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Encyclopedia of Social Measurement

The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement captures the data, techniques, theories, designs, applications, histories, and implications of assigning numerical values to social phenomena. Responding to growing demands for transdisciplinary descriptions of quantitative and qualitative techniques, measurement, sampling, and statistical methods, it will increase the proficiency of everyone who gathers and analyzes data.

Covering all core social science disciplines, the 300+ articles of the Encyclopedia of Social Measurement not only present a comprehensive summary of observational frameworks and mathematical models, but also offer tools, background information, qualitative methods, and guidelines for structuring the research process. Articles include examples and applications of research strategies and techniques, highlighting multidisciplinary options for observing social phenomena. The alphabetical arrangement of the articles, their glossaries and cross-references, and the volumes' detailed index will encourage exploration across the social sciences. Descriptions of important data sets and case studies will help readers understand resources they can often instantly access.

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Introduces readers to the advantages and potential of specific techniques and suggests additional sources that readers can then consult to learn more
Conveys a range of basic to complex research issues in sufficient detail to explain even the most complicated statistical technique. Readers are provided with references for further information
Eleven substantive sections delineate social sciences and the research processes they follow to measure and provide new knowledge on a wide range of topics
Authors are prominent scholars and methodologists from all social science fields
Within each of the sections important components of quantitative and qualitative research methods are dissected and illustrated with examples from diverse fields of study
Actual research experiences provide useful examples
Analytical Techniques:
S. Lynch, Bayesian Statistics.
R.G. Golledge, Cognitive Maps.
S.E. Fienberg, Contingency Tables and Log-Linear Models.
D. Lavin-Loucks, Conversation Analysis.
A.B. Whitford, Correlations.
J.E. Kee, Cost-Benefit Analysis.
S.C. Weller, Cultural Consensus Model.
K.E. Haynes and M. Dinc, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
J.A. Bunge and D.H. Judson, Data Mining.
P.A. Jargowsky and R. Yang, Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.
R.J. Pik, Digital Terrain Modeling.
J.L. Jasinski, Domestic Violence: Measurement of Incidence and Prevalence.
K.B. Newbold, Dynamic Migration Modeling.
C.G. Renfro, Economic Forecasts.
C.S. Aneshensel, Elaboration.
N.B. Tuma, Event History Analysis.
C. Schuster and K.H. Yuan, Factor Analysis.
G. Farkas, Fixed Effect Models.
S.L. Cutter, Hazards Measurement.
M.D. Mumford and L.E. Leritz, Heuristics.
J. Gill, Hierarchical Linear Models.
J.T. Kerr and J. Cihlar, Land Use Mapping.
J. Fox, Linear Models, Problems.
C.S. ReVelle and H.A. Eiselt, Location Analysis.
C.H. Franklin, Maximum Likelihood Estimation.
J. DeCoster, Meta-Analysis.
R.J.G.M. Florax and P. Nijkamp, Misspecification in Linear Spatial Regression Models.
A. Cliff and P. Haggett, Modeling Diffusion Processes.
J.D. Carroll, P. Arabie, and L. Hubert, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).
J.J. Hox and C.J.M. Maas, Multilevel Analysis.
P.V. Marsden, Network Analysis.
M.E. Ezell and K.C. Land, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS).
C. Lleras, Path Analysis.
A. Neely and C. Adams, Performance Prism.
S.W. Marshall and L. Park, Prevalence and Incidence.
W.D. Berry, Probit/Logit and Other Binary Models.
T. de Jong, Problem-Solving Methodologies.
P. Robbins, Q Methodology.
D.J. Clandinin, Qualitative Analysis, Anthropology.
K.G. Barnhurst, Qualitative Analysis, Political Science.
D. Pawluch, Qualitative Analysis, Sociology.
D.W. Read, Quantitative Analysis, Anthropology.
C. Renfro, Quantitative Analysis, Economics.
E.S. van Leeuwen, P. Nijkamp, and P. Rietveld, Regional Input-Output Analysis.
M. Altman, Software.
A. Getis, Spatial Pattern Analysis.
D. Knoke, Structural Equation Models.
D.G. Janelle, Time-Space Modeling.
Constructs and Variables:
D. McGartland Rubio, Alpha Reliability.
W.A.V. Clark and M.C. Deurloo, Categorical Modeling / Automatic Interaction Detection.
W.J. van der Linden, Classical Test Theory.
L. Epstein and A. Martin, Coding Variables.
M.L. Stevens and W.N. Espeland, Commensuration.
