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Reliability Engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management - Product Image

Reliability Engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management

  • Published: May 2014
  • 512 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

An Integrated Approach to Product Development

Reliability Engineering presents an integrated approach to the design, engineering, and management of reliability activities throughout the life cycle of a product, including concept, research and development, design, manufacturing, assembly, sales, and service. Containing illustrative guides that include worked problems, numerical examples, homework problems, a solutions manual, and class-tested materials, it demonstrates to product development and manufacturing professionals how to distribute key reliability practices throughout an organization.

The authors explain how to integrate reliability methods and techniques in the Six Sigma process and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). They also discuss relationships between warranty and reliability, as well as legal and liability issues. Other topics covered include:
- Reliability engineering in the 21st Century
- Probability life distributions for reliability analysis
- Process control and process capability
- Failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis
- Health monitoring and prognostics
- Reliability tests and reliability estimation

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Preface xv

1 Reliability Engineering in the Twenty-First Century 1

1.1 What Is Quality? 1

1.2 What Is Reliability? 2

1.2.1 The Ability to Perform as Intended 4

1.2.2 For a Specified Time 4

1.2.3 Life-Cycle Conditions   5

1.2.4 Reliability as a Relative Measure 5

1.3 Quality, Customer Satisfaction, and System Effectiveness  6

1.4 Performance, Quality, and Reliability 7

1.5 Reliability and the System Life Cycle 8

1.6 Consequences of Failure 12

1.6.1 Financial Loss 12

1.6.2 Breach of Public Trust   13

1.6.3 Legal Liability 15

1.6.4 Intangible Losses 15

1.7 Suppliers and Customers 16

1.8 Summary    16

Problems 17

2 Reliability Concepts 19

2.1 Basic Reliability Concepts 19

2.1.1 Concept of Probability Density Function    23

2.2 Hazard Rate   26

2.2.1 Motivation and Development of Hazard Rate  27

2.2.2 Some Properties of the Hazard Function    28

2.2.3 Conditional Reliability   31

2.3 Percentiles Product Life 33

2.4 Moments of Time to Failure    35

2.4.1 Moments about Origin and about the Mean  35

2.4.2 Expected Life or Mean Time to Failure36

2.4.3 Variance or the Second Moment about the Mean 36

2.4.4 Coeffi cient of Skewness    37

2.4.5 Coeffi cient of Kurtosis   37

2.5 Summary    39

Problems 40

3 Probability and Life Distributions for Reliability Analysis 45

3.1 Discrete Distributions 45

3.1.1 Binomial Distribution    46

3.1.2 Poisson Distribution    50

3.1.3 Other Discrete Distributions  50

3.2 Continuous Distributions 51

3.2.1 Weibull Distribution    55

3.2.2 Exponential Distribution  61

3.2.3 Estimation of Reliability for Exponential Distribution 64

3.2.4 The Normal (Gaussian) Distribution 67

3.2.5 The Lognormal Distribution  73

3.2.6 Gamma Distribution   75

3.3 Probability Plots  77

3.4 Summary    83

Problems 84

4 Design for Six Sigma 89

4.1 What Is Six Sigma? 89

4.2 Why Six Sigma?  90

4.3 How Is Six Sigma Implemented?    91

4.3.1 Steps in the Six Sigma Process 92

4.3.2 Summary of the Six Sigma Steps 97

4.4 Optimization Problems in the Six Sigma Process 98

4.4.1 System Transfer Function 99

4.4.2 Variance Transmission Equation 100

4.4.3 Economic Optimization and Quality Improvement 101

4.4.4 Tolerance Design Problem 102

4.5 Design for Six Sigma 103

4.5.1 Identify (I) 105

4.5.2 Characterize (C)106

4.5.3 Optimize (O) 106

4.5.4 Verify (V) 106

4.6 Summary   108

Problems    108

5 Product Development    111

5.1 Product Requirements and Constraints 112

