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Research In Psychology. Methods and Design. 6th Edition - Product Image

Research In Psychology. Methods and Design. 6th Edition

  • Published: December 2009
  • 624 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The sixth edition provides psychologists with insight into the essential nature of experimental psychology and a solid grounding in its methods and practices. It has been updated to help them develop research ideas, hypotheses, and design studies. In addition, they’ll find out how to carry them out, analyze results and draw reasoned conclusions from them. The chapters have also been updated with the important new developments in research methodologies and fascinating examples from recent studies to provide psychologists with the most up-to-date information in the field.

Chapter 1—Scientific Thinking in Psychology.

Why Take This Course?

Ways of Knowing.

Authority.

Use of Reason.

Experience.

The Ways of Knowing and Science.

Science as a Way of Knowing.

Science Assumes Determinism.

Science Makes Systematic Observations.

Science Produces Public Knowledge.

Box 1.1 ORIGINS—A Taste of Introspection.

Science Produces Data-Based Conclusions.

Science Produces Tentative Conclusions.

Science Asks Answerable Questions.

Science Develops Theories that Can Be Disproven.

Psychological Science and Pseudoscience.

Recognizing Pseudoscience.

Associates with True Science.

Box 1.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Disproving Phrenology.

Relies on Anecdotal Evidence.

Sidesteps Disproof.

Reduces Complex Phenomena to Overly Simplistic Concepts.

The Goals of Research in Psychology.

Description.

Prediction.

Explanation.

Application.

A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part I).

Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002).

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990).

Chapter 2—Ethics in Psychological Research.

Box 2.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—Infants at Risk.

Developing the APA Code of Ethics.

Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans.

Judging Benefits and Costs: The IRB.

Informed Consent and Deception in Research.

Box 2.2 ETHICS—Historical Problems with Informed Consent.

Informed Consent and Special Populations.

Treating Participants Well.

Research Ethics and the Internet.

Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animals.

The Issue of Animal Rights.

Box 2.3 ORIGINS—Antivivisection and the APA.

Using Animals in Psychological Research.

The APA Code for Animal Research.

Justifying the Study.

Caring for the Animals.

Using Animals for Educational Purposes.

Scientific Fraud.

Data Falsification.

Chapter 3—Developing Ideas for Research in Psychology.

Varieties of Psychological Research.

Basic versus Applied Research.

The Setting: Laboratory versus Field Research.

Box 3.1 ETHICS—A Matter of Privacy.

Quantitative versus Qualitative Research.

Asking Empirical Questions.

Operational Definitions.

Developing Research from Observations of Behavior and Serendipity.

Box 3.2 ORIGINS—Serendipity and Edge Detectors.

Developing Research from Theory.

The Nature of Theory.

The Relationship between Theory and Data.

Attributes of Good Theories.

Falsification.

Box 3.3 CLASSIC STUDIES —Falsification and Der Kluge Hans.

Parsimony.

Misunderstandings About Theories.

Developing Research from Other Research.

Research Teams and the "What’s Next?" Question.

Replication and Extension.

Creative Thinking in Science.

Reviewing the Literature.

Computerized Database Searches.

Search Tips.

Chapter 4—Measurement and Data Analysis.

What to Measure—Varieties of Behavior.

Developing Measures from Constructs.

Box 4.1 ORIGINS—Reaction Time: From Mental Chronometry to Mental Rotation.

Evaluating Measures.

Reliability.

Validity.

Reliability and Validity.

Scales of Measurement.

Nominal Scales.

Ordinal Scales.

Interval Scales.

Box 4.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Measuring Somatotypes on an Interval Scale: Hoping for 4-4-4.

Ratio Scales.

Statistical Analysis.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.

Descriptive Statistics.

Box 4.3 ETHICS—Lying with Statistics.

Inferential Statistics.

Hypothesis Testing.

Type I and Type II Errors.

Inferential Analysis.

Interpreting Failures to Reject H0.

Going Beyond Hypothesis Testing.

Effect Size.

Confidence Intervals.

Power.

Chapter 5—Introduction to Experimental Research.

Essential Features of Experimental Research.

Box 5.1 ORIGINS—John Stuart Mill and the Rules of Inductive Logic.

Establishing Independent Variables.

Varieties of Independent Variables.

Control Groups.

Controlling Extraneous Variables.

Measuring Dependent Variables.

Manipulated versus Subject Variables.

Drawing Conclusions When Using Subject Variables.

Box 5.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Bobo Dolls and Aggression.

The Validity of Experimental Research.

Statistical Conclusion Validity.

Construct Validity.

External Validity.

Other Populations.

Box 5.3 ETHICS—Recruiting Participants: Everyone’s in the Pool.

Other Environments.

Other Times.

A Note of Caution.

Internal Validity.

Threats to Internal Validity.

Studies Extending Over a Period of Time.

History and Maturation.

Regression.

Testing and Instrumentation.

Participant Problems.

Subject Selection Effects.

Attrition.

Chapter 6—Control Problems in Experimental Research.

Between-Subjects Designs.

The Problem of Creating Equivalent Groups.

Random Assignment.

Matching.

Within-Subjects Designs.

The Problem of Controlling Sequence Effects.

Testing Once per Condition.

Complete Counterbalancing.

Partial Counterbalancing.

Testing More Than Once per Condition.

Reverse Counterbalancing.

Block Randomization.

Control Problems in Developmental Research.

Box 6.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Record for Repeated Measures.

Problems with Biasing.

Experimenter Bias.

Controlling for Experimenter Bias.

Participant Bias.

Box 6.2 ORIGINS—Productivity at Western Electric..

Controlling for Participant Bias.

Box 6.3 ETHICS—Research Participants Have Responsibilities Too.

Chapter 7—Experimental Design I: Single-Factor Designs.

