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Expert Reviews Ltd, September 2009, Pages: 158
Recombinant DNA technologies have provided scientists with a powerful research tool in the discovery and development of new biological products just by manipulating pieces of DNA. The age of genetic engineering, beginning in early 1970s, has seen the production of synthesized hormones (such as insulin), therapeutic antibodies and vaccine antigens, as well as various applications in genomic profiling and comparison, disease diagnoses and cloning of hybrid organisms for research and disease treatment.
Nevertheless, the use of naked DNA as vaccines has not been so successful. DNA vaccines are well tolerated and have a remarkable safety profile. However, naked DNA is generally not immunogenic and there appear to be huge differences in immune responses to DNA vaccines between humans and small animals. Only until recently has the efficacy of DNA vaccines been demonstrated in some clinical trials. The success of DNA vaccines may be linked to several factors, including delivery means, the use of adjuvants, vaccination strategies, as well as the nature of the antigen itself. We are only at the very early stage of a much-longed-for new era of clinically effective DNA vaccines, and there is still much to learn to move ‘from a shot in the dark to a shot in the arm’.
This Special Focus Issue of the peer-reviewed journal Expert Review of Vaccines focuses on the development progress of DNA vaccines for human use, and features articles on general methodology of DNA vaccines, such as manufacturing, delivery technologies, prime–boost strategies and regulatory issues. Other articles are be dedicated to disease-specific DNA vaccines, including HIV, malaria, hepatitis, autoimmune diseases and cancer.
- Development of more efficient and effective DNA vaccines
Vasso Apostolopoulos & David B Weiner
- Intracellular detection and immune signaling pathways of DNA vaccines
Choon-Kit Tang & Geoffrey A Pietersz
- Genetic heterologous prime–boost vaccination strategies for improved systemic and mucosal immunity
Charani Ranasinghe & Ian A Ramshaw
- Dendritic cell-targeting DNA-based mucosal adjuvants for the development of mucosal vaccines
Kosuke Kataoka & Kohtaro Fujihashi
- DNA vaccines for autoimmune diseases
- Prospects for developing an effective particle-mediated DNA vaccine against influenza
Eric J Yager, Hansi J Dean, Deborah Heydenburg Fuller
- Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines
Archana Monie, Shaw-Wei D Tsen, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
- DNA vaccines against mycobacterial diseases
Marta Romano & Kris Huygen
- DNA vaccines in veterinary use
Laurel Redding & David B Weiner
- DNA vaccine manufacture: scale and quality
Ying Cai, Stephen Rodriguez, Henry Hebel
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