- Published: January 2009
- Region: China
Lithium Mobile Power: Battery Safety 2010 Conference Webcast and Conference Proceedings
- Published: November 2010
- Region: Global
- 1318 Pages
- Knowledge Press
Recent significant innovations within lithium-ion batteries have propelled the technology into a position in the marketplace far exceeding recent market survey results. Breakthroughs in new battery chemistries, novel electrode and electrolyte materials, system integration for a vast array of mobile and portable applications, from micro medical devices to high-energy/high-power automotive, have paved the roadmap for an emerging market with unlimited potential. Lithium Mobile Power 2010 is conveniently timed with Battery Safety 2010.
- Application driven lithium ion battery development
- New lithium chemistries for better electrodes and higher LIB performance
- Advanced lithium ion battery technologies for higher safety, reliability and performance
- From novel materials and components to systems design and integration
- Role of nanotechnology in improving power and energy density
- Novel electrolyte technologies for higher power and energy density
Widely publicized safety incidents and recalls of lithium-ion batteries have raised legitimate concerns regarding lithium-ion battery safety. Battery Safety 2010 is conveniently timed with Lithium Mobile Power 2010 and will address these concerns by exploring the following topics:
- Application specific battery safety issues affecting battery performance
- Major battery degradation and reliability factors
- Battery management systems
- Commercial cells evaluation and failure analysis
- Advances in testing techniques and protocols
- High throughput testing, automation and modeling for better safety
- Regulatory issues
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Safety and Reliability in Chinese Manufactured Lithium-Ion Cells
Steven Ruth, Vice President, China BAK Battery, Inc., PR China
With safety and reliability of lithium cells considered givens in today’s portable device market, how does the designer know the cell manufacturer has control over its processes? An analysis and control methodology, focused on measured continuous improvement, is presented.
Mitigating Catastrophic Failure in Lithium-Ion Cells
Christopher J. Orendorff, PhD, Power Sources Technology Group, Sandia National Laboratories
Safety issues with lithium-ion cells are independent of any performance metric and may prevent the widespread adoption of these technologies for electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Despite the historical concerns with high-energy materials for lithium-ion batteries (e.g. high rate thermal runaway, internal short circuits, flammability, etc.), strides have been made to improve the inherent safety of these materials in full cells. Approaches for abuse tolerant materials and techniques to mitigate the common abuse and field failure modes will be presented.
Navy Large Form Lithium Battery Safety Initiatives - Recent Developments
Clinton Winchester, PhD, Group Leader & Senior Technologist, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC)*
Abstract not available at time of printing. Please visit www.KnowledgeFoundation.com for the latest Program updates.
*In collaboration with: Julie Banner, Daphne Fuentevilla, et al.
Battery Safety and Abuse Tolerance Test Procedures - Test Methods and Test Current Standards
Daniel H. Doughty, PhD, President, Battery Safety Consulting, Inc.
Battery safety and abuse tolerance test procedures are designed to simulate the effects of off-normal events that may occur, however unlikely, during use of battery-powered devices. Test procedures include mechanical, thermal and electrical abuse conditions. Test procedures may be “Characterization Tests”, where the test article is brought to failure and the results scored to determine the severity of response, or “Pass/Fail Tests”, where the test article is exposed to specific abusive conditions and the response, if it meets or exceeds test standards, provides the basis of approval for shipping or use in a commercial device. The presentation will discuss the origin of test procedures and compare existing test procedures that are used for portable electronics as well as automotive applications.
Safety Limitations Associated with Commercial 18650 Lithium-Ion Cells
Judith A. Jeevarajan, PhD, Senior Scientist - Battery Office, NASA Johnson Space Center
Commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells are used in numerous portable equipment batteries. These cells are tolerant to abusive conditions of overcharge, external short and overdischarge in single cell or small battery configurations (low voltage, low capacity). However, the protective features inside these cells either do not protect or themselves become a source of hazard when the cells are configured into high voltage/high capacity modules. The author will present the hazards associated with these cells under various off-nominal conditions.