S. Lorek and J.H. Spangenberg, Consumption and Saving.
T. Petersen, Discrimination, Measurement in.
P. Auerbach, Economic Development, Technological Change and Growth.
D.R. Eignor, Education, Tests and Measures in.
F.R.J. Fontaine, Equivalence.
V.P. Rindova, Firm Valuation.
R.C. Rao, Game Theory, Overview.
S.C. Locke, Graph Theory.
G. Engelhard, Jr., Guttman Scaling.
A.M. Schneiderman, Half-Life Method.
Y. Youm, Household Behavior and Family Economics.
H. Wolthuis and W.J. Willemse, Insurance Industry, Mortality Tables in.
W.C.M. Resing, Intelligence Testing.
R.F. DeVellis, Inter-Rater Reliability.
D. Read, Judgment and Choice.
H.L. Roediger III and J.D. Karpicke, Learning and Memory.
I.H. Bernstein, Likert Scale Analysis.
J. de Lange, Literacy, Mathematical.
P.J. Fensham, Literacy, Scientific.
R.A. Zeller, Measurement Error, Issues and Solutions.
M.J. Greenwood, Modeling Migration.
B. Tillmann, Music Cognition.
B.P. Veldkamp, Optimal Test Construction.
D. Fields and M.C. Bocarnea, Organizational Behavior.
M.G. Marshall, Political Conflict, Measurement of.
M.W. Schustack and H.S. Friedman, Psychological Testing, Overview.
T. Bovaird, Public Sector Performance.
W.D. Cook, Ranking.
J.A. Kupfer and C.W. Emerson, Remote Sensing.
M.J. White and A.H. Kim, Residential Segregation.
T.R. O'Connor and M.T. Eskey, Scales and Indexes, Types of.
M. Vasilyeva, Spatial Cognition and Perception.
P.M. Atkinson, Spatial Scale, Problems of.
R.L. Johnson and J. Penny, Split-Half Reliability.
J. Hudson and J.M. Teera, Taxation.
C.H. Yu, Test-Retest Reliability.
D. Byrne, Theory, Role of.
M.W.L. Cheung and P.S.F. Yip, Theta Reliability.
M.V.J. Veenman, Thurstone's Scales of Primary Abilities.
R. Kitamura, Transportation Research.
A.E. Doan, Type I and Type II Error.
K.D. Bailey, Typology Construction, Methods and Issues.
M.Q. Patton, Utility.
Data Collection:
D.H. Judson and C.L. Popoff, Administrative Records Reseach.
M.H. Bornstein and C.S.L. Cheah, Audiovisual Records, Encoding of.
C.F. Citro, Census, Varieties and Uses of Data.
R.M. Luecht, Computer-Based Testing.
D.O. Segall, Computerized Adaptive Testing.
D. Bond, Content Analysis.
E. Gakidou and M. Hogan, Data Collection in Developing Countries.
J.J. Hox and H.R. Boeije, Data Collection, Primary vs. Secondary.
W.L. Thomas, Data Distribution and Cataloging.
M.D. Weiner, Election Polls.
R. Rosenthal, Experimenter Effects.
R.L. Engstrom, Expert Witness Testimony.
D.L. Morgan, Focus Groups.
P.T. Jaeger, K.M. Thompson, and C.R. McClure, Information Management.
F. Drasgow, Innovative Computerized Test Items.
C.A. Klofstad, Interviews.
W.J. van der Linden, Item Response Theory.
D.A. Griffith and A.C. Lea, Locational Decision Making.
D.A. Dillman, Mail Surveys.
C.D. Gonçalves, Neutrality in Data Collection.
N. Berg, Non-Response Bias.
T.D. Wilson, Participant Observation.
D.R. Hodge and D. Gillespie, Phrase Completion Scales.
J.A. Fine and D.S. Voss, Polling Organizations.
W. Lowe, Rare Events Research.
T.R. Graeff, Response Bias.
T.C. Wagenaar, Survey Design.
E. Martin, Survey Questionnaire Construction.
K.A. Rasinski, Surveys.
D.A. Dillman, Telephone Surveys.
R.M. Lee, Unobtrusive Methods.
R.M. Alvarez and C. VanBeselaere, Web-Based Survey.
Data Sets and Websites:
D. Thilmany and E. Garner, Agricultural Statistics.
D.A. Gross, Campaign Finance Data.
L.G. Pol, Census, Retail Trade.
E. Scharrer, Content Analysis and Television.
S. Akins and C. Mosher, Correctional Facilities and Known Offenders.
K.D. Johnson-Webb, County and City Data.
