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Aquaculture Engineering. 2nd Edition - Product Image

Aquaculture Engineering. 2nd Edition

  • Published: February 2013
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

As aquaculture continues to grow at a rapid pace, understanding the engineering behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all those working in the industry. Aquaculture engineering requires knowledge of the many general aspects of engineering such as material technology, building design and construction, mechanical engineering, and environmental engineering. In this comprehensive book now in its second edition, author Odd-Ivar Lekang introduces these principles and demonstrates how such technical knowledge can be applied to aquaculture systems.

Review of the first edition:

'Fish farmers and other personnel involved in the aquaculture industry, suppliers to the fish farming business and designers and manufacturers will find this book an invaluable resource. The book will be an important addition to the shelves of all libraries in universities and research institutions where aquaculture, agriculture and environmental sciences are studied and taught.'

Aquaculture Europe

'A useful book that, hopefully, will inspire successors that focus more on warm water aquaculture and on large-scale mariculture such as tuna farming.'

Cision

Preface xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Aquaculture engineering 1

1.2 Classification of aquaculture 1

1.3 The farm: technical components in a system 2

1.3.1 Land-based hatchery and juvenile production farm 2

1.3.2 On-growing sea cage farm 4

1.4 Future trends: increased importance of aquaculture engineering 5

1.5 This textbook 6

References 6

2 Water Transport 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Pipe and pipe parts 7

2.2.1 Pipes 7

2.2.2 Valves 11

2.2.3 Pipe parts: fittings 12

2.2.4 Pipe connections: jointing 12

2.2.5 Mooring of pipes 13

2.2.6 Ditches for pipes 14

2.3 Water flow and head loss in channels and pipe systems 15

2.3.1 Water flow 15

2.3.2 Head loss in pipelines 16

2.3.3 Head loss in single parts (fittings) 18

2.4 Pumps 19

2.4.1 Types of pump 19

2.4.2 Some definitions 19

2.4.3 Pumping of water requires energy 22

2.4.4 Centrifugal and propeller pumps 23

2.4.5 Pump performance curves and working point for centrifugal pumps 26

2.4.6 Change of water flow or pressure 28

2.4.7 Regulation of flow from selected pumps 29

References 31

3 Water Quality and Water Treatment: An Introduction 32

3.1 Increased focus on water quality 32

3.2 Inlet water 32

3.3 Outlet water 33

3.4 Water treatment 35

References 36

4 Fish Metabolism, Water Quality and Separation Technology 37

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Fish metabolism 37

4.2.1 Overview of fish metabolism 37

4.2.2 The energy budget 38

4.3 Separation technology 39

4.3.1 What are the impurities in water? 39

4.3.2 Phosphorus removal: an example 41

References 42

5 Adjustment of pH 43

5.1 Introduction 43

5.2 Definitions 43

5.3 Problems with low pH 44

5.4 pH of different water sources 44

5.5 pH adjustment 45

5.6 Examples of methods for pH adjustment 45

5.6.1 Lime 45

5.6.2 Sea water 47

5.6.3 Lye or hydroxides 47

References 48

6 Removal of Particles: Traditional Methods 50

6.1 Introduction 50

6.2 Characterization of the water 51

6.3 Methods for particle removal in fish farming 51

6.3.1 Mechanical filters and microscreens 52

6.3.2 Depth filtration: granular medium filters 55

6.3.3 Settling or gravity filters 58

6.3.4 Integrated treatment systems 60

6.4 Hydraulic loads on filter units 62

6.5 Purification efficiency 62

6.6 Dual drain tank 63

6.7 Local ecological solutions 64

References 64

7 Protein Skimming, Flotation, Coagulation and Flocculation 66

7.1 Introduction 66

7.1.1 Surface tension, cohesion and adhesion 68

7.1.2 Surfactants 70

7.2 Mechanisms for attachment and removal 71

7.2.1 Attachment of particles to rising bubbles by collision, typically in flotation 72

7.2.2 Improving colloid and particle removal rates: pretreatment 73

7.2.3 Attachment of surface-active substances, typically in protein skimmers 78

7.2.4 Particle attachment by nucleation 80

7.3 Bubbles 80

7.3.1 What is a gas bubble? 80

7.3.2 Methods for bubble generation 80

7.3.3 Bubble size 82

7.3.4 Bubble coalescence 83

7.4 Foam 83

7.4.1 What is foam? 83

