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The 2010 How-to-do-it Guide to Biopesticides with Historical Examples (Volume 6 of a 6 Volume Series) Product Image

The 2010 How-to-do-it Guide to Biopesticides with Historical Examples (Volume 6 of a 6 Volume Series)

  • Published: July 2010
  • Region: Global
  • 217 Pages
  • CPL Scientific

This volume in the 8th Edition – 2010 has similarities to volumes of the same title in earlier editions. Part of the reason is that success in biopesticides rests on a few fundamentals which do not change all that much, although there are ever more examples of both what to do and what to avoid. This volume briefly addresses the characteristics of the companies that go into biopesticides.

It sets out and reviews the key success factors for participation in the biopesticides business. Similarly, the processes of finding, making and then marketing biopesticides are discussed in detail.

For this edition, we have decided to include some historical examples as parables of generally what not to do. We have included detailed sections on:

Agricultural Genetics Company (later MicroBio then Becker Underwood)
Ecogen (gone)
EcoScience (gone)
Koppert (still growing)
Mycogen (gone to Dow)
Novo (formerly Tate & Lyle, Microbial Resources, later Abbott then Valent/Sumitomo)
Each of these companies was reviewed in some detail in the early 1990s in a short-lived
journal called AgBioBusiness published by CPL and CABI. These reviews are included in
full, READ MORE >

FOREWORD

WHO GOES INTO BIOPESTICIDES

INTRODUCTION

AN OVERVIEW OF THE TYPES OF COMPANIES

PESTICIDE & PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES
Reasons for entering the market
Advantages & Disadvantages

FERMENTATION COMPANIES
Reasons for entering the market
Advantages & Disadvantages

NEW COMPANIES
Reasons for entering the market
Advantages & Disadvantages
Privately funded spin outs
Small crop protection companies
Commodity producers

SUCCESS FACTORS IN BIOPESTICIDES

DEFINITION OF SUCCESS

THE MOST COMMON MISTAKES

FOCUS

FUNDING
Venture capital
Corporate funding
The sufficiency of money

TECHNICAL ISSUES
Strains of micro-organisms
Biologically active compounds
Maintaining a biopesticide
Fermentation
Post-fermentation
Success in Production

REGISTRATION

MARKETING AND SALES
The value of a biopesticide
Accessible markets and marketing focus
Distribution and sales
Internal integration

PERSONNEL

HOW TO FIND, DEVELOP AND MAKE A BIOPESTICIDE

FINDING A BIOPESTICIDE
Screening

DEVELOPMENT

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION
The Critical Nature of Production
Organism Storage
Laboratory Production
Semi-solid Fermentation
Semi-solid Fermentation products
Submerged Fermentation
The Submerged Fermentation Sequence
Submerged Fermentation Products
In vitro Production of Viral Pesticides
In vivo Production

PRODUCT RECOVERY
Product Recovery from Semi-solid Fermentation
Product Recovery from Submerged Fermentation

SCALE-UP

FORMULATION
Background
Formulation Types
UV
Bt formulation
Conclusions

QUALITY CONTROL & LABORATORY TESTING
Efficacy
Bioassays & Other Tests
Alternatives to Bioassays
Microbiological Purity
Mammalian Safety
Physical Characteristics

FIELD TESTING

R & D COSTS

MARKETING

SELECTING DISTRIBUTORS

USER EDUCATION

ADVERTISING

MARKETING AND PRODUCTION COSTS
Marketing Costs
Production Costs

COSTS AND RISKS

POTENTIAL PRODUCTS BY TYPE OF MICROBE
Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses
Nematodes

INFLUENCES ON THE BIOPESTICIDES MARKET

USERS

GOVERNMENTS

CONSUMERS
Attitudes towards chemicals
Consumer survey results
Organic food
Chemicals in the environment
Development costs - Chemicals vs. Biologicals
New Pests & Resistance
New Integrated Agricultural Systems IPM/ICP/IFP/LISA

THE FUTURE FOR BIOPESTICIDES

INTRODUCTION

NEW TECHNOLOGY

PEST MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENTS
Bacillus thuringiensis
Other Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses

THE FUTURE

HISTORICAL EXAMPLES

AGRICULTURAL GENETICS / MICROBIO (NOW BECKER UNDERWOOD)

AGC - REVIEW IN 1991 FROM IMPACT AGBIOINDUSTRY
Operations and Products
Earnings

THE HISTORY OF AGC

THE HISTORY OF MICROBIO GROUP AND MICROBIO RHIZOGEN

ECOGEN
1989 OVERVIEW FROM THE 2ND EDITION
1990 REVIEW ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN IMPACT AGBIOINDUSTRY
Introduction
What Happened?
Objectives
Products
Analysis
1992 update
THE HISTORY OF ECOGEN
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997 OVERVIEW FROM THE 4TH EDITION
1998
1999
2000

ECOSCIENCE
REVIEW IN 1992
Strategy
Technical developments
Analysis

THE HISTORY OF ECOSCIENCE
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1998
1999
2002 Overview after its demise

KOPPERT

REVIEW IN 1991 FROM IMPACT AGBIOINDUSTRY
History
Markets
Koppert Today
Why has Koppert done well?

IN 2002 FROM THE 6TH EDITION
MYCOGEN
1989 OVERVIEW FROM THE 2ND EDITION
1992 REVIEW ARTICLE FROM IMPACT AGBIOINDUSTRY
Introduction
Products
Collaborations
Analysis

THE HISTORY OF MYCOGEN
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
NOVO (NOW VALENT)
NOVO - 1991 REVIEW ARTICLE FROM IMPACT AGBIOINDUSTRY
Review
The Move into Biopesticides
Products
Analysis

THE HISTORY OF NOVO
1991
1992
1993- 1995
ABBOTT

SELECTED SHORT HISTORIES FROM THE 6TH EDITION 2002

AEF GLOBAL - CANADA
AGRAQUEST - USA
BACTEC - USA
BIOAGRI - SWEDEN
BIOSYS - USA
CERTIS - USA
EARTH BIOSCIENCES / TAENSA - USA
ECOSOIL SYSTEMS - USA
EDEN BIOSCIENCE - USA
MYCOTECH / LAVERLAM - USA
PROPHYTA - GERMANY
VERDERA / KEMIRA / LALLEMAND - FINLAND

TABLES
TABLE 1 BIOPESTICIDES MADE BY SEMI-SOLID FERMENTATION
TABLE 2 FUNGI MADE BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION
TABLE 3 ENTOMOPATHOGENS PRODUCED COMMERCIALLY IN VIVO AT SOME TIME
TABLE 4 CROPLIFE INTERNATIONAL FORMULATION CODING SYSTEM
TABLE 5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WETTABLE POWDERS
TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FLOWABLE CONCENTRATES
TABLE 7 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HIGH POTENCY CONCENTRATES
TABLE 8 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GRANULES
TABLE 9 TOP RATED SUNSCREENS FOR VIRUSES AND BACTERIA (FROM BURGES, 1998)
TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE (%) OF THE TOTAL COST
TABLE 11 MAJOR COSTS IN BIOPESTICIDE PRODUCTION

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