- Language: English
- 257 Pages
- Published: July 2012
- Region: China, Europe
European Offshore Windfarm Operations & Maintenance - Benchmarks, Costs and Best Practices for Current and Future Wind Farms
- Published: May 2011
- Region: Europe
- 177 Pages
- T.A. Cook
Study objectives and benefits
The offshore wind industry has seen a dramatic increase in concern over the costs and practicalities of operations and maintenance (O&M). There are strategic and operational concerns in the market: strategically, projects will find finance more accessible and affordable if they can demonstrate properly developed O&M policies and costings for their planned wind farms; operationally because people need to know what challenges they are likely to face throughout the wind farm lifetime.
However, while in broad terms the industry is aware of problems arising from unforeseen failures or costs, objective data related to costs and performance has been hard to obtain from multiple sites to provide reliable benchmarks for O&M performance and practices.
This international study brings together critical information and analysis in one clear and digestible report; providing much-needed information on O&M costs, practices, cost drivers and the future evolution of O&M. This provides concrete information for the first time to the whole offshore wind industry including policy setters, R&D organisations, investors and manufacturers as well as wind farm operators and developers.
Because of the confidential nature of the source data, some information is presented as averages, aggregates or in an anonymised fashion. However, this provides the only comprehensive and coherent opportunity to benchmark O&M activities, costs and performance against the rest of the industry.
Gain unique insights into:
- OPEX and life cycle costs for offshore wind farms
- Benchmarks for reliability, availability
- The best strategies and systems for cost effective operations
- Wind farm accessibility and transfer methods
- Technical and business impacts on future wind farm O&M performance
Who should read this study and why:
Offshore wind farm operators and developers
- Benchmark your operations against the rest of Europe
- Get an overview on the development of operations and maintenance cost over the lifetime of offshore wind farm
- Gain insights into the strategies of the most efficient wind farm operators
- Learn which O&M strategies have proved successful and which ones will scale to meet future demand
Component suppliers (OEMs)
- Identify opportunities to boost your competitive position based on overall lifecycle costs
- Reduce the cost of wind farm service contracts by adopting best practices internationally
- Assess quick wins and long term strategies to improve wind farm reliability
Investors and financial specialists
- Gain international benchmarks of offshore wind O&M cost drivers
- Identify how O&M costs develop over the lifetime of offshore wind farms
- Reduce your investment risk based on operational costs
The research is based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative techniques, including:
- Detailed surveys sent out to wind farm operators and companies in the supply chain.
- In-depth interviews with a wide selection of key contacts to go into greater detail in essential areas.
- Desk research incorporating currently available data.
- Where possible, collaboration with existing research projects to examine and assess findings to date. Because of the confidential nature of the source data, some information are presented as averages, aggregates or in an anonymised fashion. SHOW LESS READ MORE >
1 MANAGEMENT SUMMARY
2 ZUSAMMENFASSUNG (GERMAN SUMMARY)
3 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
3.2 IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF O&M FOR OPERATORS, DEVELOPERS, FINANCIERS AND INSURERS
3.3 METHODOLOGY AND APPROACH
3.4 OFFSHORE WIND FARMS – AN OVERVIEW
3.4.1 Existing offshore wind farms
3.4.2 Planned offshore wind farms
4 LIFE CYCLE COST OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER
4.1 COST ELEMENTS
4.1.1 CAPEX for planning and installation
4.1.2 Operations and Maintenance Cost
4.2 LIFETIME COST
4.3 ASSET RELIABILITY IMPACT ON OPEX
5 O&M IN EXISTING OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
5.1 WIND FARM CERTIFICATION AND INSPECTION
5.1.1 Drivers for certification and inspections
5.1.2 Types of inspection
5.2 O&M STRATEGIES
5.2.1 Major elements of O&M strategies
5.2.2 Impact of O&M strategies on wind farm design
5.3.1 Reactive (corrective) maintenance
5.3.2 Scheduled preventive maintenance
5.3.3 Condition based maintenance
5.4 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR O&M
5.4.1 KPIs for O&M work preparation and scheduling
5.4.2 KPIs for materials and procurement
5.4.3 KPIs for the work order process
5.4.4 KPIs for financial performance
5.5 OFFSHORE O&M ORGANISATION
5.6 WIND FARM TRANSFER AND ACCESS STRATEGIES
6 TRENDS, OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS
6.1 EVOLUTION IN ASSET DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
6.2 TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TO IMPROVE FAILURE PREDICTION
6.2.1 Gearbox and Bearing
6.2.3 Power Electronics and Electric Controls
6.2.4 Rotors and blades
6.2.5 System-Level Fault Detection and Response
6.3 DEVELOPMENTS IN WIND FARM ACCESSIBILITY
6.4 CHANGES IN THE O&M MARKET
6.5 O&M BOTTLENECKS
7.1 LIST OF FIGURES
7.2 LIST OF TABLES
7.4 PLANNED OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
The offshore wind industry is an industry in transition. The problems facing it are typical of all industries as they scale up rapidly; unforeseen problems arise and are solved, forecasts prove not to equal real life and competition to be the principal market players is intense. After twenty years of offshore wind power, and ten of significant commercial growth in the market, we are coming to a more mature phase in the industry where the difficulties that have appeared need to be addressed in a coordinated and collaborative manner by the participants in order to support further growth.
