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Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants. Analytical Techniques in the Sciences (AnTs) *

  • ID: 2325247
  • Book
  • March 2007
  • 316 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This text focuses on the techniques used to assess the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals and persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples. The opening chapter considers the link between human health and contaminated land. Then, the different sample preparation techniques applied to solid and liquid samples for elemental analysis are discussed – in particular, the need to destroy the matrix by heat and/or acid(s) for solid samples whereas in the case of liquids the emphasis is on pre–concentration and/or separation of metals from solution. The book continues to evaluate the different sample preparation techniques applied to solid and liquid sample preparation technique applied for single and sequential extraction of metals from soils and sediments. Chapter 5 evaluates the different sample preparation techniques for non–exhaustive extraction (Cyclodextrin, Supercritical–fluid extraction, subcritical water extraction, solid–phase microextraction and membrane separations) of persistent organic pollutants from soils and sediments. In addition, a mathematical approach to predict weak and strong solvents, based on the Hildebrand solubility parameter, is proposed. In chapter 6, the different techniques for assessing the oral bioaccessiblity of metals and persistent organic pollutants from solid environmental samples are considered. The penultimate chapter presents four case studies taken from the author′s own laboratory, as follows:
  • The first of these considers the uptake of metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) by plants grown in compost under green house conditions.
  • The second considers teh oral bioaccessibility of metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) from plants grown on contaminated compost using an in vitro gastrointestinal extraction approach.
  • Case study three discusses the uptake of persistent organic pollutants (x–endosulfan, ß–endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate) by lettuce plants grown in compost.
  • Finally, case study four looks at the oral bioaccessibility of persistent organic pollutants by lettuce plants grown in compost using an in vitro gastrointestinal extraction approach.

This book also contains a useful collection of data sheets that could be used to record laboratory information a the time of carrying out the experiments, plus a guide to selected resources.

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Series Preface.



Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.

About the Author.

1. Contaminated Land and the Link to Human Health.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Soil Guideline Values.

1.3 Risk to Humans.

1.4 An Approach to Assess Contaminated Soils Relative to Soil Guideline Values.


2. Sample Preparation and Analytical techniques for Elemental Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Sample Preparation for Elemental Analysis.

2.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

2.4 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

2.5 Inorganic Mass Spectroscopy.

2.6 X–Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

2.7 Electrochemistry.

2.8 Hyphenated Techniques.

2.9 Comparison of Elemental Analytical Techniques.

2.10 Selected Resources on Elemental Analytical Techniques.

3. Sample Preparation and Analytical Techniques for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Sample Preparation for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis.

3.3 Gas Chromatography.

3.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

3.5 Interfacing Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

3.6 Comparison of Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.

3.7 Selected Resources on Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.

4. Methods Used to Assess Bioavailability of Metals.

4.1 Non–Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for Metals.

4.2 Single Extraction Methods for Metals.

4.3 Sequential Extraction Techniques for Metals.

4.4 Earthworms.

4.5 Plant Uptake.

4.6 Certified Reference Materials.


5. Methods Used to Assess bioavailability of Persistent Organic Pollutants.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Non–Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for POPs.

5.3 Earthworm Studies.

5.4 Plant Uptake.


6. Methods Used to Assess oral Bioaccessibility.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Introduction to Human Physiology.

6.3 Considerations in the Design and Development of a Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method.

6.4 Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Metals.

Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Persistent Organic Pollutants.

6.6 Validity for Measuring Bioaccessibility.


7. Selected Case Studies  on Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants.

7.1 Bioavailability of Metals by Plants.

7.2 Bioaccessibility of Metals from Plants.

7.3 Bioavailability of POPs by Plants.

7.4 Bioaccessibility of POPs from Plants.

8. Recording of Information and Selected Resources.

8.1 Safety.

8.2 Recording of Information in the Laboratory.

8.3 Selected Resources.

Responses to Self–Assessment Questions.

Glossary of Terms.

SI Units and Physical Constants.

Periodic Table.


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John R. Dean took his first degree in chemistry at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), followed by an M.Sc. in Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation at Loughborough University of Technology, and finally a Ph.D. and D.I.C. in Physical Chemistry at the Imperial College of Science and Technology (University of London). He then spent two years as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Food Science Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Norwich, in Conjunction with the Polytechnic of the South West in Plymouth. His work there was focused on the development of directly coupled high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry methods for trace element speciation in foodstuffs. This was followed by a temporary lectureship in Inorganic Chemistry at Huddersfield Polytechinc. In 1988, he was appointed to a lectureship in Inorganic/Analytical chemistry at Newcastle Polytechnic (now Northumbria University). This was followed by promotion to Senior Lecturer (1990), Reader (1994), Principal Lecturer (1998) and Associate Dean (Research) (2004). He was also awarded a personal chair in 2004. In 1998, he was awarded a D.Sc. (University of London) in Analytical and Environmental Science and was the recipient of the 23rd Society for Analytical Chemistry (SAC) Silver Medal in 1995. He has published extensively in analytical and environmental science. He is an active member of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Analytical Division, having served as a member of the atomic spectroscopy group for 15 years (10 as Honorary Secretary), as well as a past Chairman (1997–1999). He has served on the Analytical Division Council for Three terms and is a former Vice–President (2002–2004), as well as a past–Chairman of the North–East Region of the RSC (2001–2003).
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