Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants. Analytical Techniques in the Sciences (AnTs) *
- ID: 2325247
- March 2007
- 316 Pages
- John Wiley and Sons Ltd
This text focuses on the techniques used to assess the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals and persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples. The opening chapter considers the link between human health and contaminated land. Then, the different sample preparation techniques applied to solid and liquid samples for elemental analysis are discussed in particular, the need to destroy the matrix by heat and/or acid(s) for solid samples whereas in the case of liquids the emphasis is on pre–concentration and/or separation of metals from solution. The book continues to evaluate the different sample preparation techniques applied to solid and liquid samples for persistent organic pollutant analysis. Consideration is then focused on the different sample preparation techniques applied for single and sequential extraction of metals from soils and sediments. Chapter 5 evaluates the different sample preparation techniques for non–exhaustive extraction (cyclodextrin, supercritical–fluid extraction, subcritical water extraction, solid–phase microextraction and membrane separations) of persistent organic pollutants from soils and sediments. In addition,
a mathematical approach to predict weak and strong solvents, based on the Hildebrand solubility parameter, is proposed. In Chapter 6, the different techniques for assessing the oral bioaccessibility of metals and persistent organic pollutants from solid environmental samples are considered. The penultimate chapter presents four case studies taken from the author s own laboratory, as follows:
- The first of these considers the uptake of metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) by plants grown in compost under greenhouse conditions.
- The second considers the oral bioaccessibility of metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) from plants grown on contaminated compost using an in vitro gastrointestinal extraction approach.
- Case study three discusses the uptake of persistent organic pollutants (a–endosufan, b–endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate) by lettuce plants grown in compost.
- Finally, case study four looks at the oral bioaccessibility of persistent organic pollutants by lettuce plants grown in compost using an in vitro gastrointestinal extraction approach.
This book also contains a useful collection of data sheets that could be used to record laboratory information at the time of carrying out the experiments, plus a guide to selected resources.
This text will be suitable for those carrying out undergraduate courses in environmental science, as well as courses in related disciplines, e.g. chemistry, life sciences, etc. It will also be relevant for postgraduate training courses, including MSc and MRes in environmental science and related disciplines and for researchers interested in the bioavailability and associated features of environmental contaminants.
The Analytical Techniques in the Sciences series of books provides coverage of all of the major analytical techniques and their application in the most important areas of physical, life and materials science. Each text is presented in an open learning/distance learning style, in which the learning objectives are clearly identified. The reader s understanding of the material is constantly evaluated by the use of self–assessment and discussion questions. Series Editor: David J. Ando SHOW LESS READ MORE >
Glossary of Terms.
1.0 Contaminated land and the link to human health.
1.2 Soil Guideline Values.
1.3 Risk to humans.
1.4 An approach to assess contaminated soils relative to soil guidelines values.
1.4.1 Mean value test.
1.4.2 Maximum value test.
2.0 Sample preparation and analytical techniques for elemental analysis of environmental contaminants.
2.2 Sample preparation for elemental analysis.
2.2.1 Solid samples.
2.2.2 Liquid samples.
2.3 Atomic absorption spectroscopy.
2.4 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.
2.5 Inorganic Mass Spectrometry.
2.5.1 Interferences in ICP–MS.
2.6 X–ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
2.8 Hyphenated Techniques.
2.9 Comparison of elemental analytical techniques.
2.10 Selected resources on elemental analytical techniques.
2.10.1 Specific books on atomic spectroscopy.
2.10.2 Specific books on electroanalytical techniques.
3.0 Sample preparation and analytical techniques for persistent organic pollutant analysis of environmental contaminants
3.2 Sample preparation for persistent organic pollutant analysis.
3.2.1 Solid samples.
3.2.2 Liquid samples.
3.3 Gas chromatography.
3.4 High performance liquid chromatography.
3.5 Interfacing chromatography and mass spectrometry.
3.6 Comparison of persistent organic pollutant analytical techniques.
3.7 Selected resources on persistent organic pollutant techniques.
3.7.1 Specific books on chromatography.
4.0 Methods used to assess bioavailability of metals.
4.1 Non–exhaustive extraction techniques for metals.
4.2 Single extraction methods for metals.
4.3 Sequential extraction techniques for metals.
4.4.1 Earthworms in bioavailability studies.
4.4.2 Chemical extraction methods to estimate bioavailability of metals by earthworms.
4.5 Plant uptake.
4.6 Certified Reference Materials.
5.0 Methods used to assess bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants.
5.2 Non–exhaustive extraction techniques for POPs.
5.2.1 Selective or mild–solvent extraction.
5.2.2 Cyclodextrin extraction.
5.2.3 Supercritical fluid extraction.
5.2.4 Other approaches.
5.3 Earthworm studies.
5.3.1 Chemical extraction methods to estimate bioavailability of POPs by earthworms..
5.4 Plant uptake.
6.0 Methods used to assess bioaccessibility.
6.2 Introduction to human physiology.
6.3 Considerations in the design and development of a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal extraction method..
6.4 Approaches to assess bioaccessibility of metals.
6.5 Approaches to assess bioaccessibility of persistent organic pollutants.
6.6 Validity for measuring bioaccessibility.
7.0 Selected case studies on bioavailability, bioaccessibility and mobility of environmental contaminants.
7.1 Bioavailability of metals by plants.
7.1.3 Results and Discussion.
7.2 Bioaccessibility of metals from plants.
7.2.3 Results and Discussion.
7.3 Bioavailability of POPs by plants.
7.3.3 Results and Discussion.
7.4 Bioaccessibility of POPs from plants.
7.4.3 Results and Discussion.
8.0 Recording of information in the laboratory and other selected resources..
8.2 Recording of information.
8.3 Selected other resources.