As regards O&M, certainly, the status quo will not be commercially viable for future wind farms:
- While onshore wind farms routinely report operational availability of over 96%, offshore wind farms can report availability as low as 85%.
- While onshore wind farm O&M typically costs around 10-15% of revenues, offshore the cost is more usually 20-25% of revenues.
- Reactive maintenance activities currently account for around 60% of all trips to offshore wind farms.
- Operating and maintenance costs for today’s wind farms can be up to three times more than originally projected, particularly in the case of the multi-MW turbines.
On the other hand, with an O&M market worth a predicted €10 billion by 2030 there is a clear incentive to invest in measures to improve its effectiveness.
The countries showing the strongest growth in offshore wind – the UK and Germany – currently support the market through the use of agreed energy prices or Renewable Obligations Certificates. However, the industry needs not to be reliant upon such support as it is not sustainable in the long term. Although CAPEX per MW will no doubt decline in time, the need for sizeable initial investment in an industry such as this is inevitable. Therefore the onus is upon operations to find ways to reduce costs or (preferably and) increase the wind farm’s productivity. For the foreseeable future this is likely to remain the case as demand for scarce resources keeps development and installation costs high.
As the industry has developed larger turbines and pushed into harsher environmental conditions many wind farms have had a pioneering element about them. As a result, unexpected stresses have led to significant failures in major components such as gearboxes, generators, and blades. Components theoretically designed with 20-year life spans have failed prematurely - in some cases in less than two years.
Not surprisingly extensive warranty periods, in which the turbines are serviced by OEM technicians, are essential buffers against the effects of such problems and will continue to be so as wind turbines evolve further.
Currently, roughly 79 percent of operational turbines are still under warranty. For the 21 percent of operators on the other side of the comfort zone, a cost efficient operations and maintenance (O&M) strategy is the deciding factor between commercial success and failure.
At present, however, O&M strategies are relatively unsophisticated compared to other industries. For example, predictive maintenance is relatively rare for a number of reasons:
First, as most wind farms are relatively young there is a lack of available data about component lifetimes and failure modes with which to assess component lifetimes in practice. This is exacerbated by OEMs’ requests for confidentiality which severely limit the data sharing between offshore wind farm owners. In several cases, although the owner has access to much operational data while the turbine is under warranty in many cases the owner’s operational team does not have the time or manpower resources to make the best use of it. In a few cases the owner does not even possess detailed operational data about their wind farm.
Second, the dynamic loads placed upon the wind turbine’s systems increase the difficulty of making useful predictions considerably. As you will see later, this is being addressed today but there is still work to be done here before the problem is eliminated.
Third, limited access to the wind farms themselves means that sometimes even where a potential fault is known about the operator cannot make a preemptive repair and must either accept a failure or shut down the turbine before it fails and accept greater revenue losses as a result.
The cost of failures offshore is considerable. Where the cost to replace a gearbox bearing costing €1,200 may be in the order of €17,000 offshore – taking into account component replacement, vessel hire and operational losses – the cost of it failing catastrophically can quickly add up to around €200,000 owing to the need to replace the gearbox, hire a crane vessel, suffer greater operational losses etc .
To reduce the number, cost and extent of failures a variety of strategies are available to the operator:
- Improve preventive and predictive maintenance to reduce failure rates.
- Change the turbines themselves to reduce the maintenance demands at the wind farm.
- Improve access to the wind farm for better maintenance response.
- Automate responses to faults and failures to minimise the impact of inaccessibility.
- Reduce the commercial impact of failures through warranties, insurance and compensatory clauses in maintenance contracts.
