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Ozone in Food Processing - Product Image

Ozone in Food Processing

  • ID: 2177190
  • March 2012
  • 312 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

This book is the first to bring together essential information on the application of ozone in food processing, providing an insight into the current state-of-the-art and reviewing established and emerging applications in food processing, preservation and waste management.

The chemical and physical properties of ozone are described, along with its microbial inactivation mechanisms. The various methods of ozone production are compared, including their economic and technical aspects. Several chapters are dedicated to the major food processing applications: fruit and vegetables, grains, meat, seafood and food hydrocolloids, and the effects on nutritional and quality parameters will be reviewed throughout. Further chapters examine the role of ozone in water treatment, in food waste treatment and in deactivating pesticide residues. The international regulatory and legislative picture is addressed, as are the health and safety implications of ozone processing and possible future trends.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Contributors xi

1 Status and Trends of Ozone in Food Processing 1
Colm O’Donnell, B.K. Tiwari, P.J. Cullen and Rip G. Rice

1.1 Why ozone? 1

1.2 Drivers of ozone in the food industry 1

1.2.1 Regulation 1

1.2.2 Surface cleaning and disinfection 2

1.2.3 Food safety and shelf life extension 2

1.2.4 Nutrient and sensory aspects 3

1.2.5 Consumer and processor acceptability 3

1.2.6 Technology advances 3

1.2.7 Environmental impact 4

1.3 The hurdle concept 4

1.4 Challenges 5

1.5 Objective 5

References 5

2 Regulatory and Legislative Issues 7
B.K. Tiwari and Rip G. Rice

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 History of ozone application and regulation 9

2.3 Ozone regulation 9

2.3.1 Overview of US regulations 9

2.3.2 Overview of European regulations 11

2.3.3 Overview of Canadian regulations 13

2.3.4 Overview of Australian and New Zealand regulations 15

2.3.5 Overview of Japanese regulations 15

2.4 Global harmonisation of food safety regulations 16

References 16

3 Chemical and Physical Properties of Ozone 19
Annel K. Greene, Zeynep B. Güzel-Seydim and Atif Can Seydim

3.1 Introduction 19

3.2 The molecular structure of ozone 19

3.3 The chemical and physical properties of ozone 20

3.3.1 The chemical mechanisms of ozonation 22

3.3.2 Ozone reaction pathways in water 22

3.4 Ozone action on macromolecules 25

3.5 Mechanisms of microbial inactivation 26

3.6 Ozone reactions against virus 28

3.7 Ozone reaction on biofilms 29

Acknowledgments 29

References 29

4 Generation and Control of Ozone 33
Cameron Tapp and Rip G. Rice

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 Ozone generation 33

4.2.1 Ozone generation by corona discharge (CD) 34

4.2.2 Ultraviolet (UV) (photochemical) ozone generation 36

4.3 Feed gas preparation systems 36

4.3.1 Need for feed gas treatment 36

4.3.2 Air preparation systems 37

4.3.3 Oxygen feed gas systems 39

4.4 Solubility of ozone in water 41

4.5 Contacting ozone with water: physical means of transferring ozone into water 44

4.5.1 Venturi injection method 44

4.5.2 Fine bubble diffuser method 46

4.6 Measuring and monitoring ozone in water 46

4.6.1 Colourimetric method 47

4.6.2 Electronic method – for dissolved ozone 47

4.6.3 Electronic method – for ORP 48

4.7 Measuring and monitoring ozone in air 48

4.7.1 Ozone measurement equipment for food processing plant air 49

4.8 Ozonation equipment for food storage rooms 50

4.9 Ozone generator output control 50

4.10 Some recent novel applications for ozone generation in food processing plants 51

4.11 Helpful calculations 53

4.11.1 Gallons per minute 53

4.11.2 Metric equivalent 53

References 53

5 Ozone in Fruit and Vegetable Processing 55
B.K. Tiwari and K. Muthukumarappan

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 Applications in fruit and vegetable processing 56

