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Mobility Protocols and Handover Optimization. Design, Evaluation and Application. Wiley - IEEE

  • ID: 2175155
  • May 2014
  • 476 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book provides a common framework for mobility management that considers the theoretical and practical aspects of systems optimization for mobile networks.

In this book, the authors show how an optimized system of mobility management can improve the quality of service in existing forms of mobile communication. Furthermore, they provide a theoretical approach to mobility management, as well as developing a model for systems optimization, including practical case studies using network layer and mobility layer protocols in different deployment scenarios. The authors also address the different ways in which a specific mobility protocol can be developed, taking into account numerous factors including security, configuration, authentication, quality of service, and the movement patterns of mobiles.

Key Features:

- Defines and discusses a common set of optimization methodologies and their application to all mobility protocols for both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
- Applies these technologies in the context of various layers: MAC layer, network layer, transport layer, and application layer, covering 802.11, LTE, WiMAX, and CDMA networks and protocols such as SIP, MIP, READ MORE >

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About the Authors xv

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxiii

List of Abbreviations xxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Types of Mobility 2

1.1.1 Terminal Mobility 2

1.1.2 Personal Mobility 5

1.1.3 Session Mobility 6

1.1.4 Service Mobility 7

1.2 Performance Requirements 7

1.3 Motivation 8

1.4 Summary of Key Contributions 9

2 Analysis of Mobility Protocols for Multimedia 13

2.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 13

2.2 Introduction 14

2.3 Cellular 1G 15

2.3.1 System Architecture 15

2.3.2 Handoff Procedure 17

2.4 Cellular 2G Mobility 17

2.4.1 GSM 17

2.4.2 IS–95 19

2.5 Cellular 3G Mobility 23

2.5.1 WCDMA 24

2.5.2 CDMA2000 26

2.6 4G Networks 27

2.6.1 Evolved Packet System 28

2.6.2 WiMAX Mobility 31

2.7 IP–Based Mobility 34

2.7.1 Network Layer Macromobility 34

2.7.2 Network Layer Micromobility 40

2.7.3 NETMOB: Network Mobility 46

2.7.4 Transport Layer Mobility 49

2.7.5 Application Layer Mobility 49

2.7.6 Host Identity Protocol 50

2.7.7 MOBIKE 52

2.7.8 IAPP 53

2.8 Heterogeneous Handover 55

2.8.1 UMTS WLAN Handover 55

2.8.2 LTE WLAN Handover 58

2.9 Multicast Mobility 61

2.10 Concluding Remarks 71

3 Systems Analysis of Mobility Events 73

3.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 75

3.2 Introduction 75

3.2.1 Comparative Analysis of Mobility Protocols 77

3.3 Analysis of Handoff Components 78

3.3.1 Network Discovery and Selection 80

3.3.2 Network Attachment 80

3.3.3 Configuration 81

3.3.4 Security Association 81

3.3.5 Binding Update 82

3.3.6 Media Rerouting 83

3.4 Effect of Handoff across Layers 83

3.4.1 Layer 2 Delay 84

3.4.2 Layer 3 Delay 84

3.4.3 Application Layer Delay 85

3.4.4 Handoff Operations across Layers 85

3.5 Concluding Remarks 90

4 Modeling Mobility 91

4.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 91

4.2 Introduction 92

4.3 Related Work 92

4.4 Modeling Mobility as a Discrete–Event Dynamic System 93

4.5 Petri Net Primitives 94

4.6 Petri–Net–Based Modeling Methodologies 96

4.7 Resource Utilization during Handoff 97

4.8 Data Dependency Analysis of the Handoff Process 99

4.8.1 Petri–Net–Based Data Dependency 99

4.8.2 Analysis of Data Dependency during Handoff Process 100

4.9 Petri Net Model for Handoff 105

4.10 Petri–Net–Based Analysis of Handoff Event 113

4.10.1 Analysis of Deadlocks in Handoff 114

4.10.2 Reachability Analysis 120

4.10.3 Matrix Equations 122

4.11 Evaluation of Systems Performance Using Petri Nets 123

4.11.1 Cycle–Time–Based Approach 123

4.11.2 Floyd–Algorithm–Based Approach 124

4.11.3 Resource Time Product Approach 125

4.12 Opportunities for Optimization 128

4.12.1 Analysis of Parallelism in Handoff Operations 129

4.12.2 Opportunities for Proactive Operation 129

4.13 Concluding Remarks 130

