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# Construction Science and Materials

• Published: March 2012
• Region: Global
• 352 Pages
• John Wiley and Sons Ltd

For BTEC construction students, Science, Structural Mechanics and Materials are combined into one unit. This new book focuses mainly on science and structural mechanics but also provides basic information on construction materials. The material is presented in a tried-and-tested, student-friendly format that will create an interest in science and ensure that students get all the information they need - from one book.

Construction Science & Materials is divided into 17 chapters, each with written explanations supplemented by solved examples and relevant diagrams to substantiate the text. Chapters end with numerical questions covering a range of problems and their answers are given at the end of the book and on the book's website.

The author takes into account the latest Edexcel specifications (August 2010) and provides information on topics included in Levels 2/3/4 Science, and Science and Materials. Brief coverage of building materials but more detail on science and structural mechanics topics will be included. Recent developments in science and building materials are covered as well as changes in the Building Regulations.

The book includes assignments that

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

List of units, prefixes and symbols xvii

1 Using a scientific calculator 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Keys of a scientific calculator 1

2 Units and their conversion 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Length 10

2.3 Mass 11

2.4 Area, volume and capacity 12

2.5 Temperature 14

3 Introduction to physics 17

3.1 Speed and velocity 17

3.2 Acceleration 18

3.3 Mass 18

3.4 Gravitation 18

3.5 Weight 20

3.6 Volume 20

3.7 Density 20

3.8 Specific gravity 22

3.9 Newton’s first law of motion 23

3.10 Newton’s second law of motion 23

3.11 Newton’s third law of motion 24

3.12 Friction 24

3.13 Work 26

3.14 Energy 26

3.14.1 Potential energy 27

3.14.2 Kinetic energy 27

3.15 Power 29

4 Introduction to chemistry 33

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 Electrovalency and covalency 36

4.2.1 Covalent bond 36

4.3 Elements and compounds 38

4.4 Symbols and formulae 40

4.5 Acids and bases 40

4.5.1 Acids 41

4.5.2 Bases 42

5 Effects of chemicals and atmosphere on materials 45

5.1 Introduction 45

5.2 Oxidation 45

5.2.1 Experiment: To show that oxygen (or air) and water are necessary for the rusting of iron 46

5.3 Electrolysis 47

5.4 Electrolytic corrosion 49

5.4.1 Examples of electrolytic corrosion 50

5.4.2 Protection of steel from corrosion 51

5.5 Applications of electrolysis 52

5.5.1 Electroplating 52

5.5.2 Extraction of aluminium 53

5.6 Acid rain 53

6 Electricity 55

6.1 Introduction 55

6.2 Coulomb’s law 55

6.3 Electric current 56

6.4 Potential difference 57

6.5 Electromotive force (e.m.f.) 57

6.6 Ohm’s law 57

6.7 Electrical resistivity and conductivity 59

6.8 Resistors in series/parallel 60

6.8.1 Resistors in series 60

6.8.2 Resistors in parallel 61

6.9 Transformers 64

6.10 Power generation 66

6.11 Power distribution 67

6.12 Supply to small buildings 68

7 Introduction to construction technology 71

7.1 Introduction 71

7.2 Substructure and superstructure 71

7.2.1 Soil investigation 72

7.3 Foundations 73

7.3.1 Settlement 73

7.4 Forms of construction 75

7.5 The external envelope 77

7.5.1 Ground fl oors 78

7.5.2 Cavity walls 78

7.5.3 Suspended timber upper floors 79

7.5.4 Roofs 80

8 Thermal energy 1 83

8.1 Introduction 83

8.2 Temperature 83

8.2.1 Temperature scales 84

8.3 Units of heat 85

8.4 States of matter 85

8.4.1 Changes in the physical state 85

8.4.2 Experiment: The physical states of water 86

8.5 Expansion and contraction of solids 87

8.5.1 Linear expansion 88

8.5.2 Experiment: Determination of coefficient of linear expansion 89

8.5.3 Practical examples of expansion and contraction 90

8.6 Heat transfer 93

8.6.1 Conduction 93

8.6.2 Experiment: To compare the thermal conductivity of metals 95

8.6.3 Convection 96

8.6.4 Practical examples of convection 96

9 Thermal energy and humidity 99

9.1 Introduction 99

9.2 Thermal insulation 100

9.2.1 Experiment: To compare the thermal insulation values of expanded polystyrene, vermiculite, mineral wool, glass fibre and cork 101