Prediction of Multiphysics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries at Internal and External Short Circuit
Gi-Heon Kim, PhD, Senior Research Engineer, Advanced Vehicles Group, Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
This talk will describe the methodologies of NREL’s lithium-ion battery short modeling, and then present analysis results for cell response study and multi-cell pack response study. In our multiphysics model approach, competing mechanisms between heat release from component decomposition reactions at high temperatures and heat dissipation through spatial variation of material distributions are captured. Electrochemical responses of shorted cell are resolved by solving lithium diffusion dynamics and charge transfer. Three dimensional pathways of electrical current flow in a system are solved to evaluate joule heating from short current. For the extended pack level study, we developed an integrated network model resolving highly coupled thermal-electrical (electrochemical) responses from individual cells and inter-cell interactions. Multi-node thermal model for the selected cell was developed to capture critical temperature distribution in a cell. The simulation results imply that evolution of a internal short circuit and the thermal, electrical, chemical response of a lithium-ion cell for the short strongly depend on the nature of short itself, the characteristics of the shorted cell, and even the way of integration of the cell in the system.
BMS-Centered Battery Safety and Reliability
Larry Yount, Chief Technical Officer, Critical Control and Reliable Electronic Systems, LaunchPoint Technologies*
This paper describes enabling technology for increased Li-ion energy storage capacity though intelligent control. Also addressed are both reliability and safety, ensuring that the battery will not experience a failure with the potential for serious injury. Benefits include: (a) Virtual elimination of the safety issue (1500 cells/week. Wildcat's system produces materials in bulk form rather than thin films, enabling formulation of active material into electrodes and evaluation of properties in complete cells. This allows rapid development of the active materials, formulation, and electrolyte. Here, I will discuss Wildcat's materials development program, including results from our first electrode material libraries.
High Energy Density Li/CFx Battery Technology
Mario DeStephen, PhD, Eagle Picher Technologies*
The Li/CFx system attracts extensive attention due to its highest specific capacity, and long shelf life. However, due to the intrinsic physicochemical properties of CFx materials, Li/CFx batteries have been limited to low rate applications and narrow operation temperature range. This paper describes the work at Eagle Picher Technologies on the development of high performance Li/CFx systems capable of delivering high capacity at high discharge currents with wide operational temperature range.
*In collaboration with: Hyun Bang, Dong Sun, Dong Zhang
How Nanotechnology Will Revolutionize Lithium Ion Batteries for Electronics
Jurgen Hofler, PhD, VP of Operations and Engineering, Nanosys, Inc.
Lithium ion batteries will power our future's electronics and electric vehicles, and enhance energy storage. However, progress in storage specific capacity has been limited to only 6% improvement per year over the past two decades. We will outline the science behind how Nanosys' process-ready silicon nanowire composite additive, SiNANOde™ technology can increase specific storage capacity by 25% in a single cost-effective step when added to the anode of the battery.
Structural Silicon Anode Materials for PHEV Applications
Michael J. Lain, Nexeon Ltd, United Kingdom
Structural silicon anode materials offer significantly higher capacities than conventional carbon anodes, as either fibres or pillared particles. They can be manufactured by a wet chemical etching process, at a competitive cost. Composite structural silicon anodes using polymeric binders can be cycled over several hundred cycles, in full cells with standard cathode materials. Initial results will be presented evaluating these materials on representative PHEV duty cycles, e.g. charge depleting and charge sustaining modes.
Advanced Anode Graphites for High Performance Batteries
Bharat S. Chahar, PhD, PE, Product Manager, ConocoPhillips Company
ConocoPhillips is continuing to expand the availability of targeted anode materials for high performance Li-ion batteries by introducing several new grades of of CPreme® graphite products. These new grades provide more flexibility to battery makers while advancing performance and lowering costs. This presentation will discuss the new features of CPreme® anode materials and how these features will help broaden the adaptation of Li-ion batteries.
Simple Modular Lithium Nanophosphate Battery Systems
Roger Lin, Director of Product Marketing, A123 Systems, Inc.
A123 Systems is developing a family of fully integrated, managed batteries based on A123's Nanophosphate™ lithium-ion cells designed for integration into a variety of different applications, including backup power. The advantages of an off-the-shelf, integrated scalable modular battery system using A123's Nanophosphate™ energy storage include high durability, long cycle life, high power delivery, and high abuse tolerance and safety, making it an attractive solution to energy storage needs.
