino Power Star Co., Ltd. (SPSCAP)
- Suppliers of Battery Chargers for EV
- Zhongchuang Electronics (Xuxhou) Co., Ltd.
- Beijing Aosiyuan Technology & Science Co., Ltd.
- Qiangneng Electric (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.
- Wanghua Hengyuan Electronic Equipment Factory (Fushun)
- Qingyuan Electric Vehicles (Tianjin)
- Dongfeng Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.
- Wangxiang EV Co., Ltd.
- CSR Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.
- Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC)
- Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. (FHI)
- PSA Peugeot Citroën
- Mitsubishi Motors
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