9.3 Heat transmission 103

9.3.1 Thermal conductivity 103

9.3.2 Thermal resistivity (r) 103

9.3.3 Thermal resistance (R) 103

9.4 Thermal transmittance 105

9.5 Heat loss from buildings 110

9.6 Temperature drop through materials 113

9.7 Humidity 115

9.7.1 Measurement of relative humidity 115

9.8 Condensation 118

9.8.1 The psychrometric chart 119

9.8.2 Prevention of surface condensation 119

9.8.3 Interstitial condensation 122

9.8.4 Prevention of interstitial condensation 127

10 Forces and structures 1 131

10.1 Introduction 131

10.2 Force 132

10.2.1 Internal and external forces 133

10.3 Bending 133

10.3.1 Deflection 134

10.4.2 Imposed load 136

10.4.3 Wind load 136

10.4.5 Point load 136

10.4.6 Uniformly distributed load 136

10.4.7 Triangular load 136

10.5 Stress and strain 140

10.5.1 Stress 140

10.5.2 Strain 140

10.6 Elasticity 141

10.6.1 Experiment 1: Proof of Hooke’s law 142

10.6.2 Experiment 2: Proof of Hooke’s law 143

10.6.3 Factor of safety 146

11 Forces and structures 2 149

11.1 Moment of a force 149

11.1.1 Sign convention 150

11.2 Laws of equilibrium 154

11.3 Analysis of beams 154

11.3.1 Beam reactions 154

11.3.2 Shear force (S.F.) 159

11.3.3 Bending moment (B.M.) 165

11.4 Triangle of forces 172

11.4.1 Bow’s notation 176

11.4.2 Frames and roof trusses 178

12 Fluid mechanics 187

12.1 Introduction 187

12.2 Pressure of fluids at rest 187

12.2.1 Why do the liquids flow? 190

12.2.2 Centre of pressure 191

12.3 The flow of a fluid 193

12.3.1 Flow rate 194

12.3.2 Bernoulli’s theorem 195

12.3.3 The venturimeter 198

12.3.4 Flow in pipes: energy loss 200

12.4 Flow in open channels 200

13 Sound 207

13.1 Introduction 207

13.2 Frequency, wavelength and velocity of sound 208

13.2.1 Frequency (f) 208

13.2.2 Wavelength (?) 208

13.2.3 Velocity (v) 208

13.3 Measurement of sound 210

13.3.1 Threshold values of sound 211

13.3.2 The decibel scale 211

13.4 Addition of sound levels 214

13.4.1 Approximate addition of sound levels 214

13.5 Transmission of sound in buildings 216

13.5.1 Noise 217

13.5.2 Requirements of sound insulation 217

13.5.3 Sound-insulation techniques 218

13.5.4 Noise in a workplace 221

13.5.5 Measurement of sound insulation 222

13.6 Sound absorption 223

13.6.1 Reverberation 224

13.6.2 Reverberation time 225

13.6.3 Types of sound absorbers 228

13.7 Sound level meter 230

14 Light 233

14.1 Introduction 233

14.2 Additive and subtractive colours 234

14.3 Units for measuring light 235

14.3.1 Angular measure 235

14.3.2 Solid angle 236

14.3.3 Luminous intensity (I) 237

14.3.4 Luminous fl ux (F) 237

14.3.5 Illuminance (E) 237

14.3.6 Luminance 238

14.4 Inverse square law of illuminance 238

14.5 Lambert’s cosine law of illuminance 240

14.6 Lamps and luminaires 242

14.7 Design of interior lighting 244

14.7.1 Light output ratio 245

14.7.2 Direct ratio 246

14.7.3 Room index 246

14.7.4 Reflection of light 246

14.7.5 Level of illuminance 247

14.7.6 Utilisation factor (UF) 247

14.7.7 Maintenance factor (MF) 247

14.7.8 Lumen design method 252

14.7.9 SHR 252

14.8 Light meter 257

14.9 Daylighting 257

14.9.1 Uniform sky 257

14.9.2 CIE standard overcast sky 257

14.9.3 Daylight factor 258

14.9.4 Components of daylight factor 258

14.9.5 Prediction of daylight factors 260

15 Human comfort 263