5.2.1 Surface decontamination 56

5.2.2 Storage in ozone-rich atmospheres 61

5.2.3 Ozone in fruit and vegetable juice processing 65

5.3 Efficacy of ozone 65

5.4 Synergistic effects with ozone 68

5.5 Effect of ozone on product quality and nutrition 69

5.5.1 Chemical attributes 69

5.5.2 Visual quality 70

5.5.3 Texture 72

5.5.4 Sensory quality 73

5.6 Conclusion 74

References 74

6 Ozone in Grain Processing 81
V. Lullien-Pellerin

6.1 Introduction 81

6.2 Ozone application in grain storage and effects on grain components 82

6.2.1 Insect control 82

6.2.2 Microorganism control 84

6.2.3 Reduction of toxic chemical levels 86

6.2.4 Effects of ozone on grain components, metabolism and physiological status 88

6.3 Effects of ozone on grain processing, flour and product quality 90

6.4 Industrial applications and scale-up 93

6.5 Conclusions 95

Acknowledgments 96

References 96

7 Ozonation of Hydrocolloids 103
Joan M. King, Hee-Jung An, Seung-wook Seo and Alfredo Prudente

7.1 Introduction 103

7.2 Application of ozone in hydrocolloid processing 104

7.2.1 Starch 104

7.2.2 Chitosan 105

7.2.3 Gelatin 107

7.2.4 Other hydrocolloids 108

7.3 Effects of ozone on the physiochemical properties of hydrocolloids 108

7.3.1 Structural composition 108

7.3.2 Swelling power 109

7.3.3 Molecular weight 110

7.3.4 Viscosity 111

7.3.5 Thermal properties 115

7.4 Mechanism and structural effects of ozone action on hydrocolloids 115

References 118

8 Ozone in Meat Processing 123
Fred W. Pohlman

8.1 Introduction 123

8.2 Application of ozone in meat processing 125

8.2.1 Surface decontamination of red meat 125

8.2.2 Surface decontamination of poultry 128

8.2.3 Other meat applications 129

8.3 Effect on meat quality 130

References 133

9 Ozone in Seafood Processing 137
Shigezou Naito

9.1 Introduction 137

9.2 Application of ozone in fish and storage of processed seafood products 138

9.2.1 Fresh fish and seafood 138

9.2.2 Dried and smoked products 145

9.3 Application of ozone in seafood plant sanitation 149

9.4 Effects of ozone on microbial safety 153

9.5 Effects of ozone on fish and seafood quality and shelf life 155

9.6 Current status and future trends for ozone and seafood 157

References 160

10 Ozone Sanitisation in the Food Industry 163
P.J. Cullen and Tomás Norton

10.1 Introduction 163

10.2 Ozone as a sanitising agent 165

10.3 Health and safety issues 168

10.4 Using ozone in industrial cleaning procedures 168

10.5 Ozone applications in food processing 170

10.5.1 Dairy industry 170

10.5.2 Wine industry 172

10.5.3 Brewing industry 173

References 174

11 Ozone for Water Treatment and its Potential for Process Water Reuse in the Food Industry 177
Tomás Norton and Paula Misiewicz

Nomenclature 177

11.1 Introduction 177

11.2 Water in the food industry 179

11.2.1 Fresh produce processing 180

11.2.2 Dairy processing 181

11.2.3 Meat and poultry processing 185

11.3 Ozonation as a water treatment process 185

11.4 The kinetics of ozonation 187

11.4.1 The kinetics of mass transfer 188

11.4.2 Determining the chemical reaction kinetics 189

11.4.3 Hydrodynamics 191

11.4.4 Applications of hydrodynamic modelling to investigate ozone water treatment 193

11.5 Conclusion 195

References 195

12 Ozone for Food Waste and Odour Treatment 201
Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis

12.1 Introduction 201

12.2 Application of ozonation to waste treatment 205

12.2.1 Wastewater of plant origin 205

12.2.2 Wastewater of animal origin 209

12.3 Application of ozonation to odour removal 211

12.3.1 Odours originating from food industry processes 213

12.3.2 Odours originating from agricultural operations 213

12.4 Conclusions 216

References 216

13 Efficacy of Ozone on Pesticide Residues 223
Gilbert Y.S. Chan and J.G. Wu

13.1 Introduction 223

13.2 Types of pesticides 225

13.3 Fates of pesticides 225

13.3.1 Degradation processes of pesticides 225

13.3.2 Ozonation of pesticides 227

13.4 Degradation mechanisms 227

13.4.1 Kinetics 227

13.4.2 Intermediates and oxidation products 229

13.5 Ozone application for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables 231

13.6 Current status and opportunities 234

13.6.1 Ozone concentrations 234

13.6.2 Physical nature of plants affects degradation efficacy 235

13.6.3 Future trends 235

References 236

14 Modelling Approaches for Ozone Processing 241
Vasilis P. Valdramidis, P.J. Cullen and B.K. Tiwari

Nomenclature 241

14.1 Introduction 242

14.2 Modelling approaches for microbial inactivation 242

14.3 Chemical reaction kinetics 250

14.4 Modelling ozonation processes 255

14.4.1 Modelling ozone bubble columns 255

14.4.2 Overall mass transfer coefficient 257

14.5 Conclusions 259

References 259

15 Health and Safety Aspects of Ozone Processing 265
Rip G. Rice

15.1 Introduction 265

15.2 Points of application of ozone during food processing 266

15.2.1 Aqueous phase ozone applications 266

15.2.2 Gas phase ozone applications 267

15.3 Health and safety issues with ozone for food plant workers 267

15.3.1 Ozone exposure regulations 267

15.3.2 Potential fire hazards from high-purity oxygen use 271

15.3.3 Safety history of ozone in commercial/industrial applications 272

15.4 Avoiding worker exposure to ozone in food processing plants 273

15.4.1 General considerations 273

15.4.2 Specific plant safety measures 274

15.4.3 Controlling off-gas ozone at Fresher Than Fresh fish processing/packaging plant 275

15.4.4 Third-party evaluation of aqueous ozone spray wash equipment 277

15.5 Safety of foods processed with ozone 280

15.5.1 Nutrient impacts of ozone contact with foods 280

15.5.2 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on vitamin contents 281

15.5.3 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on protein contents 282

15.5.4 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on lipid contents 283

15.5.5 Toxicology aspects of ozone processing of foods 283

15.6 Conclusions 285

Acknowledgments 286

References 286

Index 289

A colour plate section falls between pages 180 and 181

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Professor Colm O’Donnell, School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland.

Dr B.K. Tiwari, Department of Food and Tourism, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Dr P.J. Cullen, School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Dr Rip G. Rice, RICE International Consulting Enterprises, Sandy Spring, Maryland, USA.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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