5.2 Product Life Cycle Conditions  113

5.3 Reliability Capability 114

5.4 Parts and Materials Selection   114

5.5 Human Factors and Reliability    115

5.6 Deductive versus Inductive Methods 117

5.7 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis 117

5.8 Fault Tree Analysis 119

5.8.1 Role of FTA in Decision-Making 121

5.8.2 Steps of Fault Tree Analysis 122

5.8.3 Basic Paradigms for the Construction of Fault Trees 122

5.8.4 Defi nition of the Top Event  122

5.8.5 Faults versus Failures   122

5.8.6 Minimal Cut Sets 127

5.9 Physics of Failure 128

5.9.1 Stress Margins 128

5.9.2 Model Analysis of Failure Mechanisms    129

5.9.3 Derating 129

5.9.4 Protective Architectures  130

5.9.5 Redundancy 131

5.9.6 Prognostics 131

5.10 Design Review 131

5.11 Qualification   132

5.12 Manufacture and Assembly    134

5.12.1 Manufacturability 134

5.12.2 Process Verifi cation Testing  136

5.13 Analysis, Product Failure, and Root Causes 137

5.14 Summary   138

Problems    138

6 Product Requirements and Constraints 141

6.1 Defi ning Requirements 141

6.2 Responsibilities of the Supply Chain 142

6.2.1 Multiple-Customer Products 142

6.2.2 Single-Customer Products 143

6.2.3 Custom Products    144

6.3 The Requirements Document   144

6.4 Specifi cations  144

6.5 Requirements Tracking 146

6.6 Summary   147

Problems    147

7 Life-Cycle Conditions    149

7.1 Defining the Life-Cycle Profile  149

7.2 Life-Cycle Events 150

7.2.1 Manufacturing and Assembly 151

7.2.2 Testing and Screening   151

7.2.3 Storage 151

7.2.4 Transportation 151

7.2.5 Installation 151

7.2.6 Operation 152

7.2.7 Maintenance 152

7.3 Loads and Their Effects 152

7.3.1 Temperature 152

7.3.2 Humidity 155

7.3.3 Vibration and Shock    156

7.3.4 Solar Radiation 156

7.3.5 Electromagnetic Radiation 157

7.3.6 Pressure 157

7.3.7 Chemicals 158

7.3.8 Sand and Dust 159

7.3.9 Voltage 159

7.3.10 Current 159

7.3.11 Human Factors 160

7.4 Considerations and Recommendations for LCP Development 160

7.4.1 Extreme Specifications-Based Design (Global and Local Environments) 160

7.4.2 Standards-Based Profiles   161

7.4.3 Combined Load Conditions 161

7.4.4 Change in Magnitude and Rate of Change of Magnitude  165

7.5 Methods for Estimating Life-Cycle Loads 165

7.5.1 Market Studies and Standards Based Profiles as Sources of Data 165

7.5.2 In Situ Monitoring of Load Conditions    166

7.5.3 Field Trial Records, Service Records, and Failure Records    166

7.5.4 Data on Load Histories of Similar Parts, Assemblies, or Products 166

7.6 Summary   166

Problems    167

8 Reliability Capability 169

8.1 Capability Maturity Models   169

8.2 Key Reliability Practices 170

8.2.1 Reliability Requirements and Planning 170

8.2.2 Training and Development 171

8.2.3 Reliability Analysis    172

8.2.4 Reliability Testing 172

8.2.5 Supply-Chain Management  173

8.2.6 Failure Data Tracking and Analysis 173

8.2.7 Verification and Validation 174

8.2.8 Reliability Improvement  174

8.3 Summary   175

Problems    175

9 Parts Selection and Management 177

9.1 Part Assessment Process 177

9.1.1 Performance Assessment   178

9.1.2 Quality Assessment   179

9.1.3 Process Capability Index 179

9.1.4 Average Outgoing Quality 182

9.1.5 Reliability Assessment  182

9.1.6 Assembly Assessment   185

9.2 Parts Management 185

9.2.1 Supply Chain Management  185

9.2.2 Part Change Management 186

9.2.3 Industry Change Control Policies 187

9.3 Risk Management 188

9.4 Summary   190

Problems    191

10 Failure Modes, Mechanisms, and Effects Analysis 193

10.1 Development of FMMEA 193

10.2 Failure Modes, Mechanisms, and Effects Analysis    195

10.2.1 System Defi nition, Elements, and Functions  195

10.2.2 Potential Failure Modes  196

10.2.3 Potential Failure Causes  197

10.2.4 Potential Failure Mechanisms 197

10.2.5 Failure Models 197

10.2.6 Life-Cycle Profile    198

10.2.7 Failure Mechanism Prioritization 198

10.2.8 Documentation 200

