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Occupational Health and Safety

Workplace accidents and errors cost organizations hundreds of billions of dollars each year, and the injured workers and their families endure considerable financial and emotional suffering. It's obvious that increasing employee health and safety pays. The accumulating evidence shows that investing in occupational health and safety results in improved financial and social responsibility performance.

There are extensive country differences and wide occupational differences in the incidence of accidents and errors. The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that every year there are 2.2 million fatal and 270 million non-fatal accidents or occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational Health and Safety looks at the research into what causes accidents and errors in the workplace.

In line with other titles in the series, "Occupational Health and Safety" emphasizes the psychological and behavioral aspects of risk in organizations. It highlights how organizations differ in their health and safety performance, with case studies throughout and best practices. Key elements focus on: employee selection and training, fostering employee understanding, participation and engagement in health and safety matters, developing a health and safety culture at organizational and group/work unit levels, communicating and reinforcing safe workplace practices and bench-marking one's organization against the industry leaders. The contributors to this volume come from various countries, reflecting unique interest and knowledge in particular areas.
Part I: Occupational Health and Safety—Key Issues

Chapter 1 Building a Safe and Healthy Workplace
Ronald J. Burke

Chapter 2 The Business Case for Occupational Safety, Health, Environment and Beyond
Elyce Anne Biddle, Vilma G. Carande-Kulis, Dee Woodhull, Steve Newell, and Reepa Shroff

Chapter 3 Reporting and Investigating Accidents: Recognizing the Tip of the Iceberg
Tahira M. Probst and Maja Graso

Part II: Individual Factors

Chapter 4 Accident Proneness: Back in Vogue?
Sharon Clarke

Chapter 5 Injury Proneness
Nearkasen Chau

Part III: Work Environment Factors

Chapter 6 Painful Hours? The Potential Costs of Extra Work Hours and
Schedule Inflexibility to Workers’ Physical Well-being
Lonnie Golden and Barbara Wiens-Tuers

Chapter 7 Workplace Bullying: A Toxic Part of Organizational Life
Stig Berge Matthiesen and Brita Bjørkelo

Chapter 8 Violence in the Workplace
David Lester

Part IV: Occupational Factors

Chapter 9 Psychological and Behavioral Aspects of Occupational Safety and
Health in the US Coal Mining Industry
Kathleen M. Kowalski-Trakofler, Charles Vaught, Linda Jansen McWilliams, and Dori B. Reissman

Chapter 10 Psychosocial and Organizational Factors in Offshore Safety
Kathryn Mearns

Chapter 11 Safety and Risk in Transportation
A. Ian Glendon

Chapter 12 Job Stress and Pesticide Exposure Among Immigrant Latino Farmworkers
Joseph G. Grzywacz, Sara A. Quandt, and Thomas A. Arcury

Chapter 13 Psychosocial Risks and Positive Factors among Construction Workers
Marisa Salanova, Eva Cifre, Susana Llorens, Isabel M. Martínez, and Laura Lorente

Part V: Innovative Organizational Approaches

Chapter 14 A Variegated Approach to Occupational Safety
Karlene H. Roberts and Peter F. Martelli

Chapter 15 The Best Practices for Managing Return to Work Following Mental
Health Problems at Work
Louise St-Arnaud, Catherine Briand, Marie-José Durand, Marc Corbière, Mariève Pelletier and Evelyn Kedl


List of Figures

2.1 Overview of the ORC Worldwide ROHSEI method
2.2 Value of the Profession Strategy
3.1 The accident reporting iceberg
3.2 Illustration of two possible organizational under-reporting scenarios
3.3 An early example of accident-free incentives
3.4 Using the Health Beliefs Model to predict accident reporting behaviors
3.5 Using Behavioral Reasoning Theory to predict accident reporting behaviors
5.1 Increasing risk of occupational injury associated with high job demands
7.1 A potential development from exposure to a negative situation (sequence 1), to workplace bullying and expulsion (sequence 4 and 5)
7.2 An illustrative view of the bullying process
9.1 Mining occupational fatality rate by work location (1999–2008)
9.2 Mining non-fatal lost time injuries by work location (1999–2008)
9.3 Number of mining fatalities and fatality rates by commodity (1931–2008)
9.4 Miner at longwall face
9.5 Miner donning self-contained self rescuer
9.6 Number of fatalities and rates (five-year aggregates) in the mining industry (1911–2008)
9.7 Timeline of mining disasters and resultant legislation
9.8 Occupational safety and health intervention model to reduce worker exposures
9.9 Model of judgment and decision making
9.10 Safe Job Performance Model
12.1 Percent of farm workers in North Carolina with one or more detectable levels of organophosphorus pesticide metabolites across the 2007 agricultural season
13.1 The HEalthy and Resilient Organization (HERO) Model
13.2 The RED Model, adapted to the construction industry
13.3 Descriptive analysis with F differences between the general sample (n=2940) and the construction sample (n=228)

