- Language: English
- Published: July 2012
- Region: Canada
Megaproject Management. Lessons on Risk and Project Management from the Big Dig
- Published: July 2013
- Region: Global
- 496 Pages
- John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Project management lessons learned on the Big Dig, America's biggest megaproject, by a core member responsible for its daily operations
In Megaproject Management, a central member of the Big Dig team reveals the numerous risks, challenges, and accomplishments of the most complex urban infrastructure project in the history of the United States. Drawing on personal experience and interviews with project engineers, executive oversight commission officials, and core managers, the author, a former deputy counsel and risk manager for the Big Dig, develops new insights as she describes the realities of day-to-day management of the project from a project manager's perspective.
The book incorporates both theory and practice and is therefore highly recommended to policymakers, academics, and project management practitioners. Focusing on lessons learned, this insightful coursebook presents the Big Dig as a massive case study in the management of risk, cost, and schedule, particularly the interrelation of technical, legal, political, and social factors. It provides an analysis of the difficulties in managing megaprojects during each phase and over the life span of the project, while delivering useful lessons on why projects go wrong and what can be done to prevent project failure. It also offers new ideas to enhance project management performance and innovation in our global society.
This unique guide:
- Defines megaproject characteristics and frameworks
- Reviews the Big Dig's history, stakeholders, and governance
- Examines the project's management scope, scheduling, and cost management?including project delays and cost overruns
- Analyzes the Big Dig's risk management and quality management
- Reveals how to build a sustainable project through integration and change introduction SHOW LESS READ MORE >
Author's Perspectives xiii Acknowledgments xv Introduction to This Book xvii Overview xvii Key Concepts and Objectives xviii Transparent Frameworks xix Shared Values xx Collaborative Partnerships xxi Pedagogy xxi Course Structure xxii Overview of Course Chapters xxiii References xxvi 1 Introduction to Megaprojects and the Big Dig 1 Introduction 1 Why Study Megaprojects? 2 Projects, Programs, and Portfolios 7 Characteristics of Megaprojects 12 Megaproject Framework 25 Lessons Learned 30 Summary 30 Ethical Considerations 30 Discussion Questions 31 References 32 2 History and Financing of the Big Dig 38 Introduction 38 The Vision 38 Innovation and Problem Solving 42 The Most Important Benefits of the Big Dig 49 The Financing of Megaprojects 54 Public–Private Partnerships 55 Major Sources of Big Dig Funding 67 Big Dig Revenues by Source, Dollar Amount, and Percentage of Total Funding 70 The Real Cost of a Megaproject 70 Lessons Learned 72 Summary 73 Ethical Considerations 74 Discussion Questions 75 References 75 3 Stakeholders 79 Introduction 79 Defining the Stakeholder 80 Stakeholder Principles 81 Project Stakeholder Framework 82 Stakeholder Management on the Big Dig 87 Conflicts of Interest among Internal Stakeholders 90 Multiple Roles of Project Owners and Sponsors 91 Multiple Roles of the Management Consultant (Consultant) 93 Stakeholder Concerns and Mitigation Tools 94 Corporate Responsibility Initiatives 97 Stakeholder Participation 97 Key Lessons Learned about Stakeholder Management on the Big Dig 101 Summary 106 Ethical Considerations 106 Discussion Questions 106 References 107 4 Governance 110 Introduction 110 What Is Governance? 111 Project Governance 113 Multiple Governance Structures as a Dynamic Regime 115 Developing a Megaproject Governance Framework 117 Projects as Temporary Institutional Structures 117 Governance Framework Development: Five–Step Process 118 Governance as Decision Making 130 The Challenges of Implementing Project Governance Frameworks 137 Lessons from Practice: The United Kingdom’s T5 New Product Delivery Project 142 Lessons Learned 143 Summary 146 Ethical Considerations 146 Discussion Questions 147 References 148 5 Megaproject Scope Management 152 Introduction 152 1. Scope and the "Triple Constraint" 153 2. Defining the Scope on a Megaproject 154 3. The Project Organization: Scope Controls Program 157 4. The Technical Scope Statement (TSS) 162 5. Project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 162 6. Scope Evolution and Scope Creep 166 7. The Specification Management Plan 169 8. Scope Change and Verification 173 9. The Top Ten Scope Control Tools 174 Lessons Learned 179 Summary 180 Ethical Considerations 181 Discussion Questions 181 References 182 6 Schedule 185 Introduction 185 Schedule–Driven projects 185 The Big Dig’s Timeline: A Long and Winding Road 186 Major Phases of Project Delivery 191 Perceptions of Stakeholders on Approaches to Reduce Highway Project Completion Time 193 Impact of Design Development on Schedule 194 Schedule and Cost Integration 196 Project Delays 202 The Big Dig Lessons from Practice: Calculating Delay Costs–Bottom Up 205 Incentives as Tactics for Keeping on Schedule 206 Lessons Learned 209 Summary 210 Ethical Considerations 210 Discussion Questions 211 References 211 7 Cost History 214 Introduction 214 Megaproject Cost Estimation Research 214 Cost Growth History on the Big Dig 216 The Big Dig Cost Construction Summary 229 Lessons Learned 229 Summary 231 Ethical Considerations 232 Discussion Questions 232 References 232 8 Cost Management 235 Introduction 235 1. The Project Budget Process and Cost History 236 2. Cost Centers 236 3. Cost Management Team 236 4. Data Resources 240 5. Cost Control Tools 241 6. Strategies to Address Cost Escalation 257 Lessons Learned 258 Summary 260 Ethical Considerations 260 Discussion Questions 261 References 262 9 Megaprojects and Megarisk 264 The Role of Risk Management on Megaprojects 264 Risk Management Framework: A Shared Vision of Risk 266 The Development of a Risk Model 267 The Broad Context of Risk for the Big Dig 276 Risk Management Organization 278 Risk Strategy 280 Lessons Learned 308 Summary 310 Ethical Considerations 311 Discussion Questions 311 References 313 10 Quality Management 316 Introduction 316 What Is Quality? 317 Elements of Quality Management 319 Continuous Improvement 324 Quality Programs at the Big Dig 325 Lessons Learned 341 Summary 344 Ethical Considerations 344 Discussion Questions 344 References 346 11 Building a Sustainable Project through Integration and Change 349 Introduction 349 Project Integration versus Collaboration 350 The Relationship between Project Integration and Change Management 351 Integration of Project Delivery 354 Integrated Project Organization 357 Innovative Process and Program Integration and Sustainability at the Big Dig 358 Structuring the Change Process 382 Lessons Learned 384 Summary 386 Ethical Considerations 386 Discussion Questions 386 References 387 12 Leadership 391 Introduction 391 What Is Leadership? 392 Characteristics of Effective Leadership 394 Leadership Styles 395 Leadership for the Five Stages of Program Management 398 Ten Important Lessons on Leadership from the Big Dig 399 Summary 410 Ethical Considerations 410 Discussion Questions 411 References 412 Appendix 415 Glossary 419 Abbreviations and Acronyms 453 Index
VIRGINIA A. GREIMAN is Professor of Megaproject Management and Inter- national Development and Project Finance at Boston University. She is the former deputy counsel and risk manager for the Big Dig (from 1996 to 2005), and served as a core manager on the twelve-member project executive team responsible for the daily operations of the project. She had an opportunity to participate firsthand in addressing the project's challenges and fulfilling its goals during its peak years of construction.