Sixty-six years after the introduction of the fluid cracking catalyst process, it remains the main process of gasoline generation for the estimated 237 millions cars on US roads. Catalysts testing and evaluation still remains a subject of interest, debate and controversy. Lambda sweep testing, testing of SOx, NOx and combustion promoters have been discussed in details together with catalyst evaluation for atmospheric residues and metal contaminated oils cracking.
Of particular interest has been the introduction of novel concept in process design aimed at improving cracked product selectivity such as two-stage risers for better gasoline and olefins production and downer technology for high severity processes . The importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of crude oils, catalysts and reaction products are illustrated by several examples. Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
and personal overviews of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology are presented.
- Presents findings from the tri-annual international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology, sponsored by the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS)
- Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
- Personal overviews by the authors of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology
2. Discrepancies in FCC Catalyst Evaluation of Atmospheric Residues (Sven-Ingvar Andersson).
3. Novel Coke Shift Matrix Technique to Enhance the Activity of the Secondary Reaction Zone in MIP-CGP Process (Jun Long et al.).
4. Exploring FCC flexibility to produce mid-distillate and petrochemicals (W. Richard Gilbert et al.).
5. Improving LCO yield and quality in FCC units: Cracking pathways analysis (A. Corma, L. Sauvanaud).
6. FCC Catalyst for the Process of Increasing Cleaner Gasoline and Propylene Production (Jun Long et al.).
7. Towards a new generation of NOx additives (D.M Stockwell.
8. Pt-based CO Combustion Promoters: Past and Present (A.W. Chester).
9. FCC regenerator simulation by Lambda Sweep testing (D.M Stockwell).
10. Laboratory simulation of FCC equilibrium catalyst using a deactivation mathematical model
11. Intra-particle mass transfer and contact time effects in FCC (D.M Stockwell).
12. Equilibrium FCC catalyst performance simulation based on mixtures of hydrothermal dactivated samples (L. Antonio et al.).
13. NMR studies of FCC feeds, catalysts and Coke
(B. Behera et al.).
14. Impact of iron contaminated species on FCC catalyst (Yuxia Zhu et al.).
15. Catalytic cracking to liquid (BTL) fuels with novel cracking catalysts (A.A. Lappas, I.A. Vasalos).
16. Catalytic Cracking: The future of an evolving process (P. O'Connor).
17. Fundamental of SOx reduction technology in fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) (L. Magnabosco).
18. Evaluation of commercial SOx agents effectiveness via a fundamental mathematical model