C. Mosher, Criminal Justice Records.
B. Johnson, Federalism: Local, State, Federal and International Data Sources.
M.F. Goodchild, Geographic Information Systems.
P. Keenan, Geolibraries.
A.E. Pisarski, Highway Statistics.
A. Marturano, Internet Measurement.
C.S. Dunn, Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Sets.
J.C. Berto and J.T. Snead, Libraries.
C.D. Hulshof, Log File Analysis.
J.L. Lauritsen and S. Catalano, National Crime Victimization Surveys.
L.A. Drapela, National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88).
S. Akins, Police Records and The Uniform Crime Reports.
D.E. Campbell, Religious Affiliation and Commitment, Measurement of.
M. Riedel, Secondary Data.
S. Shekhar, P. Zhang, and S. Chawla, Spatial Databases.
D.M. Hedge and R.J. Johnson, State Data for the United States.
S.L.J. Smith and A. Massieu, Tourism Statistics.
L. Vaughan, Web Hyperlink Analysis.
S. Saxena and M. van Ommeren, World Health Organization Instruments for Quality of Life Measurement in Health Settings.
Data Sources and Subjects:
P.K. Manning, Access.
D.S. Voss, Aggregation.
S.E. Fienberg, Anonymity and Confidentiality of Data Sources and Subjects.
A.R. Piquero and S. Carmichael, Attrition, Mortality, and Exposure Time.
L.N. Gray, Computer Simulation.
D.A. Snow and C. Morrill, Field Relations.
C.L. Popoff, Human Subjects: Risks, Consent and Privacy Rights.
R.D. Austin, Knowledge Work.
D.F. Alwin, Reliability.
S. Holm and L. Irving, Research Ethics Committees in the Social Sciences.
N. Beck, Time-Series-Cross-Section Data.
V.C. de Munck, Units of Analysis.
M.P. McDonald, Validity, Data Sources.
Historical Events and Figures:
J.G. Lennox, Aristotle.
A.I. Dale, Bayes, Thomas.
G.L. Geis, Bentham, Jeremy.
I. Schneider, Bernoulli, Jakob.
L. Schweber, Bertillion, Louis Adolphe.
D. Kohnstamm, Binet, Alfred.
D.T. Yvette Bartholomée, Campbell, Donald T.
R. Bannister, Chapin, Francis Stuart.
P. Crépel, Condorcet.
M. Wilcox, Deming, William Edwards.
M. Stenbeck, Duncan, Otis Dudley.
S.P. Turner, Durkheim, Émile.
A.I. Dale, Edgeworth, Frances Ysidro.
R. Buchanan, Eysenck, Hans Jürgen.
N.S. Hall, Fisher, Sir Ronald.
N.W. Gillham, Galton, Sir Francis.
S.P. Turner, Giddings, Franklin Henry.
P. Kreager, Graunt, John.
S. Levy, Guttman, Louis.
H. Maas, Jevons, William Stanley.
E. Glas, Laplace, Pierre-Simon.
T.N. Clark, Lazarsfeld, Paul.
C.R. Rao, Mahalanobis, Prasantha Chandra.
E. van Damme, Morgenstern, Oskar.
K.W. Thompson, Morgenthau, Hans.
J.M. Nicholas, Neyman, Jerzy.
G.K. Wolfenstein, Nightingale, Florence.
M.E. Magnello, Pearson, Karl.
I. Spence and H. Wainer, Playfair, William.
A. Desrosières, Quetelet, Adolphe.
D. Andrich, Rasch, Georg.
P.E. Tracy, Sellin-Wolfgang Scale of Severity.
M. Wilcox, Shewhart, Walter.
T. Dehue, Social Experiments, History of.
F. Comim, Stone, Richard.
H.L. Minton, Terman, Lewis.
R.E. Mayer, Thorndike, Edward L..
P.A. Furia and A. Kohen, Thucydides.
L.V. Thucydides, Thurstone, L.L.
A. Oberschall, Weber, Max.
D.J. Murray, Wundt, Wilhelm.
L. Hepple, Yule, George Udny.
Interpretation and Data Limitations:
N.D. Glenn, Interpretation and Data Limitations.
H.D. Clarke and J. Granato, Autocorrelation.
, Causal Inference.
D.H. Judson, Computerized Record Linkage and Statistical Matching.
D.M. Rubio, Content Validity.
M.J. Leaf, Cross-Cultural Data Applicability and Comparisons.
K. Dharamsi, Deduction and Induction.
P.A. Jargowsky, Ecological Fallacy.
