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Role of Land Mobile Radio in Public Safety Communications - Standards, Markets and Technologies

Description:
The goal of this report is to update (2012) of LMR-related reports published by Practel in 2010-2011. The report is written for a large audience of technical, managerial and sales staff of companies involved in the design, manufacturing and utilization of Land Mobile Radio; with the emphasis on Public Safety Communications (PSC) applications.

Particular, this report includes:

1. The updated analysis of the phased development of P25 radio. The current status of the technology, markets and standards and survey of vendors are presented. Though the standardization process started almost twenty years ago, commercialization is still slow; and the market development is unsatisfactory. This situation is addressed by all parties involved in the PSC development in the U.S.

2. The updated analysis of the phased development of TETRA radio. This technology found more geographically spread market segments than P25. Its Release II offers a combination of voice and data transmission that brings sufficient benefits to the users; but the growth of markets still does not satisfy the TETRA community.

3. The analysis of major trends in the P25 and TETRA radio developments, including a) Software Defined Radio – SDR. SDR platforms bring many benefits for PSC, including multi-band transmission and interoperability, b) Utilization of the 700 MHz band, c) Wider acceptance of broadband services.

4. The updated analysis of narrow-banding LMR radios, including NXDN and MOTOTRBO. The NXDN radio development is a result of joint efforts of two companies, Icom and Kenwood and it is based on the FDMA technology. The companies developed two lines of products, IDAS (Icom) and NEXEDGE (Kenwood); these radios were implemented with many advanced technological features, including 6.25 kHz channels. At the same time, Motorola introduced its MOTOTRBO line of digital LMRs, which also utilized newer technologies and is based on the TDMA technology.

5. The analysis of the 4.9 GHz radio technology for broadband PSC. The FCC allocated the 4940-4990 MHz spectrum for broadband PSC. The technology can utilize the existing Wi-Fi ICs, and it supports long-reach communications with speeds 50 Mb/s and up. It utilizes a) OFDM, b) Multi-radio platforms, and c) Self-healing and self-organized mesh topology. One of the major 4.9 GHz radio applications for PSC is temporary fast-deployable networks.

Practel will continue the analysis of LMR technologies and markets trends: dynamics of developments require a periodical update of reports.
 
Contents:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Current Situation
1.2 Requirements to Public Safety Radio
1.3 Scope and Goals
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience

2.0 PSC Spectrum
2.1 U.S.
2.1.1 FCC
2.1.2 800 MHz Band
2.1.3 700 MHz Band
2.2 EU

3.0 Project P25
3.1 Standardization Process and Technologies
3.1.1 General: P25 Standard
3.1.2 Process
3.1.3 Beginning
3.1.4 Project 25/TIA 102: Scope
3.1.4.1 Efforts
3.1.4.2 Phased Approach
3.1.4.2.1 Phases
3.1.4.2.2 Phase I
3.1.4.2.3 Phase II
3.1.5 Status
3.1.6 CAP

4.0 P25 Development-Phase I
4.1 General Mission and Objectives
4.1.2 Compliance
4.1.3 Benefits and Issues
4.2 Technical Highlights- Interfaces
4.2.1 Common Air Interface
4.2.2 Fixed Station Interface
4.2.3 Console Sub-system Interface (CSSI)
4.2.4 RF Sub-system
4.2.5 Inter-system Interface (ISSI)
4.2.5.1 ISSI Technology
4.2.6 Telephone Interconnect Interface
4.2.7 Network Management Interface
4.2.8 Host and Network Data Interfaces
4.2.9 Summary: Interfaces
4.3 Security
4.4 Coding
4.5 Frequency Bands
4.5.1 Spectrum: Problems
4.5.2 700 MHz Band
4.6 P25 Voice Messaging
4.7 Major Improvements
4.8 Services
4.9 Network Scenario
4.10 Summary

5.0 P25 Phase II
5.1 Transition
5.2 Scope
5.2.1 Air Interface – Phase II
5.2.2 Attributes
5.2.3 Data Services Standards
5.2.4 Enhancements
5.3 Time

6.0 P25 Radio Market Analysis
6.1 General
6.2 Geography
6.3 Market Drivers
6.4 Market Forecast
6.4.1 Developments
6.4.2 Model Assumptions
6.4.3 Addressable Market Estimate