10.3 Case Study   201

10.4 Summary   205

Problems    206

11 Probabilistic Design for Reliability and the Factor of Safety  207

11.1 Design for Reliability 207

11.2 Design of a Tension Element    208

11.3 Reliability Models for Probabilistic Design 209

11.4 Example of Probabilistic Design and Design for a Reliability Target 211

11.5 Relationship between Reliability, Factor of Safety, and Variability 212

11.6 Functions of Random Variables  215

11.7 Steps for Probabilistic Design   219

11.8 Summary   219

Problems    220

12 Derating and Uprating   223

12.1 Part Ratings   223

12.1.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings 224

12.1.2 Recommended Operating Conditions 224

12.1.3 Factors Used to Determine Ratings 225

12.2 Derating    225

12.2.1 How Is Derating Practiced?  225

12.2.2 Limitations of the Derating Methodology   231

12.2.3 How to Determine These Limits 238

12.3 Uprating    239

12.3.1 Parts Selection and Management Process    241

12.3.2 Assessment for Uprateability 241

12.3.3 Methods of Uprating   242

12.3.4 Continued Assurance   245

12.4 Summary   245

Problems    246

13 Reliability Estimation Techniques 247

13.1 Tests during the Product Life Cycle  247

13.1.1 Concept Design and Prototype 247

13.1.2 Performance Validation to Design Specification 248

13.1.3 Design Maturity Validation  248

13.1.4 Design and Manufacturing Process Validation  248

13.1.5 Preproduction Low Volume Manufacturing   248

13.1.6 High Volume Production   249

13.1.7 Feedback from Field Data 249

13.2 Reliability Estimation 249

13.3 Product Qualifi cation and Testing   250

13.3.1 Input to PoF Qualifi cation Methodology    250

13.3.2 Accelerated Stress Test Planning and Development 255

13.3.3 Specimen Characterization 257

13.3.4 Accelerated Life Tests   259

13.3.5 Virtual Testing 260

13.3.6 Virtual Qualification 261

13.3.7 Output  262

13.4 Case Study: System-in-Package Drop Test Qualifi cation 263

13.4.1 Step 1: Accelerated Test Planning and Development 263

13.4.2 Step 2: Specimen Characterization 265

13.4.3 Step 3: Accelerated Life Testing 266

13.4.4 Step 4: Virtual Testing    270

13.4.5 Global FEA 271

13.4.6 Strain Distributions Due to Modal Contributions 272

13.4.7 Acceleration Curves 273

13.4.8 Local FEA 273

13.4.9 Step 5: Virtual Qualification 274

13.4.10 PoF Acceleration Curves   275

13.4.11 Summary of the Methodology for Qualification 276

13.5 Basic Statistical Concepts    276

13.5.1 Confidence Interval   277

13.5.2 Interpretation of the Confidence Level 277

13.5.3 Relationship between Confidence Interval and Sample Size  279

13.6 Confi dence Interval for Normal Distribution 279

13.6.1 Unknown Mean with a Known Variance for Normal Distribution    279

13.6.2 Unknown Mean with an Unknown Variance for Normal Distribution    280

13.6.3 Differences in Two Population Means with Variances Known 281

13.7 Confidence Intervals for Proportions 282

13.8 Reliability Estimation and Confidence Limits for Success–Failure Testing 283

13.8.1 Success Testing 286

13.9 Reliability Estimation and Confidence Limits for Exponential Distribution 287

13.10 Summary   292

Problems    292

14 Process Control and Process Capability 295

14.1 Process Control System 295

14.1.1 Control Charts: Recognizing Sources of Variation  297

14.1.2 Sources of Variation297

14.1.3 Use of Control Charts for Problem Identification 297

14.2 Control Charts  299

14.2.1 Control Charts for Variables 306

14.2.2 X-Bar and R Charts 306

14.2.3 Moving Range Chart Example 08

14.2.4 X-Bar and S Charts 311

14.2.5 Control Charts for Attributes 312

14.2.6 p Chart and np Chart   312

14.2.7 np Chart Example 313

14.2.8 c Chart and u Chart 314

14.2.9 c Chart Example 315

14.3 Benefi ts of Control Charts 316

14.4 Average Outgoing Quality 317

14.4.1 Process Capability Studies 318

14.5 Advanced Control Charts 323

14.5.1 Cumulative Sum Control Charts323

14.5.2 Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Charts   324