T.F. Pettigrew, Ethnocentrism.
R.J. Shavelson and N.M. Webb, Generalizability Theory.
B. Lev, Intangible Assets: Concepts and Measurement.
H. Wainer and S. Sireci, Item and Test Bias.
A. Pickles, Missing Data, Problems and Solutions.
D.S. Voss, Multicollinearity.
M. Yar, Objectivity, Quest for.
P.A. Jargowsky, Omitted Variable Bias.
S. Maruna and M. Butler, Phenomenology.
J.A. Fine and D.S.Voss, Politics, Use of Polls in.
F. Newport, Polling Industry.
R. Johnston, Regionalization and Classification.
E.G. Carmines and J.A. Woods, Reliability Assessment.
J.J. Heckman, Selection Bias.
D.A. Griffith, Spatial Autocorrelation.
B. Hannon, Spatial Discounting.
D.M. Hanink, Spatial Externalities.
R. Priest, Statistical/Substantive, Interpretations and Data Limitations.
M.J. Kolen, Test Equating.
T.W. Smith, Total Survey Error.
E.G. Carmines, Validity Assessment.
Measurement Models:
M. Bromwich, Accounting Measures.
B. Townley, Critical Views of Performance Measurement.
G. Luo, Frameworks of Probabilistic Models for Unfolding Responses.
F. Samejima, Graded Response Model.
K.J. Euske and L.A. Zander, History of Business Performance Measurement.
H. Hoijtink, Item Response Models for Nonmonotone Items.
G.H. Fischer, Linear Logistic Test Models.
P.K. Dunn, Log Linear Models.
J. Michell, Measurement Theory.
U. Böckenholt, Models for Paired Comparisons.
M.D. Reckase, Multidimensional Item Response Models.
R.D. Bock and U. Böckenholt, Nominal Categories Models.
K. Sijtsma, Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models.
G.N. Masters, Partial Credit Model.
E.B. Andersen, Rating Scale Model.
C.A.W. Glas, Structural Item Response Models.
Research Designs:
J. Glazier, Case Study.
D.B. Kronenfeld, Cognitive Research Methods.
A. Giordano, Computer-Based Mapping.
S. Nishisato, Correspondence Analysis and Dual Scaling.
D. Weisburd and A. Petrosino, Experiments, Criminology.
G. Julnes, Experiments, Overview.
R. McDermott, Experiments, Poltical Science.
P.Y. Chen and A.D. Krauss, Experiments, Psychology.
A.S. Gibbons and C.V. Bunderson, Explore, Explain, Design.
B. Benham and C.P. Shimp, Falsification in Social Science Method and Theory.
D.P. Green and A.S. Gerber, Field Experimentation.
L. Anderson and S. Rubenstein, Field Studies.
M.Q. Patton, Goal-Based vs Goal-Free Evaluation.
L.D. Walker, Hypothesis Tests and Proofs.
F.M. Hess and A.L. Klekotka, Impact/Outcome Evaluation.
M. Webster, Jr., Laboratory Experiments in Social Science.
D.W. Fiske and S.T. Fiske, Laboratory Studies.
J. Bynner, Longitudinal Cohort Designs.
S. Menard, Longitudinal Studies, Panel.
A. Kitsantas, H.W. Kitsantas, and P. Kitsantas, Observational Studies.
J.R. Turner, Pilot Study.
S. Vergari, Process Evaluation.
L. Heath, Quasi-Experiment.
J. Beebe, Rapid Assessment Process.
G.L. Munck and J. Verkuilen, Research Designs.
C. Baird, Risk and Needs Assessments.
S. Durlauf and E. Cohen-Cole, Social Interaction Models.
M. Elliot, Statistical Disclosure Control.
H.D. Clarke and J. Granato, Time Series Analysis in Political Science.
C.S. Reichardt, Treatment Effects.
Sampling Design:
M. Anderson, Census Undercount and Adjustment.
P. Arabie, L.J. Hubert, and J.D. Carroll, Clustering.
G. Burruss and T.M. Bray, Confidence Intervals.
C.W. Leonard, Election Polls, Margin for Error in.
A. Galloway, Non-Probability Sampling.
R. Harter, Norc Sampling Design.
J.A. Grummel, Population vs. Sample.
B.F.J. Manly, Randomization.
W.P. Handwerker, Sample Design.
C.M. Suchindran, Sample Size.
F.B. Butar, Small Area Estimation.
R. Wright and M. Stein, Snowball Sampling.
P.A. Rogerson, Spatial Sampling.
G. Glasgow, Stratified Sampling Types.
D.G. Steel, Time Sampling.