7.0 P25 Radio Vendors
Catalyst
Daniels
Datron
Digital Voice System
Cassidian Communications
EF Johnson
Etherstack
Harris
Kenwood
Midland
Motorola Solutions
Northern Airborne
PowerTrunk
Pyramid Communications
Relm
Raytheon JPS
Technisonic Industries
Thales
Tait Electronics
Teltronic
Westel
Wireless Pacific

8.0 TETRA
8.1 General
8.1.1 Major Milestones
8.2 TETRA: Scope-Release I
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Bands
8.2.3 TETRA and GSM
8.2.4 Main Features
8.2.4.1 General
8.2.4.2 Technical Details
8.2.4.3 Services
8.2.5 Benefits
8.2.6 Networking
8.2.7 Release I Details
8.2.7.1 General
8.2.7.2 Interfaces
8.2.7.3 Infrastructure
8.2.7.4 Spectrum Allocation
8.2.7.5 Mobiles
8.3 P25 and TETRA
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Characteristics
8.3.3 Modifications
8.3.4 TETRA in North America
8.4 Security
8.5 Summary
7.6 TETRA Release II
8.6.1 Drivers
8.6.1.1 Rational
8.6.2 Applications
8.6.3 Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension
8.6.4 Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) Voice Codec
8.6.5 Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, Enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec
8.6.6 Data Services Development
8.6.6.1 TAPS
8.6.6.2 TEDS
8.6.7 Comparison
8.6.8 Standardization Status
8.7 Market Analysis
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Certification
8.7.3 Geography
8.7.4 Market Drivers-Industries-Applications
8.7.5 Market Forecast
8.7.5.1 Model Assumptions
8.7.5.2 Market Estimate
8.7.6 Vendors
3T Communications
Axell
Artevea
Cassidian
ClearTone
DAMM Cellular
EtherStack
Frequentis
Groupco
Hytera
Motorola (Motorola Solutions)
Niros
Pegasus Network
Portalify
Rohde-Schwarz (Hytera)
Rohill
Sepura
Selex Elsag
Teltronic
Team Simoco
Thales

9.0 NXDN and MOTOTRBO
9.1 FCC Requirements
9.2 NXDN Forum
9.3 Origin
9.4 Major Differences
9.5 Spectrum
9.6 NXDN and dPMR
9.7 Updates
9.8 NEXEDGE
9.8.1 The Company
9.8.2 NEXEDGE Major Features
9.8.3 Technology
9.8.3.1 Air Interface
9.8.3.2 Operation Modes
9.8.3.2.1 Digital Conventional Mode
9.8.3.2.2 Digital Trunked Mode
9.8.3.2.3 Digital Trunked Wide Area IP Networks
9.8.4 Benefits
9.8.5 Licensing
9.8.6 Products
9.9 IDAS
9.9.1 Background
9.9.2 Technology
9.9.2.1 General
9.9.2.2 Major Features
9.9.2.3 Major Benefits
9.9.2.4 Products
9.9.3 Future Enhancements
9.10 Industry
Aeroflex
CML Microcircuits
Digital Voice Systems, Inc
Ritron
Zetron
9.11 NXDN Market Perspective and Applications
9.11.1 Applications
9.11.1.1 General
9.6.1.2 RR Applications
9.6.1.3 Plans
9.6.2 Market
9.7 MotoTRBO
9.7.1 General
9.7.2 Features
9.7.2.1 Abilities
9.7.2.2 Recent Additions
9.7.3 Basis-TDMA Potentials
9.7.4 Sales
9.7.5 Products
9.7.6 MOTOTRBO Services
9.7.7 Availability
9.7.8 Applications

10.0 Broadband PSC
10.1 Need
10.1.1 Abilities
10.2 History
10.2.1 Frequency Mask
10.3 Broadband PSC and 4.9 GHz Radio
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 4.9 GHz Public Safety Radio Applications
10.3.3 International Activities
10.3.4 Eligibility
10.3.4.1 Conditions
10.3.5 Frequencies Allocations
10.3.5.1 Public Safety Bands
10.3.5.2 Users
10.3.6 Advantages of the 4.9 GHz Band
10.3.7 Technologies
10.3.7.1 FCC
10.3.7.2 IEEE 802.11j
10.3.8 Mesh Networks: Standards
10.3.8.1 General
10.3.8.2 IEEE 802.11s
10.3.9 OFDM
10.3.10 Multi-radio Platforms
10.3.11 Market
10.3.11.1 General
10.3.11.2 Forecast
10.3.12 Manufacturers

