The growth of a very large number of lead tungstate crystals for compact muon solenoid experiments at CERN is described. 75 000 lead tungstate scintillation crystals (230 mm long, 40 mm in diameter) were produced for electromagnetic calorimeters.The book describes all aspects of production of these crystals, from equipment to testing.
1. Application of crystal scintillators in high-energy physics (structure of PWO crystals, point defects and scintillation properties of PWO crystals, special features of applicattion of PWO crystals in the electromagnetic calorimeters of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiments
2. Control of defect formation in lead tungstate crystals (equipment and methods, radiation hardness and formation of point defects in PWO crystals)
3.Technology of mass production of PWO crystals (starting material, selection of crucible material and crucible design, annealing and machining of PWO crystals, etc)
4. Quality control system in mass production of PWO crystals (special features of certification of PWO scintillators for CMS project ACCOS - automatic system of quality control of crystals, control of micro-impurities in crystals, statistical distribution of radiation hardness of PWO crystals, etc)