As will be seen, all five strategies are being pursued, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. You will see developments on all these fronts in the next few years although ultimately the balance of strategies employed at any given wind farm will be determined by the individual climatic, financial and operating conditions of the wind farm.
This study acts as an indispensable reference guide for O&M service providers, wind farm operators, energy utility companies, investors, researchers, engineers, distributors and many more, who participate in the offshore wind energy industry.
T.A. Cook present a comprehensive analysis of current European offshore wind power O&M costs, strategies, challenges and opportunities. In addition T.A. Cook offer forecasts and recommendations to help readers meet the challenges and opportunities of the market as it evolves.
Key features of the study include:
- Forecasts of installed offshore wind energy generation capacity and related O&M expenditure over the next 20 years
- Developments in the market structure for O&M services
- O&M market size estimates 2011-2015 and forecasts to 2030
- Future technical, logistical and industry trends affecting O&M strategies and costs
- Projections of O&M cost evolution over the lifetime of a wind farm
- Market outlook and insights that will help develop competitive business strategies
- Challenges and opportunities for OEMs, service providers and in-house services
- Future needs of the O&M industry
- 4 Energia
- Adlergrund 500
- ArkonaSee Ost
- ArkonaSee Sud
- ArkonaSee West
- BARD Engineering
- BARD Holding
- BARD Holding & Global Wind Support
- BEC Energie
- BEC Energie Consult
- Blackstone Group
- Blekinge Offshore AB
- Blue H
- Broad consortium
- Burger - Windpark Butendiek
- Capitol Energy
- Consorcio Eolico Marino Cab de Trafalgar
- Daunia Wind
- Deutsche Bank
- DONG energy
- E-Connection Project
- East Anglia Offshore Wind
- Eesti Energia
- Eldepasco Ltd
- Energia Las Cruces del Mar
- Energie Baden-Wurttemberg
- eole RES
- Eolic Power
- Eurus Energy
- Farm Energy2
- Favonius AB
- FC Holding
- Finngrunden AB
- Fluor JV
- Forewind consortium
- Fred Olsen Renewables
- Fuinneamh Sceirde Teoranta
- GDF SUEZ
- Global Wind Support
- Gunfleet Sands Ltd
- Hiiumaa Offshore Tuulepark OU
- HEAG Sudhessische Energie
- Hochsee Testfeld GMBH
- IHC Engineering
- IN VIVO
- Jysk Vindkraft
- Lofotkraft Vind
- London Array Consortium
- Lyse Energi
- Maia Power
- Mainstream Renewable Power
- Mainstream & Siemens JV
- Mammoet van Oorde
- Maritime Research Institute Netherlands
- Nass & Wind
- Norderland Projekt
- Nord-Norsk Vindkraft
- Nordsee Windpower
- Northern Energy Holding
- Offshore Solutions
- Offshore Vindenergi AS
- Offshore Wond Technologie
- OPG Offshore Projekt
- Oriel Windfarm Ltd
- Pohjolan Voima
- Principle Power
- PRO GECO
- PTS Offshore
- Raedthuys Holding
- Ravano Green Power
- Reflex Marine
- RWE Energy
- RWE nPower
- Sandbank Power Extension Co
- SeaEnergy Renewables
- Saorgus Energy
- Scira Offshore Energy
- Scottish Power JV
- Scottish Power Renewables
- Scottish & Southern
- Shell WindEnergy
- Siragrunnen AS
- SSE Renewables
- Stadtwerk Munchen
- Suomen Merituuli
- Trevi energy
- TU Delft
- Vent d'Ouest
- Windland Energieerzeugungs
- WPD Finland
- WPD Offshore
- WPD Ventitalia
- Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group
- BBC Chartering & Logistic
- Bladt Industries
- Bond Pearce
- Bond Pearce lawyers
- Burntisland Fabrications
- CT Offshore
- Det Norske Veritas
- Eclipse Energy
- Garrad Hassan
- Hereema Marine Contractors
- Master Marine
- Main Tech
- MT Hojgaard
- Noble Denton
- Offshore Design Engineering Ltd
- Pipeshield International
- Prysmian Cables
- Prysmian Cables & Systems
- Ramboll & Bomel
- Royal Haskoning
- RPS Group
- Seabed Power
- Seajacks International
- SLP energy
- Soil Mechanics
- Subocean Group
- Sub-ocean Group
- Visser & Smit
- Wood Group