5 Layer 2 Optimization 131

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Related Work 131

5.3 IEEE 802.11 Standards 132

5.3.1 The IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Architecture 133

5.3.2 IEEE 802.11 Management Frames 134

5.4 Handoff Procedure with Active Scanning 135

5.4.1 Steps during Handoff 135

5.5 Fast–Handoff Algorithm 137

5.5.1 Selective Scanning 137

5.5.2 Caching 138

5.6 Implementation 142

5.6.1 The HostAP Driver 142

5.7 Measurements 142

5.7.1 Experimental Setup 142

5.7.2 The Environment 142

5.7.3 Experiments 143

5.8 Measurement Results 143

5.8.1 Handoff Time 143

5.8.2 Packet Loss 143

5.9 Conclusions and Future Work 146

6 Mobility Optimization Techniques 149

6.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 149

6.1.1 Discovery 149

6.1.2 Authentication 150

6.1.3 Layer 3 Configuration 151

6.1.4 Layer 3 Security Association 152

6.1.5 Binding Update 152

6.1.6 Media Rerouting 153

6.1.7 Route Optimization 154

6.1.8 Media–Independent Cross–Layer Triggers 155

6.2 Introduction 156

6.3 Discovery 156

6.3.1 Key Principles 156

6.3.2 Related Work 157

6.3.3 Application Layer Discovery 158

6.3.4 Experimental Results and Analysis 161

6.4 Authentication 164

6.4.1 Key Principles 166

6.4.2 Related Work 166

6.4.3 Network–Layer–Assisted Preauthentication 169

6.4.4 Experimental Results and Analysis 173

6.5 Layer 3 Configuration 177

6.5.1 Key Principles 179

6.5.2 Related Work 180

6.5.3 Router–Assisted Duplicate Address Detection 180

6.5.4 Proactive IP Address Configuration 180

6.5.5 Experimental Results and Analysis 183

6.6 Layer 3 Security Association 183

6.6.1 Key Principles 184

6.6.2 Related Work 184

6.6.3 Anchor–Assisted Security Association 184

6.6.4 Experimental Results and Analysis 187

6.7 Binding Update 190

6.7.1 Key Principles 191

6.7.2 Related Work 191

6.7.3 Hierarchical Binding Update 192

6.7.4 Experimental Results and Analysis 195

6.7.5 Proactive Binding Update 199

6.8 Media Rerouting 199

6.8.1 Key Principles 200

6.8.2 Related Work 200

6.8.3 Data Redirection Using Forwarding Agent 201

6.8.4 Mobility–Proxy–Assisted Time–Bound Data Redirection 202

6.8.5 Time–Bound Localized Multicasting 205

6.9 Media Buffering 210

6.9.1 Key Principles 211

6.9.2 Related Work 211

6.9.3 Protocol for Edge Buffering 212

6.9.4 Experimental Results and Analysis 215

6.9.5 Analysis of the Trade–off between Buffering Delay and Packet Loss 219

6.10 Route Optimization 220

6.10.1 Key Principles 221

6.10.2 Related Work 221

6.10.3 Maintaining a Direct Path by Application Layer Mobility 221

6.10.4 Interceptor–Assisted Packet Modifier at the End Point 222

6.10.5 Intercepting Proxy–Assisted Route Optimization 224

6.10.6 Cost Analysis and Experimental Analysis 226

6.10.7 Binding–Cache–Based Route Optimization 229

6.11 Media–Independent Cross–Layer Triggers 232

6.11.1 Key Principles 232

6.11.2 Related Work 232

6.11.3 Media Independent Handover Function 233

6.11.4 Faster Link–Down Detection Scheme 238

6.12 Concluding Remarks 241

7 Optimization with Multilayer Mobility Protocols 243

7.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 243

7.2 Introduction 244

7.3 Key Principles 245

7.4 Related Work 245

7.5 Multilayer Mobility Approach 246

7.5.1 Policy–Based Mobility Protocols: SIP and MIP–LR 247

7.5.2 Integration of SIP and MIP–LR with MMP 248

7.5.3 Integration of Global Mobility Protocol with Micromobility Protocol 250

7.5.4 Implementation of Multilayer Mobility Protocols 250

7.5.5 Implementation and Performance Issues 252

7.6 Concluding Remarks 255

8 Optimizations for Simultaneous Mobility 257

8.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 257

8.2 Introduction 258

8.2.1 Analysis of Simultaneous Mobility 258

8.3 Illustration of the Simultaneous Mobility Problem 260

8.4 Related Work 262

8.5 Key Optimization Techniques 262

8.6 Analytical Framework 262

8.6.1 Fundamental Concepts 262

8.6.2 Handoff Sequences 263

8.6.3 Binding Updates 264

8.6.4 Location Proxies and Binding Update Proxies 265

8.7 Analyzing the Simultaneous Mobility Problem 267

8.8 Probability of Simultaneous Mobility 270

8.9 Solutions 272

8.9.1 Soft Handoff 273

8.9.2 Receiver–Side Mechanisms 273

8.9.3 Sender–Side Mechanisms 275

8.10 Application of Solution Mechanisms 276

