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Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. 3rd Edition

  • ID: 2171992
  • May 2012
  • 800 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The fully updated reference on degrading and disposing of hazardous chemicals in the laboratory

When it's time for laboratory technicians to get rid of hazardous materials, they can't simply dump them in the trash. Detailed procedures need to be followed to safely degrade and dispose of hazardous chemicals from bulk quantities of material to accidental spills.

This new edition of Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory includes validated methods for safely degrading specific compounds, such as nitrosamines and aflatoxins, as well as general strategies that are applicable to all organic compounds. In addition, promising emerging technologies, such as advanced oxidation procedures, that are applicable to the destruction of hazardous compounds in the laboratory are discussed. Practical details are provided so these procedures can be readily implemented in the laboratory, often by technicians, without the use of exotic reagents or special equipment. Methods for the destruction of pharmaceuticals have been placed in a new and greatly expanded section, and many new monographs, including some on dealing with toxins derived from biological agents, are included.

Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory, Third Edition integrates all the available validated procedures for the safe destruction of hazardous chemicals in the laboratory into one complete volume. No comparable text in this field provides such a wealth of in–depth coverage on such an important topic. Together with books on the hazardous properties of chemicals and general precautionary procedures, this practical guide should form the nucleus of any library concerned with chemical safety.

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PREFACE xi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii

INTRODUCTION 1

SPECIFIC METHODS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN THE LABORATORY 17

Acetonitrile 19

Acid Halides and Anhydrides 23

Aflatoxins 29

Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals 37

Alkali Metal Alkoxides 41

Anatoxin–A 43

Aromatic Amines 47

Arsenic 57

Azides 61

Azo and Azoxy Compounds and Tetrazenes 69

Boron Trifluoride and Inorganic Fluorides 77

Botulinum Toxins 81

Brevetoxins 85

Butyllithium 89

Calcium Carbide 93

Carbamic Acid Esters 95

Carbofuran 99

Chloromethylsilanes and Silicon Tetrachloride 101

N–Chlorosuccinimide and Chloramine–T 103

Chlorosulfonic Acid 105

Chromium(VI) 107

Citrinin 113

Complex Metal Hydrides 121

Cyanides and Cyanogen Bromide 129

Cylindrospermopsin 137

Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate 141

Dimethyl Sulfate and Related Compounds 151

Dyes and Biological Stains 163

Ethidium Bromide 201

Haloethers 211

Halogenated Compounds 217

Halogens 229

Heavy Metals 233

Hexamethylphosphoramide 241

Hydrazines 245

Hypochlorites 257

Mercury 261

2–Methylaziridine 267

1–Methyl–4–phenyl–1,2,3,6–tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 271

Microcystins 277

4–Nitrobiphenyl 283

3–Nitrofluoranthene and 3–Aminofluoranthene 287

Nitrogen Tetroxide 291

N–Nitroso Compounds: Nitrosamides 293

N–Nitroso Compounds: Nitrosamines 307

Ochratoxin A 319

Organic Nitriles 327

Osmium Tetroxide 331

Palytoxin 335

Patulin 339

Peracids 347

Perchlorates 349

Peroxides and Hydroperoxides 355

Phenol 359

Phosgene 363

Phosphorus and Phosphorus Pentoxide 367

Picric Acid 371

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 375

Polycyclic Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons 387

Potassium Permanganate 405

b–Propiolactone 407

Protease Inhibitors 411

Ricin 417

Saxitoxin 421

Selenium Compounds 425

Sodium Amide 427

Sterigmatocystin 429

Sulfonyl Fluoride Enzyme Inhibitors 437

Sulfur–Containing Compounds 443

T–2 Toxin 449

Tetrodotoxin 455

Triacetone Triperoxide 459

Uranyl Compounds 463

METHODS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE LABORATORY 467

Pharmaceuticals: General Considerations 469

A: Potassium Permanganate 549

B: Sodium Hypochlorite 567

C: Nickel–Aluminum Alloy Reduction 575

D: Fenton s Reagent 583

E: Photo–Fenton Reaction 587

F: Hydrogen Peroxide 591

G: Hydrogen Peroxide and Horseradish Peroxidase 593

H: Ozone 595

I: Hydroxylamine Degradation of b–Lactams 603

J: Miscellaneous Chemical Degradation Procedures 605

K: Photolytic Degradation Procedures 613

L: Decontamination of Aqueous Solutions 627

NONSPECIFIC METHODS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN THE LABORATORY 631

APPENDIXES 655

APPENDIX I: Procedures for Drying Organic Solvents 657

APPENDIX II: Safety Considerations with Potassium Permanganate 661

MOLECULAR FORMULA INDEX 671

CAS REGISTRY NUMBER INDEX 681

CROSS INDEX OF PHARMACEUTICAL NAMES 693

CROSS–INDEX OF NAMES FOR DYES AND BIOLOGICAL STAINS 729

NAME INDEX 757

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The book provides a good survey on destruction methods suitable for small and medium sized laboratories.  The well–structured writing style provides an interesting textbook, helpful for every laboratory technician, and a reference book for supervisors responsible for the laboratory work.  (Materials and Corrosion, 1 August 2012)

The writing is clear and precise, molecular structures and diagrams are clearly labelled, and procedures appear to be up–to–date, efficient, and adaptable . . . Summing Up: Essential.  Graduate students through professionals/practitioners in academic, commercial, or industrial chemical laboratories.   (Choice, 1 November 2012)

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