Single Factor—Two Levels.

Between-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs.

Within-Subjects, Single-Factor Designs.

Box 7.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—Psychology’s Most Widely Replicated Finding?

Analyzing Single-Factor, Two-Level Designs.

Single Factor—More Than Two Levels.

Between-Subjects, Multilevel Designs.

Box 7.2 ORIGINS—Nonlinear Results: The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve.

Within-Subjects, Multilevel Designs.

Presenting the Data.

Types of Graphs.

Analyzing Single-Factor, Multilevel Designs.

Control Group Designs.

Placebo Control Groups.

Waiting List Control Groups.

Box 7.3 ETHICS—Who’s in the Control Group?.

Yoked Control Groups.

Chapter 8—Experimental Design II: Factorial Designs.

Factorial Essentials.

Identifying Factorial Designs.

Outcomes—Main Effects and Interactions.

Main Effects.

Interactions.

Interactions Sometimes Trump Main effects.

Combinations of Main Effects and Interactions.

Box 8.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—To Sleep, Perchance to Recall.

Varieties of Factorial Designs.

Mixed Factorial Designs.

Factorials with Subject and Manipulated Variables: P x E Designs.

Recruiting Participants for Factorial Designs.

Box 8.2 ETHICS—On Being a Competent and Ethical researcher.

Analyzing Factorial Designs.

Box 8.3 ORIGINS—Factorials Down on the Farm.

Chapter 9—Correlational Research.

Psychology’s Two Disciplines.

Box 9.1 ORIGINS—Galton’s Studies of Genius.

Correlation and Regression—The Basics.

Positive and Negative Correlations.

Scatterplots.

Assuming Linearity.

Restricting the Range.

Coefficient of Determination—r2.

Regression Analysis—Making Predictions.

Interpreting Correlations.

Correlations and Causality.

Directionality.

Third Variables.

Caution: Correlational Statistics versus Correlational Research.

Using Correlations.

The Need for Correlational Research.

Varieties of Correlational Research.

Box 9.2 ETHICS—APA Guidelines for Psychological Testing.

Box 9.3 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Achieving Society.

Multivariate Analysis.

Multiple Regression.

Factor Analysis.

Chapter 10—Quasi-Experimental Designs and Applied Research.

Beyond the Laboratory.

Applied Psychology in Historical Context.

Box 10.1 ORIGINS—The Hollingworths, Applied Psychology, and Coca-Cola.

Design Problems in Applied Research.

Quasi-Experimental Designs.

Nonequivalent Control Group Designs.

Outcomes.

Regression and Matching.

Interrupted Time Series Designs.

Outcomes.

Variations on the Basic Time Series Design.

Research Using Archival Data.

Program Evaluation.

Box 10.2 CLASSIC STUDIES—Reforms as Experiments.

Planning for Programs—Needs Analysis.

Monitoring Programs—Formative Evaluation.

Evaluating Outcomes—Summative Evaluation.

Weighing Costs—Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

A Note on Qualitative Analysis.

Box 10.3 ETHICS—Evaluation Research and Ethics.

Chapter 11—Small N Designs.

Research in Psychology Began with Small N.

Box 11.1 ORIGINS—Cats in Puzzle Boxes.

Reasons for Small N Designs.

Misleading Results from Statistical Summaries of Grouped Data.

Practical Problems with Large N Designs.

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

Operant Conditioning.

Applied Behavior Analysis.

Box 11.2 ETHICS—Controlling Human Behavior.

Small N Designs in Applied Behavior Analysis.

Elements of Single-Subject Designs.

Withdrawal Designs.

Multiple Baseline Designs.

Changing Criterion Designs.

Other Designs.

Evaluating Single-Subject Designs.

Case Study Designs.

Box 11.3 CLASSIC STUDIES—The Mind of a Mnemonist.

Evaluating Case Studies.

Chapter 12—Observational and Survey Research Methods.

Observational Research.

Varieties of Observational Research.

Naturalistic Observation.

Participant Observation.

Box 12.1 CLASSIC STUDIES—When Prophecy Fails.

Challenges Facing Observational Methods.

Absence of Control.

Observer Bias.

Participant Reactivity.

Ethics.

Survey Research.

Box 12.2 ORIGINS—Creating the "Questionary"

Probability Sampling.

Random Sampling.

Stratified Sampling.

Cluster Sampling.

Varieties of Survey Methods.

Interviews.

Phone Surveys.

Electronic Surveys.

Written Surveys.

Creating an Effective Survey.

Types of Survey Questions or Statements.

Assessing Memory and Knowledge.

Adding Demographic Information.

A Key Problem: Survey Wording.

Surveys and Ethics.

Box 12.3 ETHICS—Using and Abusing Surveys.

Epilogue.

What I Learned in My Research Methods Course.

A Passion for Research in Psychology (Part II).

Elliot Aronson.

Elizabeth Loftus.

Appendix A—Communicating the Results of Research in Psychology.

Research Reports, APA Style.

General Guidelines.

Writing Style.

Reducing Bias in Language.

Avoiding Plagiarism.

Miscellaneous.

Main Sections of the Lab Report.

Title
Page.

The Manuscript
Page Header/
Page Number.

Running Head.

Title/Author/Affiliation.

Abstract.

Introduction.

APA Citation Format.

Method.

Results.

Reporting the Data: Statistics.

Portraying the Data: Tables and Figures.

Discussion.

References.

Presentations and Posters.

Tips for Presenting a Paper.

Tips for Presenting a Poster.

Applications Exercises.

A Sample Lab Report.

Appendix B—The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association.

Category 8: Research and Publication.

Appendix C—Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Applications Exercises.

Glossary.

References.

Name index.

Subject index.

Summary of Research Examples.

C. James Goodwin

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