7.4.2 Foam stability 84

7.4.3 Foam breakers 85

7.5 Introduction of bubbles affects the gas concentration in the water 85

7.6 Use of bubble columns in aquaculture 85

7.7 Performance of protein skimmers and flotation plants in aquaculture 86

7.7.1 What is removed in inlet or effluent aquaculture water with the use of protein skimmers? 86

7.7.2 Factors affecting the efficiency of protein skimming in aquaculture 87

7.7.3 Use of ozone 89

7.7.4 Bubble fractionation 89

7.8 Design and dimensioning of protein skimmers and flotation plants 90

7.8.1 Protein skimmers: principles and design 90

7.8.2 Protein skimmers: dimensioning 92

7.8.3 Flotation plant 92

7.8.4 Important factors affecting design of a DAF plant 93

References 95

8 Membrane Filtration 99

8.1 History and use 99

8.2 What is membrane filtration? 100

8.3 Classification of membrane filters 101

8.4 Flow pattern 103

8.5 Membrane shape/geometry 104

8.6 Membrane construction/morphology 105

8.7 Flow across membranes 106

8.8 Membrane materials 106

8.9 Fouling 107

8.10 Automation 108

8.11 Design and dimensioning of membrane filtration plants 108

8.12 Some examples of results with membranes used in aquaculture 112

References 112

9 Sludge Production, Treatment and Utilization 114

9.1 What is the sludge? 114

9.2 Dewatering of sludge 114

9.3 Stabilization of sludge 115

9.4 Composting of the sludge: aerobic decomposition 115

9.5 Fermentation and biogas production: anaerobic decomposition 117

9.6 Addition of lime 118

9.7 Utilization of sludge 118

References 118

10 Disinfection 120

10.1 Introduction 120

10.2 Basis of disinfection 121

10.2.1 Degree of removal 121

10.2.2 Chick’s law 121

10.2.3 Watson’s law 121

10.2.4 Dose–response curve 122

10.3 Ultraviolet light 122

10.3.1 Function 122

10.3.2 Mode of action 122

10.3.3 Design 123

10.3.4 Design specification 124

10.3.5 Dose 125

10.3.6 Special problems 125

10.4 Ozone 125

10.4.1 Function 125

10.4.2 Mode of action 125

10.4.3 Design specification 126

10.4.4 Ozone dose 127

10.4.5 Special problems 127

10.4.6 Measuring ozone content 128

10.5 Advanced oxidation technology 129

10.5.1 Redox potential 129

10.5.2 Methods utilizing AOT 130

10.6 Other disinfection methods 131

10.6.1 Photozone 131

10.6.2 Heat treatment 131

10.6.3 Chlorine 131

10.6.4 Changing the pH 132

10.6.5 Natural methods: ground filtration or constructed wetland 132

10.6.6 Membrane filtration 132

References 132

11 Heating and Cooling 134

11.1 Introduction 134

11.2 Heating requires energy 134

11.3 Methods for heating water 135

11.4 Heaters 136

11.4.1 Immersion heaters 136

11.4.2 Oil and gas burners 137

11.5 Heat exchangers 138

11.5.1 Why use heat exchangers? 138

11.5.2 How is the heat transferred? 138

11.5.3 Factors affecting heat transfer 139

11.5.4 Important parameters when calculating the size of heat exchangers 140

11.5.5 Types of heat exchanger 141

11.5.6 Flow pattern in heat exchangers 144

11.5.7 Materials in heat exchangers 144

11.5.8 Fouling 145

11.6 Heat pumps 146

11.6.1 Why use heat pumps? 146

11.6.2 Construction and function of a heat pump 146

11.6.3 Log pressure–enthalpy (p–H) 147

11.6.4 Coefficient of performance 148

11.6.5 Installations of heat pumps 148

11.6.6 Management and maintenance of heat pumps 149

11.7 Composite heating systems 149

11.8 Chilling of water 153

References 154

12 Aeration and Oxygenation 155

12.1 Introduction 155

12.2 Gases in water 155

12.3 Gas theory: aeration 157

12.3.1 Equilibrium 157

12.3.2 Gas transfer 158

12.4 Design and construction of aerators 159

12.4.1 Basic principles 159

12.4.2 Evaluation criteria 160

12.4.3 Example of designs for different types of aerator 161

12.5 Oxygenation of water 165

12.6 Theory of oxygenation 166

12.6.1 Increasing the equilibrium concentration 166

12.6.2 Gas transfer velocity 166

12.6.3 Addition under pressure 166

12.7 Design and construction of oxygen injection systems 166

12.7.1 Basic principles 166

12.7.2 Where to install the injection system 167

12.7.3 Evaluation of methods for injecting oxygen gas 168

12.7.4 Examples of oxygen injection system designs 169

12.8 Oxygen gas characteristics 172

12.9 Sources of oxygen 172

12.9.1 Oxygen gas 173

12.9.2 Liquid oxygen 173

12.9.3 On-site oxygen production 175

12.9.4 Selection of source 175

Appendix 12.1 177

Appendix 12.2 177

References 177

13 Ammonia Removal 179

13.1 Introduction 179