Lithium Air Batteries: Development of a Functional 3-Dimensional 3-Phase Gas-Diffusion-Electrode in Non-Aqueous Electrolyte
Deyang Qu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Dept of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston
The gas-diffusion-electrode used in a Li-air cell has been studied in a unique home-made electrochemical cell. Three major obstacles for the development of a feasible Li-air system were discussed with a focus on the development of a functional gas-diffusion-electrode in non-aqueous electrolytes and the way of avoiding the passivation of gas-diffusion-electrodes caused by the deposition of the reduction products. The importance of establishing the 3-phase electrochemical interface in non-aqueous electrolyte is demonstrated by creating air-diffusion paths and an air saturated portion for an air-cathode.
The Regulatory Maze of Lithium Ion
Tom O'Hara, Intertek
This paper discusses the regulatory maze which now exists, created by a number of separate organizations to help protect ourselves and others from the hazards associated with batteries and cells. And this need has been highlighted in recent years because of highly publicized incidents and recalls involving lithium ion batteries. The list of regulations can be overwhelming and confusing. We hope this general overview helps provide some level of clarity and understanding.
Large Format Li4Ti5O12 Lithium Ion Batteries - Performance and Applications
Veselin Manev, PhD, Director R&D, Altairnano Inc.
The performance of high rate long life cells with nano-Li4Ti5O12 negative electrodes developed for both automotive and stationary power application will be discussed. Cycle life and calendar life performance data will be presented. Data from accelerated calendar life test measurement performed for more than 30 months, suggesting capacity fade below 1% after 25 years calendar life at room temperature will be displayed. Data for elevated temperature cycling performance and self-discharge rate will be also presented. Performance of battery system using these large format cells will be also discussed.
Latest Advances in Ultra-High Specific Energy Rechargeable Li-Air Batteries Based On Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes
Steven J. Visco, PhD, Chief Technical Officer and Vice President, PolyPlus Battery Company
Abstract not available at time of printing. Please visit www.KnowledgeFoundation.com for the latest Program updates.
Materials for Enhancing the Safety and Performance of Li-Ion Cells
Ratnakumar V. Bugga, PhD, Principal Member Technical Staff, Electrochemical Technologies Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology*
For the upcoming NASA missions that will involve human exploration, there is a need to improve the safety of Li-ion cells, in addition to enhancing their performance. Under a NASA-sponsored program and in collaboration with other centers (NASA-GRC, and JSC), universities and industry partners, we, at JPL, have undertaken studies on developing new cathode materials with enhanced thermal stability and new electrolyte formulations with reduced flammability. In this presentation, we will present the safety and performance characteristics as well as basic electrochemical studies of the materials in laboratory cells.
*In collaboration with: W. West, M.C. Smart
Structural Changes during Heating and Cycling of Layer-Structured and Olivine-Structured Cathode Materials Studied by HRTEM and In Situ XRD and XAS
Xiao-Qing Yang, PhD, Principle Investigator, and
Kyung-Wan Nam, PhD, Scientist, Chemistry Dept, Brookhaven National Laboratory*
We report our studies on the structural changes in cathode materials during heating with and without electrolytes, as well as the structural differences between the surface and the bulk during heating. Our studies on Co, Al, Mn doped LiNiO2-based materials using time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) show phase transformations during heating. Due to averaging nature of X-ray techniques, detailed information about how the structure changes initiated and propagated through new phase nucleation and growth in the microscopic level is quite limited. We present our in-situ HRTEM studies on the structural changes of over charged Li0.0Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and Li0.0Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O cathode materials during heating, in comparison with our XRD and XAS studies. Rock-salt structure and spinel structure, which only observed at elevated temperatures using X-ray techniques, were presented at the edges and thin areas of the particles, respectively even at room temperature. This implies that after overcharging, the particles start losing some oxygen atoms near the particle surface, resulting in the structural changes. More detailed structural changes during heating will also be reported. The in depth understanding of the structural changes during charge-discharge cycles will provide guidance for developing new materials. Using synchrotron based in situ XRD, hard and soft x-ray XAS, and TEM, the structural changes of these materials have been studied during charge-discharge cycling. The differences of phase transition processes between the surface and the bulk will be discussed.
*In collaboration with: K-W.Nam, X.J.Wang, Y.N.Zhou, H.S.Lee, L.J.Wu, Y.Zhu, BNL, and H.Li, X.Huang, L.Chen, Inst. of Physics, CAS, PR China
Advanced Manufacturing Process for High Speed Deposition of Solid State Electrolyte Layers for Li-Based Batteries
Susie Eustis, PhD, Research Scientist, and
Derek Hass, PhD, Director of R&D, Directed Vapor Technologies International, Inc.
