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An Introduction to Fire Dynamics. 3rd Edition - Product Image

An Introduction to Fire Dynamics. 3rd Edition

  • ID: 2170749
  • August 2011
  • 574 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

"Drysdale's book is by far the most comprehensive - everyone in the office has a copy...now including me. It holds just about everything you need to know about fire science."
(Review of An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition)

After 25 years as a bestseller, Dougal Drysdale's classic introduction has been brought up-to-date and expanded to incorporate the latest research and experimental data. Essential reading for all involved in the field from undergraduate and postgraduate students to practising fire safety engineers and fire prevention officers, An Introduction to Fire Dynamics is unique in that it addresses the fundamentals of fire science and fire dynamics, thus providing the scientific background necessary for the development of fire safety engineering as a professional discipline.

An Introduction to Fire Dynamics

- Includes experimental data relevant to the understanding of fire behaviour of materials;
- Features numerical problems with answers illustrating the quantitative applications of the concepts presented;
- Extensively course-tested at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the University of Edinburgh, and widely adopted throughout the world;
- Will appeal to all those working in fire safety engineering and related disciplines.

About the Author xi

Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Preface to the Third Edition xv

List of Symbols and Abbreviations xvii

1 Fire Science and Combustion 1

1.1 Fuels and the Combustion Process 2

1.1.1 The Nature of Fuels 2

1.1.2 Thermal Decomposition and Stability of Polymers 6

1.2 The Physical Chemistry of Combustion in Fires 12

1.2.1 The Ideal Gas Law 14

1.2.2 Vapour Pressure of Liquids 18

1.2.3 Combustion and Energy Release 19

1.2.4 The Mechanism of Gas Phase Combustion 26

1.2.5 Temperatures of Flames 30

Problems 34

2 Heat Transfer 35

2.1 Summary of the Heat Transfer Equations 36

2.2 Conduction 38

2.2.1 Steady State Conduction 38

2.2.2 Non-steady State Conduction 40

2.2.3 Numerical Methods of Solving Time-dependent Conduction Problems 48

2.3 Convection 52

2.4 Radiation 59

2.4.1 Configuration Factors 64

2.4.2 Radiation from Hot Gases and Non-luminous Flames 72

2.4.3 Radiation from Luminous Flames and Hot Smoky Gases 76

Problems 79

3 Limits of Flammability and Premixed Flames 83

3.1 Limits of Flammability 83

3.1.1 Measurement of Flammability Limits 83

3.1.2 Characterization of the Lower Flammability Limit 88

3.1.3 Dependence of Flammability Limits on Temperature and Pressure 91

3.1.4 Flammability Diagrams 94

3.2 The Structure of a Premixed Flame 97

3.3 Heat Losses from Premixed Flames 101

3.4 Measurement of Burning Velocities 106

3.5 Variation of Burning Velocity with Experimental Parameters 109

3.5.1 Variation of Mixture Composition 110

3.5.2 Variation of Temperature 111

3.5.3 Variation of Pressure 112

3.5.4 Addition of Suppressants 113

3.6 The Effect of Turbulence 116

Problems 118

4 Diffusion Flames and Fire Plumes 121

4.1 Laminar Jet Flames 123

4.2 Turbulent Jet Flames 128

4.3 Flames from Natural Fires 130

4.3.1 The Buoyant Plume 132

4.3.2 The Fire Plume 139

4.3.3 Interaction of the Fire Plume with Compartment Boundaries 151

4.3.4 The Effect of Wind on the Fire Plume 163

4.4 Some Practical Applications 165

4.4.1 Radiation from Flames 166

4.4.2 The Response of Ceiling-mounted Fire Detectors 169

4.4.3 Interaction between Sprinkler Sprays and the Fire Plume 171

4.4.4 The Removal of Smoke 172

4.4.5 Modelling 174

Problems 178

5 Steady Burning of Liquids and Solids 181

5.1 Burning of Liquids 182

5.1.1 Pool Fires 182

5.1.2 Spill Fires 193

5.1.3 Burning of Liquid Droplets 194