14.5.3 Other Advanced Control Charts 325

14.6 Summary   325

Problems    326

15 Product Screening and Burn-In Strategies   331

15.1 Burn-In Data Observations    332

15.2 Discussion of Burn-In Data   333

15.3 Higher Field Reliability without Screening 334

15.4 Best Practices  335

15.5 Summary   336

Problems    337

16 Analyzing Product Failures and Root Causes   339

16.1 Root-Cause Analysis Processes    341

16.1.1 Preplanning 341

16.1.2 Collecting Data for Analysis and Assessing Immediate Causes  343

16.1.3 Root-Cause Hypothesization 344

16.1.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Evidence    348

16.1.5 Root-Cause Identifi cation and Corrective Actions 348

16.1.6 Assessment of Corrective Actions 350

16.2 No-Fault-Found 351

16.2.1 An Approach to Assess NFF 353

16.2.2 Common Mode Failure  355

16.2.3 Concept of Common Mode Failure 356

16.2.4 Modeling and Analysis for Dependencies for Reliability Analysis    360

16.2.5 Common Mode Failure Root Causes 362

16.2.6 Common Mode Failure Analysis 364

16.2.7 Common Mode Failure Occurrence and Impact Reduction  366

16.3 Summary   373

Problems    374

17 System Reliability Modeling   375

17.1 Reliability Block Diagram 375

17.2 Series System  376

17.3 Products with Redundancy    381

17.3.1 Active Redundancy   381

17.3.2 Standby Systems 385

17.3.3 Standby Systems with Imperfect Switching  387

17.3.4 Shared Load Parallel Models 390

17.3.5 (k, n) Systems 391

17.3.6 Limits of Redundancy    393

17.4 Complex System Reliability    393

17.4.1 Complete Enumeration Method 393

17.4.2 Conditional Probability Method 395

17.4.3 Concept of Coherent Structures 396

17.5 Summary   401

Problems    402

18 Health Monitoring and Prognostics 409

18.1 Conceptual Model for Prognostics 410

18.2 Reliability and Prognostics 412

18.3 PHM for Electronics 414

18.4 PHM Concepts and Methods   417

18.4.1 Fuses and Canaries   418

18.5 Monitoring and Reasoning of Failure Precursors    420

18.5.1 Monitoring Environmental and Usage Profiles for Damage Modeling    424

18.6 Implementation of PHM in a System of Systems    429

18.7 Summary   431

Problems    431

19 Warranty Analysis 433

19.1 Product Warranties 434

19.2 Warranty Return Information   435

19.3 Warranty Policies 436

19.4 Warranty and Reliability 437

19.5 Warranty Cost Analysis 439

19.5.1 Elements of Warranty Cost Models 440

19.5.2 Failure Distributions    440

19.5.3 Cost Modeling Calculation  440

19.5.4 Modeling Assumptions and Notation 441

19.5.5 Cost Models Examples    442

19.5.6 Information Needs    444

19.5.7 Other Cost Models    446

19.6 Warranty and Reliability Management 448

19.7 Summary   449

Problems    449

Appendix A: Some Useful Integrals  451

Appendix B: Table for Gamma Function 453

Appendix C: Table for Cumulative Standard Normal Distribution  455

Appendix D: Values for the Percentage Points ta,? of the t-Distribution  457

Appendix E: Percentage Points ?2a ,? of the Chi-Square Distribution  461

Appendix F: Percentage Points for the F-Distribution  467

Bibliography   473

Index 487

KAILASH KAPUR, PHD, is a Professor of Industrial & Systems Engineering at the University of Washington, where he was also the Director from 1993 to 1999. Dr. Kapur has worked with General Motors Research Laboratories as a senior research engineer, Ford Motor Company as a visiting scholar, and the U.S. Army, Tank-Automotive Command as a reliability engineer. He is a Fellow of ASQ and IIE, and a registered professional engineer.

MICHAEL PECHT, PHD, is the founder of CALCE (Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering) at the University of Maryland, which is funded by over 150 of the world’s leading electronics companies. He is also a Chair Professor in Mechanical Engineering and a Professor in Applied Mathematics at the University of Maryland. He consults for twenty-two major international electronics companies.

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