Gas jet assisted physical vapor deposition processes have been demonstrated to enable a unique combination of high deposition rates (up to 80µm/min.), high coating quality (compositionally and microstructurally controlled) and non line-of-sight deposition. One such approach, Directed Vapor Deposition, has recently been used to create thin (~10µm) LiPON electrolytes (as well as LiMnO2 cathodes) with ionic conductivities in the 10-6 S/cm range while achieving deposition rates >40x those of RF sputtering. Results showing the dense coating structure, composition and ionic conductivity will be presented.
Thermal Stability of Lithium-Ion Cells as Functions of Chemistry, Design and Energy
Kevin C. White, PhD, Senior Managing Scientist, Exponent, Inc.
This presentation compares the thermal stability of commercially available 18650 cells. The results are compared with respect to contributions from cell chemistry, cell design and stored energy. Lithium cobalt dioxide based cells with designs optimized for applications ranging from high rate to high capacity were compared to high power LiFePO4 cells. It was found that the thermal stability is a strong function of stored energy and the degree of graphite lithiation, and is relatively independent of positive electrode chemistry.
Application Driven Complex Lithium-Ion Power Systems Development and Integration
William J. Yalen, Li-ion Systems Program Manager/Lead Program Engineer, Yardney Technical Products, Inc. / Lithion, Inc.
Application driven development of advanced mobile Lithium-ion power systems and integration of new technological capabilities requires clear understanding of specific application requirements, detailed yet flexible planning, careful balancing of aggressive advancement goals vs. associated risks, and effective coordination of diverse multi-disciplinary teams. Like a high-performance engine, even with the right parts, the difference between success and failure can be a matter of fine timing and balance to ensure smooth meshing of all components to achieve overall success. Key technological, product development, and project management factors will be presented, as they relate to specific examples of state of the art capability developments for high-power / high energy / high performance aircraft, submarine, spacecraft, military, medical, and vehicular applications.
Advanced Technologies for Li-Ion Battery Formation/Grading Process
John Tessitore, Chroma ATE, Inc.
A discussion of key features for the Battery Formation and Grading process which overcome the hurdles present in the current manufacturing process including the following technologies: 1) Redundant DC Power Sources; 2) Energy Recycling of the DC Discharge Energy; 3) Real Time test probe status monitoring; 4) Battery Voltage Tracking of linear-charging sources; 5) Single fault over-charge prevention; 6) Temperature compensation for capacity grading.
Computer Aided Engineering for Battery Design
Steve Hartridge, Director, Electric & Hybrid Vehicles, CD-adapco, United Kingdom
The increasing electrification of vehicles has provided a new challenge for numerical simulation techniques within this automotive design process. As the installation of an increasingly significant battery represents one of the largest design changes to modern vehicles, and also a noticeable increase in cost, there is considerable demand for such technology. The talk will detail the state of the art in this simulation field.
Efficient and Accurate Computational Tools for Evaluating Performance Targets of Lithium-ion Cells and Cell Components
Kevin L. Gering, PhD, Principal Investigator, Applied Battery Research, Energy Storage & Transportation Systems, Idaho National Laboratory
Increasing materials research worldwide calls for a commensurate increase in computational tools that keep pace with battery technology development. This presentation covers two key areas: electrolyte characterization and optimization, and a generalized approach toward characterizing and predicting cell aging processes. Key electrolyte properties and parameters (transport, thermodynamics, ion solvation, molecular-scale interactions) are provided by our Advanced Electrolyte Model that has a basis in molecular-scale chemical physics. Aging processes are investigated through synergistic combinations of diagnostic testing and mechanism-based models.
Evaluation Protocols of Micro-Scale Energy Storage Systems for Wireless Sensor Systems Applications
Valer Pop, Dr Ing, IMEC Micropower, The Netherlands*
The development activities of high-energy density micro-scale energy storage systems (ESS) have been rapidly growing over the last decade. However, standardized test methods to compare the ESS performances of different developers are not available. This presentation will discuss - New ESS evaluation protocols tailored for wireless sensor systems applications - Benchmarking results of various ESS - ESS selection for integration. To the best of our knowledge, an evaluation protocol for micro-scale ESS is proposed for the first time and validated under application-oriented test conditions.
*In collaboration with: R. Elfrink, C. De Alwis, R. van Schaijk, R. Vullers