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In-Depth Investigation of Culture and its Effect on Management Styles and Employees' Satisfaction in the Egyptian Fast Food Industry
Dr. Suheir Al-Ramahi, January 2011, Pages: 153
Unique selling point: National culture and its affect on your business. This business dissertation can help you see how the difference in cultures between two nations (Egypt vs. U.S.) did affect the daily business of the fast food industry.
Identifying Target audience: The information of this dissertation will help faculty members, future researchers, expatriates, U.S. multinational companies, and foreign companies.
This research is beneficial for expatriates aiming to work in Egypt, multinational companies aiming to expand their business overseas, Egyptian entrepreneurs of the fast food businesses located in Egypt who may compare and contrast cross-culture management styles between the U.S. and Egypt, and for corporate headquarters of targeted organizations. Finally, it is beneficial for students or faculty doing the same type of research on Egypt and wanting to understand the effect of national culture on organizational environment.
Key question answered: How does culture affect the management style and employees' job satisfaction.
How this info prevents buyers from making costly mistakes: The information provided by this dissertation will help fast food companies and their managers interact with their employees in an effective way in order to make profits, increase sales, and become successful no matter where they are in the world.
Researcher used two different surveys (self-administrative or paper-and-pencil surveys) in person. The surveys were distributed to smaller independent restaurants. In other words, fast food restaurants that are operated by small businesses (i.e., similar to a Ma and Pa store) and they sell the same type of fast foods, e.g., hamburgers, pizza, French fries, fried chicken, etc., in the Chicago area, U.S., and in Cairo, Egypt. Objectives of surveys used of this study are: Measure employees‘ satisfaction and management style in Egypt versus the U.S., fast food industries. The method of research used was the quantitative approach.
Procedure of the Study
In order to measure management style of the fast food industry within two nations (i.e., Chicago, Illinois, U.S. vs. Cairo, Egypt), the researcher distributed 50 surveys in each country. Also, to measure job satisfaction among employees, the researcher distributed 250 surveys in each country. The participants used in this study, are employees and managers working in the fast food business in both countries. The goal was to interview the total of 250 employees and 50 managers of each country (i.e., U.S., Egypt), assuming that each restaurant has 10 employees in two shifts and 2 managers of each restaurant.
Selection of Participants
Survey 1: Management Style Survey (Clark, 2007, p. 1). It was distributed to Egyptian managers in the fast food industry located in Cairo, Egypt. Demographics of targeted participants: Age (18 – 65 years old), ethnicity (Egyptians), gender (male and female), employment status (full-time and part-time) managers, income ($15,000 - $89,000), education (elementary, high school, 2 yrs college, undergraduate, graduate), and location (Cairo, Egypt).
Survey 2: Job Satisfaction Survey (Clark, 2007, p. 1). It was distributed to Egyptian employees in the fast food industry located in Cairo, Egypt: Demographics of targeted participants: Age (18 – 65 years old), ethnicity (Egyptians), gender (male and female), employment status (full-time and part-time) employees, income ($15,000 - $89,000), education (elementary, high school, 2 yrs college, undergraduate, graduate), and location (Cairo, Egypt).
Survey 1: Management Style Survey (Clark, 2007, p. 1). It was distributed to American managers in the fast food industry located in the Chicago, Illinois, U.S., area: Demographics of targeted participants: Age (18 – 65 years old), ethnicity (Caucasian, African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, others), gender (male and female), employment status (full-time and part-time) managers, income ($15,000 - $89,000), education (elementary, high school, 2 yrs college, undergraduate, graduate), and location (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America).
Survey 2: Job Satisfaction Survey (Clark, 2007, p. 1). It was distributed to American employees located in the fast food industry, located in the Chicago, Illinois, U.S., area: Demographics of targeted participants: Age (18 – 65 years old), ethnicity (Caucasian, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, others), gender (male and female), employment status (full-time and part-time) employees, income ($10,000 – 25,000 per year), education (elementary, high school, 2yrs college, undergraduate, graduate), and location (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America).