P.J. Lynn, Weighting.
Social Science:
D.C. Black and M.R. Dowd, Aggregative Macro Models, Micro-Based Macro Models, and Growth Models.
S. Piker, Anthropology, Psychological.
P.A. Urban and E.C. Wells, Archaeology.
J.S. Lansing, Artificial Societies.
S. Greer, Basic vs. Applied Social Science Research.
M. Augier, Behavioral Economics: The Carnegie School.
F.J. Silva, Behavioral Psychology.
G. Kaplan, Biomedicine.
K.A. Franck, Built Environment.
G.R. Jennings, Business Research, Theoretical Paradigms That Inform.
G.R. Jennings, Business, Social Science Methods Used in.
S. Schmidt and M.J. Power, Clinical Psychology.
C. Weiss and J.F. Disterhoft, Cognitive Neuroscience.
J. Wagemans, Cognitive Psychology.
A. Oyeleye, Communication.
J.R. Hall, Comparative Sociology.
W. Medd, Complexity Science and the Social World.
C. Britt, Criminology.
J.D. Bass, Democracy, Measures of.
J.R. Weeks, Demography.
E.P. Durrenberger, Economic Anthropology.
M. Boumans, Economics, Strategies in Social Science.
W.W. Dressler, Epidemiology.
M. Levitt and G. Williams, Ethical Issues, Overview.
F. Allard and E. Anderson, Ethnography.
G.E. Allen, Eugenics.
G.J. Smith, Gambling Studies.
J.O. Wheeler, Geography.
A.J. Lichtman, History, Social Science Methods Used in.
G. Lensvelt-Mulders, Human and Population Genetics.
M. Ferrari and C. Fernando, Human Growth and Development.
B.S. Grewal and P.J. Sheehan, International Economics.
B.M. Russett, International Relations.
G. Rubinstein, Knowledge Creation.
A. McCabe, Language Acquisition.
E.A. Posner, Law.
G.R. Benjamin, Linguistics.
M.A. Skaates, Marketing Industry.
D.J. Bartholomew, Mathematical and Statistical Approaches.
M. Artzrouni, Mathematical Demography.
P.D. Williams and A.R. Williams, Nursing.
K.M. Curtin, Operations Research.
O.S. Chernyshenko and S. Stark, Organizational Psychology.
J.W.Wood, Paleodemography.
J.L. Korey, Political Science.
A. Bornstein, Political Violence.
T.D. Smith and A.M. Burrows, Primate Studies, Ecology and Behavior.
P.H. Schonemann, Psychometrics of Intelligence.
D.K. Munroe and J.J. Biles, Regional Science.
C. Rider, Social Economics.
L. Troyer and R. Youngreen, Social Psychology.
S.M. Marson, Social Work.
B.R. Parker and A. Reisman, Socio-Economic Considerations.
J.W. Elder, Sociology.
J.P. LeSage, Spatial Econometrics.
D.B. Kronenfeld, Structural Models in Anthropology.
D.P. McMillen, Urban Economics.
P.A. Longley, Urban Studies.
Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly.
Kimberly Kempf-Leonard (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of Criminology, Sociology, and Political Economy at the University of Texas at Dallas. Her interests involve conceptualization and measurement, reducing inequality and improving effectiveness within systems of justice. She teaches courses on research design, social control, delinquency, criminal justice policy, and the correlates of crime and justice. Her work has brought innovation to measurement of diverse topics, including criminal career patterns, gender bias, racial disparity, insider trading, judicial decision-making, and theories of crime and justice. She is probably best known for her research aimed at understanding and improving juvenile justice system policies and procedures. Much of her applied research to assist state and local criminal justice agencies with policy evaluation and reform has been supported by state and federal funding. Her work has appeared in leading criminology journals and several edited books. Minorities in Juvenile Justice, a co-edited volume, won the 1997 Gustavus Myers Award for Human Rights in North America. She has presented her work annually at the American Society of Criminology Meetings, and as invited speaker to the National Conference of Governors, the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, the National Coalition of Juvenile Justice, the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Children and Crime, the British Home Office, and the American Bar Association. With co-author P. Tracy, she is preparing a follow-up volume to Continuity & Discontinuity in Criminal Careers (1997, Plenum) about life course patterns of the 14,000 females in the 1958 Philadelphia Birth Cohort Study, including details about self-reported victimization, offending, and other personal experiences obtained from a survey administered to a sample of the cohort in their early 20s. She also is working with the Dallas County Juvenile Department to improve the quality and
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