13.2 Biological removal of ammonium ion 179

13.3 Nitrification 180

13.4 Construction of nitrification filters 181

13.4.1 Flow-through system 182

13.4.2 The filter medium in the biofilter 183

13.4.3 Rotating biofilter (biodrum) 183

13.4.4 Moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) 184

13.4.5 Granular filters/bead filters 185

13.5 Management of biological filters 185

13.6 Example of biofilter design 186

13.7 Denitrification 186

13.8 Chemical removal of ammonia 187

13.8.1 Principle 187

13.8.2 Construction 187

References 188

14 Traditional Recirculation and Water Re-use Systems 190

14.1 Introduction 190

14.2 Advantages and disadvantages of re-use systems 190

14.2.1 Advantages of re-use systems 190

14.2.2 Disadvantages of re-use systems 191

14.3 Definitions 191

14.3.1 Degree of re-use 191

14.3.2 Water exchange in relation to amount of fish 192

14.3.3 Degree of purification 193

14.4 Theoretical models for construction of re-use systems 193

14.4.1 Mass flow in the system 193

14.4.2 Water requirements of the system 193

14.4.3 Connection between outlet concentration, degree of re-use and effectiveness of the water treatment system 195

14.5 Components in a re-use system 196

14.6 Design of a re-use system 197

References 200

15 Natural Systems, Integrated Aquaculture, Aquaponics, Biofloc 201

15.1 Characterization of production systems 201

15.2 Closing the nutrient loop 201

15.3 Re-use of water: an interesting topic 201

15.4 Natural systems, polyculture, integrated systems 203

15.4.1 Integrated multitropic aquaculture 203

15.4.2 Biological purification of water: some basics 203

15.4.3 Examples of systems utilizing photoautotrophic organisms: aquaponics 204

15.4.4 Examples of systems utilizing heterotrophic bacteria: active sludge and bioflocs 205

15.4.5 The biofloc system 206

References 208

16 Production Units: A Classification 210

16.1 Introduction 210

16.2 Classification of production units 210

16.2.1 Intensive/extensive 210

16.2.2 Fully controlled/semi-controlled 213

16.2.3 Land based/tidal based/sea based 213

16.2.4 Other 214

16.3 Possibilities for controlling environmental impact 215

17 Egg Storage and Hatching Equipment 216

17.1 Introduction 216

17.2 Systems where the eggs stay pelagic 217

17.2.1 The incubator 217

17.2.2 Water inlet and water flow 218

17.2.3 Water outlet 218

17.3 Systems where the eggs lie on the bottom 219

17.3.1 Systems where the eggs lie in the same unit from spawning to fry ready for start feeding 219

17.3.2 Systems where the eggs must be removed before hatching 221

17.3.3 Systems where storing, hatching and first feeding are carried out in the same unit 223

References 223

18 Tanks, Basins and Other Closed Production Units 224

18.1 Introduction 224

18.2 Types of closed production unit 224

18.3 How much water should be supplied? 226

18.4 Water exchange rate 227

18.5 Ideal or non-ideal mixing and water exchange 228

18.6 Tank design 228

18.7 Flow pattern and self-cleaning 231

18.8 Water inlet design 233

18.9 Water outlet or drain 235

18.10 Dual drain 237

18.11 Other installations 237

References 237

19 Ponds 239

19.1 Introduction 239

19.2 The ecosystem 239

19.3 Different production ponds 240

19.4 Pond types 241

19.4.1 Construction principles 241

19.4.2 Drainable or non-drainable 242

19.5 Size and construction 243

19.6 Site selection 243

19.7 Water supply 244

19.8 The inlet 245

19.9 The outlet: drainage 245

19.10 Pond layout 247

References 247

20 Sea Cages 249

20.1 Introduction 249

20.2 Site selection 250

20.3 Environmental factors affecting a floating construction 251

20.3.1 Waves 251

20.3.2 Wind 257

20.3.3 Current 257

20.3.4 Ice 259

20.4 Construction of sea cages 259

20.4.1 Cage collar or framework 260

20.4.2 Weighting and stretching 260

20.4.3 Net bags 262

20.4.4 Breakwaters 263

20.4.5 Examples of cage constructions 264

20.5 Mooring systems 266

20.5.1 Design of the mooring system 267

20.5.2 Description of the single components in a pre-stressed mooring system 269

20.5.3 Examples of mooring systems in use 274

20.6 Calculation of forces on a sea cage farm 274

20.6.1 Types of force 275

20.6.2 Calculation of current forces 276

20.6.3 Calculation of wave forces 279

20.6.4 Calculation of wind forces 280

20.7 Calculation of the size of the mooring system 280

20.7.1 Mooring analysis 280

20.7.2 Calculation of sizes for mooring lines 281

