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Hyaluronan in Cancer Biology

Description:
Hyaluronan biology is being recognized as an important regulator of cancer progression. Paradoxically, both hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronidases, the enzymes that eliminate HA, have also been correlated with cancer progression. Hyaluronan, a long-chain polymer of the extracellular matrix, opens up tissue spaces through which cancer cells move and metastasize. It also confers motility upon cells through interactions of cell-surface HA with the cytoskeleton. Embryonic cells in the process of movement and proliferation use the same strategy. It is an example of how cancer cells have commandeered normal cellular processes for their own survival and spread. There are also parallels between cancer and wound healing, cancer occasionally being defined as a wound that does not heal.

The growing body of literature regarding this topic has recently progressed from describing the association of hyaluronan and hyaluronidase expression associated with different cancers, to understanding the mechanisms that drive tumor cell activation, proliferation, drug resistance, etc. No one source, however, discusses hyaluronan synthesis and catabolism, as well as the factors that regulate the balance. This book offers a comprehensive summary and cutting-edge insight into Hyaluronan biology, the role of the HA receptors, the hyaluronidase enzymes that degrade HA, as well as HA synthesis enzymes and their relationship to cancer.

Offers a comprehensive summary and cutting-edge insight into Hyaluronan biology, the role of the HA receptors, the hyaluronidase enzymes that degrade HA, as well as HA synthesis enzymes and their relationship to cancer
Chapters are written by the leading international authorities on this subject, from laboratories that focus on the investigation of hyaluronan in cancer initiation, progression, and dissemination
Focuses on understanding the mechanisms that drive tumor cell activation, proliferation, and drug resistance
 
Contents:
Each contributor will be asked to provide a historic perspective, followed by new research, followed by glimpses and extrapolation into the possible future. The editor will write a general introduction and he will introduce each "section" to place it in a larger context, within the context of oncology and within the context of hyaluronan, from both the basic science as well as the clinical perspectives.

Introduction and history of HA in cancer biology
Robert Stern, UC San Francisco, USA

Overview of the HA-cancer field
Bryan Toole, University of South Carolina, USA

Section on HA receptors
Lilly Bourguignon, UC San Francisco, USA -- (CD44)
Eva Turley, London Regional Cancer Center, Canada -- (RHAMM)
David Naor, Hebrew University, Israel -- (CD44 and HA in murine lymphoma)

Section on the hyaluronidase enzymes that degrade HA
Gregory Frost, Halozyme Corporation, USA -- (hyaluronidase in new treatment modalities)
Gerhard Baumgartner, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute, Vienna, Austria -- (hyaluronidase, an adjunct in cancer treatments)
Antonei Csoka, University of Pittsburgh, USA -- (history of the 3p21.3 tumor suppressor gene locus)
Robert Stern, UC San Francisco, USA -- (hyaluronidase and paradoxes in cancer biology)
Kazuki Sugahara, Burham Institute, USA -- (biology of HA fragments)

Section on stem cells, fetal cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transitions
Seth L. Schor, University of Dundee, UK
Ana M Schor, University of Dundee, UK
Bryan Toole, University of South Carolina, USA

Section on the HA synthesis enzymes and their relationship to cancer
Koji Kimata, Aichi Medical University, Japan
Naoki Itano, Shinshu University, Japan
Andrew Spicer, UC Davis, USA

Section on site-specific malignancies
Malignant melanoma
Jan C. Simon, University of Leipzig, Germany

Genito-urinary cancers
Melanie Simpson, University of Nebraska, USA -- (prostate cancer)
Vinata Lokeshwar, University of Miami, USA -- (prostate and bladder cancer)
James McCarthy, University of Minnesota, USA -- (prostate cancer)

Breast cancer
Tracey Brown, Monash University, Australia
Paraskevi Heldin, Upsalla University, Sweden
Lurong Zhang, University of Rochester, USA

Stromal HA and its Influcence on Malignancies
Raija Tammi, University of Kuopio, Finland
Marku Tammi, University of Kuopio, Finland

Section on new approaches to diagnosis and treatments that are HA-based
Frank Szoka, UC San Francisco, USA -- (HA, CD44 in liposomes, and new drug delivery systems
Michal Neeman, Weizmann Institute, Israel -- (HA, hyaluronidase diagnostics using NMR)
Kasturi Datta, Nehru University, India -- (HA-binding protein-1 in cancer)
Bertrand Delpech, Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen, France -- (hyaluronectin and tumors of the CNS)
 
Authors
Stern, Robert
Robert Stern, MD, is Emeritus Professor, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Robert Stern left Germany in 1938 for Seattle, Washington. He graduated from Harvard College in 1957, and obtained the M.D. degree from the University of Washington (Seattle) in 1962, followed by a rotating internship at King County Hospital (Seattle). While a medical student, he worked in the laboratories of Drs. Krebs and Fisher, who became Nobel laureates. He received his resident training in Anatomic Pathology at the NCI, and was a research scientist at the NIH for 10 years. Since 1977, he has been a member of the Pathology Department at the University of California, San Francisco. He is a board-certified Anatomic Pathologist, participating in the research, teaching, administrative, and diagnostic activities of the Department. He directed the Ph.D. program in Experimental Pathology for ten years. For the past decade, his research has focused on hyaluronan and the hyaluronidases, an outgrowth of an interest in malignancies of connective tissue, stromal-epithelial interactions in cancer, and biology of the tumor extracellular matrix. His laboratory was the first to identify the family of six hyaluronidase sequences in the human genome. These enzymes were then sequenced, expressed, and characterized in his laboratory. Subsequent work has identified a catabolic pathway for hyaluronan.
 
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