This book provides an insight and interdisciplinary review of recent significant innovations within the lithium-ion battery industry. The book emphasizes the latest breakthroughs in novel electrode and electrolyte materials, system integration, implementation, and commercialization for a variety of mobile and portable lithium battery applications, from micro medical devices to high-power automotive; outlines the roadmap for an emerging market with huge potential; gives comprehensive comparison with portable fuel cells development.
Areas addressed include:
- Li-ion batteries for PHEV, HEV, and EV - Issues & Solution
- Revolutionizing Li-ion Batteries for Portable and Consumer Products
- Materials Challenges - Electrodes & Electrolyte
- Safety, Testing & Performance
- System Design & Integration
Editions are topical reference books that include complete narratives, charts, graphs and illustrations
CHAPTER 1 - Mitigating Catastrophic Failure in Lithium-Ion Cells
Christopher J. Orendorff, PhD, Power Sources Technology Group, Sandia National Laboratories
Safety issues with lithium-ion cells are independent of any performance metric and may prevent the widespread adoption of these technologies for electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Despite the historical concerns with high-energy materials for lithium-ion batteries (e.g. high rate thermal runaway, internal short circuits, flammability, etc.), strides have been made to improve the inherent safety of these materials in full cells. Approaches for abuse tolerant materials and techniques to mitigate the common abuse and field failure modes will be presented.
CHAPTER 2 - Navy Large Form Lithium Battery Safety Initiatives - Recent Developments
Daphne Fuentevilla, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC)
CHAPTER 3 - Battery Safety and Abuse Tolerance Test Procedures - Test Methods and Test Current Standards
Daniel H. Doughty, PhD, President, Battery Safety Consulting, Inc.
Battery safety and abuse tolerance test procedures are designed to simulate the effects of off-normal events that may occur, however unlikely, during use of battery-powered devices. Test procedures include mechanical, thermal and electrical abuse conditions. Test procedures may be “Characterization Tests”, where the test article is brought to failure and the results scored to determine the severity of response, or “Pass/Fail Tests”, where the test article is exposed to specific abusive conditions and the response, if it meets or exceeds test standards, provides the basis of approval for shipping or use in a commercial device. The presentation will discuss the origin of test procedures and compare existing test procedures that are used for portable electronics as well as automotive applications.
CHAPTER?4 - Structural Changes during Heating and Cycling of Layer-Structured and Olivine-Structured Cathode Materials Studied by HRTEM and In Situ XRD and XAS
Xiao-Qing Yang, PhD, Principle Investigator, and Kyung-Wan Nam, PhD, Scientist, Chemistry Dept, Brookhaven National Laboratory
We report our studies on the structural changes in cathode materials during heating with and without electrolytes, as well as the structural differences between the surface and the bulk during heating. Our studies on Co, Al, Mn doped LiNiO2-based materials using time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) show phase transformations during heating. Due to averaging nature of X-ray techniques, detailed information about how the structure changes initiated and propagated through new phase nucleation and growth in the microscopic level is quite limited. We present our in-situ HRTEM studies on the structural changes of over charged Li0.0Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and Li0.0Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O cathode materials during heating, in comparison with our XRD and XAS studies. Rock-salt structure and spinel structure, which only observed at elevated temperatures using X-ray techniques, were presented at the edges and thin areas of the particles, respectively even at room temperature. This implies that after overcharging, the particles start losing some oxygen atoms near the particle surface, resulting in the structural changes. More detailed structural changes during heating will also be reported. The in depth understanding of the structural changes during charge-discharge cycles will provide guidance for developing new materials. Using synchrotron based in situ XRD, hard and soft x-ray XAS, and TEM, the structural changes of these materials have been studied during charge-discharge cycling. The differences of phase transition processes between the surface and the bulk will be discussed.
CHAPTER 5 - Safety Limitations Associated with Commercial 18650 Lithium-Ion Cells
Judith A. Jeevarajan, PhD, Senior Scientist - Battery Group Lead for Safety and Advanced Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center
Commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells are used in numerous portable equipment batteries. These cells are tolerant to abusive conditions of overcharge, external short and overdischarge in single cell or small battery configurations (low voltage, low capacity). However, the protective features inside these cells either do not protect or themselves become a source of hazard when the cells are configured into high voltage/high capacity modules. The author will present the hazards associated with these cells under various off-nominal conditions.