15.1 Introduction 263

15.2 Temperature 263

15.2.1 Air temperature 264

15.2.2 Mean radiant temperature 264

15.2.3 Environmental temperature 265

15.2.4 Dry resultant temperature 265

15.2.5 Activity 266

15.2.6 Clothing 266

15.3 Air movement 267

15.4 Humidity 267

15.5 Ventilation 267

15.6 Noise 268

15.7 Lighting 269

16 Construction materials 271

16.1 Bricks 271

16.1.1 Clay bricks 271

16.1.2 Size 271

16.1.3 Classifi cation 272

16.1.4 Manufacture 272

16.1.5 Properties 272

16.1.6 Deterioration of brickwork 274

16.1.7 Environmental implications 276

16.1.8 COSHH 276

16.2 Aerated concrete blocks 276

16.2.1 Manufacture 276

16.2.2 Sizes 277

16.2.3 Properties 277

16.2.4 Environmental implications 278

16.3 Cement 278

16.3.1 Raw materials 278

16.3.2 Manufacture 279

16.3.3 Setting and hardening of cement 279

16.3.4 Constituents of portland cement 280

16.3.5 Types of cement 280

16.3.6 Compressive strength 282

16.3.7 Environmental implications 282

16.3.8 COSHH 283

16.4 Concrete 283

16.4.1 Raw materials 283

16.4.2 Manufacture of concrete 283

16.4.3 Concrete mix 284

16.4.4 Properties of fresh concrete 285

16.4.5 Properties of hardened concrete 286

16.4.6 Deterioration of concrete 287

16.4.7 Environmental implications 289

16.5 Metals 289

16.5.1 Ferrous metals 289

16.5.2 Raw materials 290

16.5.3 Manufacturing process 290

16.5.4 Iron and its alloys 291

16.5.5 Properties of steel 291

16.5.6 Corrosion of iron/steel 293

16.5.7 Environmental implications 293

16.5.8 Non-ferrous metal: aluminium 294

16.5.9 Raw materials 294

16.5.10 Properties 294

16.5.11 Environmental implications 295

16.6 Timber 295

16.6.1 Seasoning 296

16.6.2 Properties 297

16.6.3 Deterioration 298

16.6.4 Preservation 300

16.6.5 Environmental implications 300

16.7 Plastics 300

16.7.1 Raw materials and manufacture 301

16.7.2 Classifi cation 301

16.7.3 Properties and uses 302

17 Assignments 305

17.1 Assignments for Level 2 courses 305

17.1.1 Assignment No
1 305

17.1.2 Assignment No
2 305

17.1.3 Assignment No
3 306

17.2 Assignments for Level 3/4 courses 306

17.2.1 Assignment No
1 306

17.2.2 Assignment No
2 308

17.2.3 Assignment No
3 308

Appendix 1: Formulae for Example 9.2 311

Appendix 2: Solutions for Example 13.10 313

Appendix 3: Answers to Exercises 315

Index 327

A colour plate section can be found between
Pages 130 and 131

The book’s companion website is at company website

You will fi nd here freely downloadable support material:

?? fully worked solutions to the exercises at the end of chapters

?? model answers for the assignment tasks set in Chapter 17

?? explanation of settlement and consolidation in structures

?? details on the design of building foundations

?? daylight calculations

?? a task + solution on the design of timber joists

?? PowerPoint slides for lectures on: Hooke’s Law; Forces & Their Effects; Temperature & Heat Loss

Surinder Virdi is a lecturer in construction at South Birmingham College. He worked as a civil and structural engineer for a number of years before starting his career in further and higher education. He has been teaching construction science, environmental science, mathematics, ICT and CAD on BTEC National and Higher National courses for over 25 years.

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