8.10.1 Mobile IPv6 277

8.10.2 MIP–LR 279

8.10.3 SIP–Based Mobility 280

8.11 Concluding Remarks 282

9 Handoff Optimization for Multicast Streaming 285

9.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 285

9.2 Introduction 286

9.3 Key Principles 289

9.4 Related Work 290

9.5 Mobility in a Hierarchical Multicast Architecture 291

9.5.1 Channel Announcement 293

9.5.2 Channel Management 293

9.5.3 Channel Tuning 293

9.5.4 Local Advertisement Insertion 294

9.5.5 Channel Monitor 294

9.5.6 Security 295

9.6 Optimization Techniques for Multicast Media Delivery 296

9.6.1 Reactive Triggering 296

9.6.2 Proactive Triggering 297

9.6.3 Triggering during Configuration of a Mobile 298

9.7 Experimental Results and Performance Analysis 299

9.7.1 Experimental Results 299

9.7.2 Performance Analysis 302

9.8 Concluding Remarks 305

10 Cooperative Roaming 307

10.1 Introduction 307

10.2 Related Work 309

10.3 IP Multicast Addressing 310

10.4 Cooperative Roaming 311

10.4.1 Overview 311

10.4.2 L2 Cooperation Protocol 312

10.4.3 L3 Cooperation Protocol 313

10.5 Cooperative Authentication 314

10.5.1 Overview of IEEE 802.1x 314

10.5.2 Cooperation in the Authentication Process 315

10.5.3 Relay Process 316

10.6 Security 318

10.6.1 Security Issues in Roaming 318

10.6.2 Cooperative Authentication and Security 319

10.7 Streaming Media Support 320

10.8 Bandwidth and Energy Usage 320

10.9 Experiments 321

10.9.1 Environment 321

10.9.2 Implementation Details 322

10.9.3 Experimental Setup 322

10.9.4 Results 323

10.10 Application Layer Mobility 328

10.11 Load Balancing 329

10.12 Multicast and Scalability 330

10.13 An Alternative to Multicast 330

10.14 Conclusions and Future Work 331

11 System Evaluation 333

11.1 Summary of Key Contributions and Indicative Results 333

11.2 Introduction 334

11.3 Experimental Validation 334

11.3.1 The Media Independent Preauthentication Framework 334

11.3.2 Intratechnology Handoff 338

11.3.3 Intertechnology Handoff 340

11.3.4 Cross–Layer–Trigger–Assisted Preauthentication 342

11.3.5 Mobile–Initiated Handover with 802.21 Triggers 344

11.3.6 Network–Initiated Handover with 802.21 Triggers 345

11.3.7 Handover Preparation Time 346

11.4 Handoff Optimization in IP Multimedia Subsystem 350

11.4.1 Nonoptimized Handoff Mode 350

11.4.2 Optimization with Reactive Context Transfer 351

11.4.3 Optimization with Proactive Security Context Transfer 352

11.4.4 Performance Results 353

11.5 Systems Validation Using Petri–Net–Based Models 355

11.5.1 MATLAB®–Based Modeling of Handoff Functions 356

11.5.2 Petri–Net–Based Model for Optimized Security Association 360

11.5.3 Petri–Net–Based Model for Hierarchical Binding Update 361

11.5.4 Petri–Net–Based Model for Media Redirection of In–Flight Data 362

11.5.5 Petri–Net–Based Model of Optimized Configuration 364

11.5.6 Petri–Net–Based Model for Multicast Mobility 364

11.6 Scheduling Handoff Operations 365

11.6.1 Sequential Scheduling 366

11.6.2 Concurrent Scheduling 368

11.6.3 Proactive Scheduling 368

11.7 Verification of Systems Performance 369

11.7.1 Cycle–Time–Based Approach 369

11.7.2 Using the Floyd Algorithm 370

11.8 Petri–Net–Based Modeling for Multi–Interface Mobility 371

11.8.1 Multihoming Scenario 371

11.8.2 Break–Before–Make Scenario 372

11.8.3 Make–Before–Break Scenario 372

11.8.4 MATLAB®–Based Petri Net Modeling for Multi–Interface Mobility 372

11.9 Deadlocks in Handoff Scheduling 374

11.9.1 Handoff Schedules with Deadlocks 375

11.9.2 Deadlock Prevention and Avoidance in Handoff Schedules 377

11.10 Analysis of Level of Concurrency and Resources 380

11.11 Trade–off Analysis for Proactive Handoff 385

11.12 Concluding Remarks 389

12 Conclusions 391

12.1 General Principles of Mobility Optimization 391

12.2 Summary of Contributions 393

12.3 Future Work 394

A RDF Schema for Application Layer Discovery 395

A.1 Schema Primitives 395

B Definitions of Mobility–Related Terms 399

References 409

Index 425

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It is a recommended resource for graduate students, researchers, and IT professionals interested in the study of handoff management.   (IEEE Communications Magazine, 1 April 2015)

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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