The researcher used two surveys:
The first survey consisted of 30 questions. It is based on the 5-point Likert scale (i.e., Almost Always True — 5, Frequently True — 4, Occasionally True — 3, Seldom True — 2, Almost Never True — 1) (see Survey 1a in the Appendix). It was distributed to managers of the fast food industry and located in Egypt and in the Chicago area, U.S.A.
The second survey consisted of 15 questions. It is based on the 4-point Likert scale (i.e., Disagree — 1, Slightly Disagree — 2, Slightly Agree — 3, Agree — 2). It measured 58 employees‘ job satisfaction. It was distributed to employees of the fast food industry located in Egypt and in the Chicago area, U.S.A.
Data Processing and Analysis
A codebook was used to compile data and SPSS version was used to organize data. The researcher used SPSS software to analyze data. ?SPSS: Statistical package for social sciences and it can cope with most kinds of data? (?Data-Entry,? n.d., p. 1). The researcher analyzed the data by calculating nested analysis of variance ANOVA (i.e., identifying country‘s culture versus the dimensions), Pearson correlation coefficients, Cronbach‘s Alpha score, and determine the frequency. After analyzing the data, researcher created graphs (e.g., Scatter Plot) to illustrate data.
List of Tables
List of Figures
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Study
Significance of Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Procedure of the Study
Selection of Participants Demographics
Measure 1 – Management Style Survey
Measure 2 – Job‘s Satisfaction Survey
Limitations of the Study
Data Processing and Analysis
Validity and Reliability
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Restatement of the Purpose
Discussion of Findings
Interpretations of Data
Research Hypothesis One
Research Hypothesis Two
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations for Future Research
List of References Appendixes
Appendix A: Testing Instruments
Appendix B: Letter of Permission
Appendix C: Consent Forms
LIST OF TABLES
1. Ten Differences Between Small- and Large- Power Distance Societies
2. Ten Differences Between Weak- and Strong- Uncertainty Avoidance Societies
3. Ten Differences Between Collectivist and Individualist Societies
4. Ten Differences Between Feminine and Masculine Societies
5. Ten Differences Between Short- and Long-Term-Oriented Societies
6. Job Satisfaction in Terms of Content Factors
7. Job Satisfaction in Terms of Context Factors
8. Correlations of Participatory and Authoritarian Organization Cultures With Other Organizational Conditions
9. Perceptions of Supervisory Facets
10. ANOVA Results for Assessing Differences in Management and Leadership Styles as Manifestations of Cultural Context Within Organizations
11. The Rotation Varimax with Kaiser Normalization Techniues Were Used to Identify 5 Factors
12. Demographics: Egyptian vs. U.S. Managers
13. Demographics: Egyptian vs. U.S. Employees
14. Reliability Statistics: Management Style Survey
15. Reliability Statistics: Job Satisfaction Survey
16. Mean – Dependent Variables (Management Style Dimensions)
17. ANOVA – Management Style Dimensions
18. Mean – Dependent Variables (Job Dimensions)
19. ANOVA – Job Style Dimensions
20. Pearson Correlation Coefficients
LIST OF FIGURES
1. The Hierarchy of Cultural Levels
2. Organizational Chart
3. Hofstede‘s Dimensions Index
4. A Stylized Organization Structure of an American Company in the UAE
5. Hofstede Cultural Dimensions
6. Service-Profit Chain
7. The Structure of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI)
8. Values and Leadership
9. A Theoretical Model Relating the Core Job Dimensions, The Critical Psychological States, and On-the-Job Outcomes (as moderated by employee growth need strength)
10. Demographic Results - Gender (Managers)
11. Demographic Results - Age (Managers)
12. Demographic Results - Employment Status (Managers)
13. Demographic Results - Personal Yearly Income ($) (Managers)
14. Demographic Results - Education (Managers)
15. Demographic Results - Gender (Employees)
16. Demographic Results – Age (Employees)
17. Demographic Results – Employment Status (Employees)
18. Demographic Results – Personal Yearly Income ($) (Employees)
19. Demographic Results - Education (Employees)
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