11.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: P25 Service Availability Matrix
Attachment II: P25 Standards
Attachment III: Countries with P25-Compliant Radio
Attachment IV: FCC Ruling- 4.9 MHz Radio



Figure 1: FCC PSR Spectrum Allocation
Figure 2: 800 MHz Reconfiguration Plan
Figure 3: 700 MHz Band
Figure 4: APCO Project 25 Interface Committee
Figure 5: Generic-P25 System Structure
Figure 6: P25 System – Major Interfaces
Figure 7: ISSI-P25 System-to-System
Figure 8: ISSI-Roaming
Figure 9: State and Local PSC Spectrum
Figure 10: Revised Frequency Plan
Figure 11: Revised Spectrum (Upper 700 MHz sub-band)
Figure 12: 700 MHz Auction
Figure 13: Example-Network Scenario
Figure 14: TAM: PSC P25 Equipment Sales (U.S. and Canada, $B)
Figure 15: P25 Radio Major Applications
Figure 16: TETRA Association Structure
Figure 17: TETRA Release I
Figure 18: TETRA Interworking Illustration
Figure 19: TETRA Interoperability Interfaces
Figure 20: Network Scenarios
Figure 21: TETRA Release I Interfaces
Figure 22: TETRA: Spectrum Allocation
Figure 23: Phased Approach – TETRA and P25
Figure 24: TETRA RII Application Developments
Figure 25: Directions
Figure 26: TAPS
Figure 27: TEDS RF Channel Characteristics
Figure 28: Spectral Efficiency
Figure 29: Rates and Range
Figure 30: TETRA TEDS Characteristics
Figure 31: Illustration of TETRA Market Geography (2010)
Figure 32: TETRA Segmentation by Industries (2010)
Figure 33: TAM: TETRA Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 34: TAM: TETRA BS & Associated Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 35: TAM: TETRA BS & Associated Equipment Global Sales (Unit 000)
Figure 36: FCC Timeline
Figure 37: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (UHF)
Figure 38: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (VHF)
Figure 39: TAM: U.S. NXDN Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 40: Masks Comparison
Figure 41: Public Safety Communications Frequencies Allocations
Figure 42: Mesh Network Diagram
Figure 43: Addressable Market: U.S. PSC 4.9 GHz Mobile Equipment ($M)
Figure 44: TAM: PSC 4.9 GHz Network Infrastructure (U.S., $M)



Table 1: P25 Advantages and Issues
Table 2: CAI Characteristics
Table 3: PSR Bands
Table 4: P25 Services
Table 5: Phase II Documentation
Table 6: Structure of Purchasing
Table 7: TETRA Established
Table 8: TETRA Release I-Major Characteristics
Table 9: TETRA Improvements
Table 10: Applications (Release II)
Table 11: Evolution of TETRA Applications
Table 12: IDAS Products
Table 13: Power Limits
Table 14: Emergency Services
Table 15: Requirements
Table 16: Frequencies Allocations: 4.9 GHz Band
Table 17: Bandwidth and Power – 4.9 GHz Band
 
Companies Mentioned
- Airaya
- Alvarion
- Aperto
- Azuretec
- Airspan
- Aruba
- Carlson Wireless
- Cisco
- Exalt
- Firetide
- Fluidmesh Networks
- GigaBeam
- Hautespot Networks
- InfiNet
- MeshDynamics
- Motorola Solutions
- Proxim Wireless
- Radwin
- Redline
- SkyPilot (acquired by Trilliant in 2009)
- Solectek
- Strix
- Teletronics
- Trango Systems
- Tranzeo
- Trimax (Infrax Systems)
- Axell
- Artevea
- Cassidian
- ClearTone
- DAMM Cellular
- EtherStack
- Frequentis
- Groupco
- Hytera
- Motorola (Motorola Solutions)
- Niros
- Pegasus Network
- Portalify
- Rohde-Schwarz (Hytera)
- Rohill
- Sepura
- Selex Elsag
- Teltronic
- Team Simoco
- Thales
- Aeroflex
- CML Microcircuits
- Digital Voice Systems, Inc
- Ritron
- Zetron
- Catalyst
- Daniels
- Datron
- Digital Voice System
- Cassidian Communications
- EF Johnson
- Etherstack
- Harris
- Kenwood
- Midland
- Motorola Solutions
- Northern Airborne
- PowerTrunk
- Pyramid Communications
- Relm
- Raytheon JPS
- Technisonic Industries
- Thales
- Tait Electronics
- Teltronic
- Westel
- Wireless Pacific
 
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