5.1.4 Pressurized and Cryogenic Liquids 197

5.2 Burning of Solids 199

5.2.1 Burning of Synthetic Polymers 199

5.2.2 Burning of Wood 209

5.2.3 Burning of Dusts and Powders 221

Problems 223

6 Ignition: The Initiation of Flaming Combustion 225

6.1 Ignition of Flammable Vapour/Air Mixtures 225

6.2 Ignition of Liquids 235

6.2.1 Ignition of Low Flashpoint Liquids 241

6.2.2 Ignition of High Flashpoint Liquids 242

6.2.3 Auto-ignition of Liquid Fuels 245

6.3 Piloted Ignition of Solids 247

6.3.1 Ignition during a Constant Heat Flux 250

6.3.2 Ignition Involving a ‘Discontinuous’ Heat Flux 263

6.4 Spontaneous Ignition of Solids 269

6.5 Surface Ignition by Flame Impingement 271

6.6 Extinction of Flame 272

6.6.1 Extinction of Premixed Flames 272

6.6.2 Extinction of Diffusion Flames 273

Problems 275

7 Spread of Flame 277

7.1 Flame Spread Over Liquids 277

7.2 Flame Spread Over Solids 284

7.2.1 Surface Orientation and Direction of Propagation 284

7.2.2 Thickness of the Fuel 292

7.2.3 Density, Thermal Capacity and Thermal Conductivity 294

7.2.4 Geometry of the Sample 296

7.2.5 Environmental Effects 297

7.3 Flame Spread Modelling 307

7.4 Spread of Flame through Open Fuel Beds 312

7.5 Applications 313

7.5.1 Radiation-enhanced Flame Spread 313

7.5.2 Rate of Vertical Spread 315

Problems 315

8 Spontaneous Ignition within Solids and Smouldering Combustion 317

8.1 Spontaneous Ignition in Bulk Solids 317

8.1.1 Application of the Frank-Kamenetskii Model 318

8.1.2 The Thomas Model 324

8.1.3 Ignition of Dust Layers 325

8.1.4 Ignition of Oil – Soaked Porous Substrates 329

8.1.5 Spontaneous Ignition in Haystacks 330

8.2 Smouldering Combustion 331

8.2.1 Factors Affecting the Propagation of Smouldering 333

8.2.2 Transition from Smouldering to Flaming Combustion 342

8.2.3 Initiation of Smouldering Combustion 344

8.2.4 The Chemical Requirements for Smouldering 346

8.3 Glowing Combustion 347

Problems 348

9 The Pre-flashover Compartment Fire 349

9.1 The Growth Period and the Definition of Flashover 351

9.2 Growth to Flashover 354

9.2.1 Conditions Necessary for Flashover 354

9.2.2 Fuel and Ventilation Conditions Necessary for Flashover 364

9.2.3 Factors Affecting Time to Flashover 378

9.2.4 Factors Affecting Fire Growth 382

Problems 385

10 The Post-flashover Compartment Fire 387

10.1 Regimes of Burning 387

10.2 Fully Developed Fire Behaviour 396

10.3 Temperatures Achieved in Fully Developed Fires 404

10.3.1 Experimental Study of Fully Developed Fires in Single Compartments 404

10.3.2 Mathematical Models for Compartment Fire Temperatures 406

10.3.3 Fires in Large Compartments 418

10.4 Fire Resistance and Fire Severity 420

10.5 Methods of Calculating Fire Resistance 427

10.6 Projection of Flames from Burning Compartments 435

10.7 Spread of Fire from a Compartment 437

Problems 439

11 Smoke: Its Formation, Composition and Movement 441

11.1 Formation and Measurement of Smoke 443

11.1.1 Production of Smoke Particles 443

11.1.2 Measurement of Particulate Smoke 447

11.1.3 Methods of Test for Smoke Production Potential 450

11.1.4 The Toxicity of Smoke 455

11.2 Smoke Movement 459

11.2.1 Forces Responsible for Smoke Movement 459

11.2.2 Rate of Smoke Production in Fires 465

11.3 Smoke Control Systems 469

11.3.1 Smoke Control in Large Spaces 470

11.3.2 Smoke Control in Shopping Centres 471

11.3.3 Smoke Control on Protected Escape Routes 473

References 475

Answers to Selected Problems 527

Author Index 531

Subject Index 545

Professor Dougal Drysdale recently retired from the University of Edinburgh, where he maintains the position of Emeritus Professor of Fire Safety Engineering. He is a past president of the International Association for Fire Safety Science. His research interests include spontaneous combustion, fire dynamics and behaviour, and fire investigation.

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