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Crystallization. Basic Concepts and Industrial Applications

  • ID: 2180051
  • February 2013
  • 360 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Crystallization is a natural occurring process but also a process abundantly used in the industry. Crystallization can occur from a solution, from the melt or via deposition of material from the gas phase (desublimation). Crystals distinguish themself from liquids, gases and amorphous substances by the long–range order of its building blocks that entail the crystals to be formed of well–defined faces, and give rise to a large number of properties of the solid.

Crystallization is used at some stage in nearly all process industries as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. Crystallization is practiced on all scales: from the isolation of the first milligrams of a newly synthesized substance in the research laboratory to isolating products on the mulit–million tonne scale in industry. The book describes the breadth of crystallization operations, from isolation from a reaction broth to purification and finally to tailoring product properties.

In the first section of the book, the basic mechanisms – nucleation, growth, attrition and agglomeration are introduced. It ensures an understanding of supersaturation, the driving READ MORE >

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CRYSTALLIZATION: INTRODUCTION

MECHANISMS OF CRYSTALLIZATION

Crystal Lattice

Nucleation of Crystals

Growth and Growth Rate of Crystals

SOLUBILITY AND SOLUTION EQUILIBRIA IN CRYSTALLIZATION

Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams: General Issues

Melt Phase Diagrams

Solution Equilibria

AGGLOMERATION DURING CRYSTALLIZATION

Mechanisms and Kinetics of Agglomeration

Parameters Influencing Agglomeration

Agglomeration during Crystallization

Mechanical Properties of Agglomerates

POLYMORPHISM OF CRYSTALLINE SYSTEMS

Introduction and Definitions

Occurrence and Properties of Polymorphs and Solvates

Thermodynamics of Polymorphs of Solid–State Forms

Thermodynamics of Hydrates

Experimental Techniques to Elucidate Thermodynamics

Formation of Various Polymorphs and Solid–State Forms–Polymorph Screens

Selection of Optimal Form for Development

THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES AND IMPURITIES ON CRYSTALLIZATION

Influence of Additives and Impurities on Crystallization

Influence of Impurities: Modeling

Tailor–Made Additives

Modeling the Influence of Solvents

PURIFICATION BY CRYSTALLIZATION

Introduction

Mechanisms of Impurity Incorporation and Purification

CHARACTERIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE PRODUCTS

Introduction

Characterization of Intrinsic Properties of a Solid

Characterization of Particle Shape and Size

Powder Flow Properties

In–Process Characterization

BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTION

Generation of Supersaturation in a Crystallizer

Mass and Population Balance for Growth from Suspension

Operation of a Continuous Crystallizer: Basics

Operation of a Batch Crystallizer: Basics

DEVELOPMENT OF BATCH CRYSTALLIZATIONS

Setting Goals

Crystallization of Organic Moieties

Generation of Supersaturation in Batch Crystallizations

Initiation of Crystallization –

Nucleation Phase

Seeded Batch Crystallizations

Crystallization Period

Scale–Up Considerations

Manipulating Particle Shape

CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZATION

Concept and Design of Continuous Crystallizers

Various Continuous Crystallizers

Periphery

Special Features of the Process

Adjustment of Suspension Densities

PRECIPITATION

Precipitation from Solution by Mixing Two Streams

Semi–Batch Precipitations

Model of Mixing during Precipitation

Precipitations Using Supercritical Fluids

Crystal Issues

Particle Size as a Function of Operating Conditions

MIXING IN CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES

Mixing in Batch and Continuous Crystallization Processes

Basic Mixing Tasks – Mixing Tasks in Crystallization

Impellers and Agitation Systems

Power Consumption of an Impeller System [2]

Blending

Suspending

Scale–Up of a Crystallization Process

DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES

Transfer of Suspension and Filter Cake

Solid?Liquid Separation

Drying

MELT CRYSTALLIZATION

Characteristics of Melt Crystallization

Processes of Melt Crystallization

Postcrystallization Treatments

Laboratory Techniques

EXAMPLES OF REALIZED CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES

Choosing the Drain Point in Process Design

Example Crop Crystallization for Organic Compounds

Example Crystallization of Table Salt

Results

DESIGN EXAMPLES OF MELT CRYSTALLIZATION

Concepts of Melt Crystallization

Outlook

INDEX

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Wolfgang Beckmann is Senior Expert at Bayer Technologies. Dr. Beckmann studied Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry in Germany and the US. He spent one year as Postdoctoral Fellow in Marseille. Wolfgang Beckmann has spent the last 20 years working at Bayer and prior to this at Schering, developing crystallization processes for pharmaceutical compounds. He has authored several chapters in books and approximately 50 publications in reviewed journals.

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