CHAPTER 6 - Thermo-Chemical Process Associated with Electro-Active Materials/Electrolyte and Recent Developments towards Safe Lithium-Ion Battery
Angathevar Veluchamy, PhD, Scientist, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, India
Lithium ion battery upon overcharge/overdischarge following any inadvertent conditions causes release of oxygen from the oxide cathode, destruction of solid electrolyte interface, exothermic conversion of lithium in graphene layers into its oxide, combustion of organic electrolyte leading to thermal runaway, failure or explosion of the battery. This presentation also focuses on the latest developments that conceptualize safe lithium-ion battery for stationary and electric vehicle applications, in addition to portable gadgets, thus providing green energy and better environment for the lives on the earth.
CHAPTER 7 - High Throughput Synthesis and Screening for Discovery of Improved Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Steven Kaye, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Wildcat Discovery Technologies
Wildcat has developed a platform for combinatorial synthesis and screening of battery materials that can evaluate >1500 cells/week. Wildcat's system produces materials in bulk form rather than thin films, enabling formulation of active material into electrodes and evaluation of properties in complete cells. This allows rapid development of the active materials, formulation, and electrolyte. Here, I will discuss Wildcat's materials development program, including results from our first electrode material libraries.
CHAPTER 8 - Battery Management Solutions for New Lithium Chemistries & Applications: Power Tools to HEVs, Li-Phosphate to Li-Titanate
Dan Friel, Sector Manager, Battery Management Solutions, Texas Instruments
Lithium rechargeable batteries are finding use in more and diverse applications ranging from power tools to hybrid electric vehicles. New chemistry formulations such as Li-phosphate and Li-titanate are also being developed for these devices. But unlike traditional laptop and cell phone battery management systems, these new applications and chemistries require different battery management architectures that may segment monitoring, protection, measurement, calculation, and control. This presentation will discuss the common design challenges and illustrate how to select the right architecture and components for these applications and chemistries.
CHAPTER 9 - Advanced Anode Graphites for High Performance Batteries
Bharat S. Chahar, PhD, PE, Product Manager, ConocoPhillips Company
ConocoPhillips is continuing to expand the availability of targeted anode materials for high performance Li-ion batteries by introducing several new grades of of CPreme® graphite products. These new grades provide more flexibility to battery makers while advancing performance and lowering costs. This presentation will discuss the new features of CPreme® anode materials and how these features will help broaden the adaptation of Li-ion batteries.
CHAPTER 10 - How Nanotechnology Will Revolutionize Lithium Ion Batteries for Electronics
Jurgen Hofler, PhD, VP of Operations and Engineering, Nanosys, Inc.
Lithium ion batteries will power our future's electronics and electric vehicles, and enhance energy storage. However, progress in storage specific capacity has been limited to only 6% improvement per year over the past two decades. We will outline the science behind how Nanosys's process-ready silicon nanowire composite additive, SiNANOde™ technology can increase specific storage capacity by 25% in a single cost-effective step when added to the anode of the battery.
CHAPTER 11 - Efficient and Accurate Computational Tools for Evaluating Performance Targets of Lithium-ion Cells and Cell Components
Kevin L. Gering, PhD, Principal Investigator, Applied Battery Research, Energy Storage & Transportation Systems, Idaho National Laboratory
Increasing materials research worldwide calls for a commensurate increase in computational tools that keep pace with battery technology development. This presentation covers two key areas: electrolyte characterization and optimization, and a generalized approach toward characterizing and predicting cell aging processes. Key electrolyte properties and parameters (transport, thermodynamics, ion solvation, molecular-scale interactions) are provided by our Advanced Electrolyte Model that has a basis in molecular-scale chemical physics. Aging processes are investigated through synergistic combinations of diagnostic testing and mechanism-based models.
CHAPTER 12 - Advanced Technologies for Li-Ion Battery Formation/Grading Process
John Tessitore, Chroma ATE Inc.
A discussion of key features for the Battery Formation and Grading process which overcome the hurdles present in the current manufacturing process including the following technologies: 1) Redundant DC Power Sources; 2) Energy Recycling of the DC Discharge Energy; 3) Real Time test probe status monitoring; 4) Battery Voltage Tracking of linear-charging sources; 5) Single fault over-charge prevention; 6) Temperature compensation for capacity grading.
CHAPTER 13 - Computer Aided Engineering for Battery Design
Bob Reynolds, CD-adapco
The increasing electrification of vehicles has provided a new challenge for numerical simulation techniques within this automotive design process. As the installation of an increasingly significant battery represents one of the largest design changes to modern vehicles, and also a noticeable increase in cost, there is considerable demand for such technology. The talk will detail the state of the art in this simulation field.