List of Tables

2.1 The Productivity Assessment Tool
2.2 Oxenburgh’s overview to the Reduced Productivity data screen
2.3 A summary of the steps to complete the CERSSO model
2.4 How the tools are aligned with the process steps
2.5 Seven steps to develop the business case for investing in safety and health
2.6 Cash flow for a status quo intervention or program
2.7 Cash flow chart for a proposed intervention or program
2.8 Incremental cash flow
2.9 Net Present Value calculation
2.10 Payback period calculation
2.11 Financial metric comparison
2.12 Net cash flow calculations for competing interventions
2.13 Cumulative cash flow calculations for competing interventions
2.14 Calculation of payback period, NPV, IRR, and ROI for interventions A and B
2.15 Decision rules for a single program or intervention
2.16 Decision rules for multiple interventions
3.1 Antecedents of individual and organizational under-reporting
5.1 Associations of individual factors and occupational injury: odds ratios adjusted for potential covariates
6.1 General Social Survey 2002 basic descriptive information
6.2 Flexibility, job status and income by type of overtime
6.3 Selected health outcomes by type of overtime work
6.4 Frequency of injuries: by type of overtime and injury
6.5 Injuries and pain by hours worked per week
6.6 Both indicators of inflexible working hours
6.7 Inflexible work hours
6.8 Safety questions by type of overtime
6.9 Physical working conditions and overtime type
6.10 Effects of holding more than one job
6.11 Logistic regression results—direct physical health outcomes
6.12 Logistic regression results—indirect physical health outcomes
7.1 Some proposed subtypes of workplace bullying
7.2 Intervention program strategies in a workplace setting (some suggestions inspired by Dan Olweus’ intervention program to stop school bullying)
8.1 The lethality of different types of workplace violence
8.2 Workplace murders by postal service employees
11.1 Four transport modes and illustrative uses
11.2 Qualitative assessment of overall relative cost and benefit levels of four transport modes
11.3 Perceived risk, risk exposure and sphere of risk in four transportation sectors
11.4 Varying risk levels within aviation
11.5 Traditional strategies for managing transport safety and risk
11.6 More recent strategies for managing transport safety and risk
11.7 Complementary strategies for managing transport safety and risk
11.8 Key hazards/high risk aspects for four transport modes
11.9 Managing risk in four transportation sectors: operator training, error proneness, and risk management implications
13.1 Mean (M), standard deviations (SD), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) (n = 228) of the RED Model variables (field study)
13.2 Mean (M), standard deviations (SD), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for workers (n = 122) of the HEalthy and Resilient Organization (HERO) Model variables (case study)
13.3 Mean (M), standard deviations (SD), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for clients (n = 33)
One of Canada's most prolific researchers, Professor Ronald J. Burke's work has focused on the relationship between the work environment and individual and organizational health. He was Founding Editor of the Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences and has served on editorial boards of more than a dozen journals. He has served as Director of the PhD Program at Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, and as Associate Dean for Research. Professor Burke is Professor Emeritus of Organizational Behavior at Schulich. He has published over 500 journal articles and edited or co-edited 31 books.

Dr Sharon Clarke is Reader in Organizational Psychology at Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. She has research interests in safety culture, safety climate, leadership, and workplace accidents. Her work has been published in the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, and other leading journals. She is Associate Editor for the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Recent research grants have focused on the impact of safety interventions on safety climate; this work was awarded first place in 'Best Practice in Interventions Competition' 2008 by NIOSH.

Cary L. Cooper, CBE, is Distinguished Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health, Lancaster University Management School, England. He is a prolific author and is a frequent contributor to the national media. He is Founding Editor of the Journal of Organizational Behavior and Editor in Chief of the medical journal Stress & Health. He is past President of the British Academy of Management, a Companion of the Chartered Management Institute and a Fellow of the (American) Academy of Management. Professor Cooper is also the President of the Institute of Welfare Officers, President of ISMA, President of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, President of RELATE and Chair of the Academy of Social Sciences. In 2001, Cary was awarded a CBE by the Queen for his contribution to organizational health.
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