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The Biology and Ecology of Tintinnid Ciliates. Models for Marine Plankton - Product Image

The Biology and Ecology of Tintinnid Ciliates. Models for Marine Plankton

  • ID: 2175090
  • October 2012
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Planktonic protists both produce and consume most of the primary production in the world ocean. They not only play key roles in the oceans but also represent an astounding amount of diversity: ecological morphological and genetic. However, for most taxa their ecology, morphology, phylogeny and biogeography are either poorly known or appear to be largely unrelated to one another; this hinders our understanding of their biology as well as interpretation of emerging genetic data. Tintinnid ciliates represent a singular exception. Compared to nearly all other groups of planktonic protists, there is a very substantial and relatively detailed literature (both modern and historical) on tintinnids. This volume synthesizes knowledge concerning a wide variety of topics ranging from anatomy and systematics, physiology, behavior, ecology (including ecological roles, predators, parasites, biogeography, and cysts) to fossil history. It will appeal to an audience ranging from advanced undergraduates to researchers in the fields of Oceanography, Marine Biology and Microbial Ecology.

CONTRIBUTORS vii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO TINTINNIDS 1

1.1 Why a book on tintinnid ciliates? 2

1.2 What is a tintinnid ciliate? 3

1.3 The lorica as the defining characteristic of tintinnid ciliates 3

1.4 History of tintinnid studies 7

1.5 Tintinnids as model organisms for marine plankton 13

1.6 Key points 16

Acknowledgments 16

CHAPTER 2 THE TINTINNID LORICA 17

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 Diversity formation and variability of loricae 19

2.3 Ultrastructure of loricae 32

2.4 Chemical composition of loricae 35

2.5 Lorica sedimentation 40

2.6 Key points 41

Acknowledgments 41

CHAPTER 3 SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION OF TINTINNID CILIATES 42

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 History of tintinnid taxonomy and systematics 44

3.3 Evolution of tintinnids 49

3.4 How to read the tintinnid cladogram 64

3.5 Molecular analysis and comparison with morphologic data 69

3.6 Systematics 75

3.7 Comparison with the evolution of related planktonic ciliates: the aloricate choreotrichids oligotrichids and halteriids 81

3.8 Key points 83

Acknowledgments 84

CHAPTER 4 ECOPHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF TINTINNIDS 85

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Feeding 86

4.3 Growth 99

4.4 Swimming behavior 106

4.5 Response to abiotic factors and interactions with biotic factors 111

4.6 Tintinnids as models and in models 114

4.7 Key points 121

Acknowledgments 121

CHAPTER 5 PREDATORS OF TINTINNIDS 122

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Predators of tintinnids 133

5.3 Anti-predator defenses of tintinnids 141

5.4 Top-down control of tintinnids 142

5.5 Importance of tintinnids as prey for the predator 143

5.6 Tintinnids as vectors for algal toxins 143

5.7 Key points 144

Acknowledgments 144

CHAPTER 6 PARASITES OF TINTINNIDS 145

6.1 Background 146

6.2 Dinoflagellate parasites: morphology and infection cycle 149

6.3 Molecular evolution of dinoflagellates parasitizing tintinnids 160

6.4 Ecology of tintinnid parasites 165

6.5 Summary and future directions 169

6.6 Key points 169

Acknowledgments 170

CHAPTER 7 COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY OF TINTINNID CYSTS 171

7.1 Introduction 172

7.2 Morphology 173

7.3 Encystment and excystment 176

7.4 Ecological function of cysts 182

7.5 Key points 184

Acknowledgments 185

CHAPTER 8 FOSSIL TINTINNIDS 186

8.1 Introduction: a paucity of data 187

8.2 Proterozoic tintinnids: no evidence of a beginning 187

8.3 Paleozoic tintinnid reports: too thin to know 191

8.4 Mesozoic tintinnids and calpionellids: same shape different composition 191

8.5 Cenozoic tintinnids: sparse 192

8.6 Organic and agglutinated phanerozoic fossils: the most likely candidates 193

8.7 Conclusions and perspectives 195

8.8 Key points 197

Acknowledgments 197

CHAPTER 9 TINTINNIDS IN MICROZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES 198

9.1 Ecology of microzooplankton 199

9.2 Quantitative importance of tintinnids in microzooplankton assemblages 205

9.3 Characteristics that set tintinnids apart from other microzooplankton 211

9.4 Key points 212

Acknowledgments 213

CHAPTER 10 DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF TINTINNIDS 214

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Biogeography 215

10.3 Assemblages of coastal systems 233

10.4 Assemblages of open waters 239

10.5 Key points 241

Acknowledgments 243

REFERENCES 244

ORGANISM INDEX 288

SUBJECT INDEX 293

“I expect that it will serve as an important reference for undergraduate and graduate students as well as for researchers dealing with plankton in general. And I am quite certain that it will also be used by skilled zooplanktologists, lecturers of zoology and plankton ecology, and others because this book offers them the first and foremost source to look for information on tintinnids.”  (Marine Ecology, 22 November 2013)

“This is a highly specialised book produced by a number of dedicated contributors from several countries including the USA, Austria, France, Germany, Japan, Canada and the UK. It is clearly an important reference book on this subject.”  (Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 30 October 2013)

“This is a good book. The individual chapters are well-written and authoritative . . . However, since the book treats all aspects of an important group of microzooplankton emphasizing functional biology and its role in plankton ecosystems, it should also be of value to all interested in biological oceanography.”  (Marine Biology Research, 1 May 2013)

“This well-produced, well-referenced book provides a great resource for both protozoologists and marine plankton ecologists . . . The book should stimulate much thought and future research not only on tintinnids, but also on marine protists in general.”  (Oceanography, 1 March 2013)

“I enjoyed reading this book. As a synthesis of what we know and do not know about a particular group of protists, this book is unique in its breadth of coverage. Consequently, I strongly recommend it to anyone interested in tintinnids and other ciliates—it belongs in your personal library.”  (The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 1 May 2013)

“In summary, this is a unique and valuable addition to the literature on marine plankton and a comprehensive text for graduates, PhD students and even non-specialized seasoned scientists.”  (Scientia Marina, 1 June 2013)

“The best works of science and art open our minds to new possibilities and inspire us to create yet more. This compendium of tintinnid science certainly fits that definition and merits a place in your own stack of current reading.  Enjoy!.”  (Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 1 June 2013)

"Overall, I found The Biology and Ecology of Tintinnid Ciliates to be well worth the read. I would recommend it to anyone whose interests include the plankton. Furthermore, as an amalgamation of more than a century’s worth of tintinnid research, it should prove a valuable resource on the bookshelves of zooplankton ecologists and particularly those who study microzooplankton or ciliates."  (Estuaries & Coasts, 8 June 2013)  

“I highly recommend this book to all researchers of tintinnids and would also strongly recommend it to anyone who wishes to deepen their understanding of an important group of marine microplankton.”  (Journal of Plankton Research, 1 April 2012)

"Overall, after reading the book I had the impression I learned quite a lot, especially from those chapters that are out my specialty.  I also appreciated that the text emphasizes the many things we do not know about this important group of marine heterotrophs." (Limnology & Oceanography Bulletin, 1 February 2013)

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