20.8 Control of mooring systems 283

References 283

21 Feeding Systems 286

21.1 Introduction 286

21.1.1 Why use automatic feeding systems? 286

21.1.2 What can be automated? 286

21.1.3 Selection of feeding system 286

21.1.4 Feeding system requirements 286

21.2 Types of feeding equipment 287

21.2.1 Feed blowers 287

21.2.2 Feed dispensers 287

21.2.3 Demand feeders 287

21.2.4 Automatic feeders 289

21.2.5 Feeding systems 293

21.3 Feed control 295

21.4 Feed control systems 296

21.5 Dynamic feeding systems 296

References 297

22 Internal Transport and Size Grading 299

22.1 Introduction 299

22.2 The importance of fish handling 299

22.2.1 Why move the fish? 299

22.2.2 Why size grade? 300

22.3 Negative effects of handling the fish 304

22.4 Methods and equipment for internal transport 305

22.4.1 Moving fish with a supply of external energy 305

22.4.2 Methods for moving fish without the need for external energy 315

22.5 Methods and equipment for size grading of fish 316

22.5.1 Equipment for grading that requires an energy supply 316

22.5.2 Methods for voluntary grading (self-grading) 326

References 326

23 Transport of Live Fish 328

23.1 Introduction 328

23.2 Preparation for transport 328

23.3 Land transport 329

23.3.1 Land vehicles 329

23.3.2 The tank 329

23.3.3 Supply of oxygen 330

23.3.4 Changing the water 331

23.3.5 Density 331

23.3.6 Instrumentation and stopping procedures 332

23.4 Sea transport 332

23.4.1 Well boats 332

23.4.2 The well 332

23.4.3 Density 333

23.4.4 Instrumentation 334

23.4.5 Recent trends in well boat technology 334

23.5 Air transport 335

23.6 Other transport methods 336

23.7 Cleaning and re-use of water 336

23.8 Use of additives 337

References 337

24 Instrumentation and Monitoring 339

24.1 Introduction 339

24.2 Construction of measuring instruments 340

24.3 Instruments for measuring water quality 340

24.3.1 Measuring temperature 341

24.3.2 Measuring oxygen content of the water 341

24.3.3 Measuring pH 342

24.3.4 Measuring conductivity and salinity 342

24.3.5 Measuring total gas pressure and nitrogen saturation 342

24.3.6 Other 343

24.4 Instruments for measuring physical conditions 344

24.4.1 Measuring the water flow 344

24.4.2 Measuring water pressure 347

24.4.3 Measuring water level 347

24.5 Equipment for counting fish, measuring fish size and estimation of total biomass 349

24.5.1 Counting fish 349

24.5.2 Measuring fish size and total fish biomass 350

24.6 Monitoring systems 352

24.6.1 Sensors and measuring equipment 353

24.6.2 Monitoring centre 353

24.6.3 Warning equipment 354

24.6.4 Regulation equipment 355

24.6.5 Maintenance and control 355

References 355

25 Buildings and Superstructures 357

25.1 Why use buildings? 357

25.2 Types, shape and roof design 357

25.2.1 Types 357

25.2.2 Shape 358

25.2.3 Roof design 358

25.3 Load-carrying systems 359

25.4 Materials 359

25.5 Prefabricate or build on site? 362

25.6 Insulated or not? 362

25.7 Foundations and ground conditions 362

25.8 Design of major parts 363

25.8.1 Floors 363

25.8.2 Walls 363

25.9 Ventilation and climate control 364

References 366

26 Design and Construction of Aquaculture Facilities: Some Examples 367

26.1 Introduction 367

26.2 Land-based hatchery, juvenile and on-growing production plant 367

26.2.1 General 367

26.2.2 Water intake and transfer 367

26.2.3 Water treatment department 377

26.2.4 Production rooms 378

26.2.5 Feed storage 383

26.2.6 Disinfection barrier 383

26.2.7 Other rooms 383

26.2.8 Outlet water treatment 383

26.2.9 Important equipment 384

26.3 On-growing production, sea cage farms 385

26.3.1 General 385

26.3.2 Site selection 387

26.3.3 The cages and the fixed equipment 387

26.3.4 The base station 390

26.3.5 Net handling 391

26.3.6 Boat 392

References 393

27 Planning Aquaculture Facilities 394

27.1 Introduction 394

27.2 The planning process 394

27.3 Site selection 395

27.4 Production plan 395

27.5 Room programme 397

27.6 Necessary analyses 397

27.7 Drawing up alternative solutions 398

27.8 Evaluation of and choosing between the alternative solutions 399

27.9 Finishing plans, detailed planning 399

27.10 Function test of the plant 399

27.11 Project review 402

References 402

Index 403

Odd-Ivar Lekang is Associate Professor of Aquaculture Engineering at the Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences in As.

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