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Materials for High-Temperature Fuel Cells. New Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development - Product Image

Materials for High-Temperature Fuel Cells. New Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development

  • ID: 2329489
  • June 2013
  • 392 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The world's ever-growing demand for power has created an urgent need for new efficient and sustainable sources of energy and electricity. Today's consumers of portable electronics also demand devices that not only deliver more power but are also environmentally friendly. Fuel cells are an important alternative energy source, with promise in military, commercial and industrial applications, for example power vehicles and portable devices.

This book is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. Bringing together world leaders and experts in this field, this text provides a lucid description of the materials assessment of fuel cell technologies. With an emphasis on the technical development and applications of key materials in high-temperature fuel cells, this text covers fundamental principles, advancement, challenges, and important current research themes.

Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. Max Q. Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.

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Series Editor Preface XIII

Preface XV

About the Series Editor XVII

About the Volume Editor XIX

List of Contributors XXI

1 Advanced Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 1
Steven McIntosh

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Ni–YSZ Anode Overview 2

1.3 Insights from Real Ni–YSZ Microstructures 7

1.4 Mechanistic Understanding of Fuel Oxidation in Ni-Based Anodes 9

1.4.1 Hydrogen Oxidation 9

1.4.2 Hydrocarbon Fuels in Ni-Based Anodes 14

1.5 Poisoning of Ni-Based Anodes 19

1.6 Alternative Anode Materials for Direct Hydrocarbon Utilization 21

1.6.1 Electronic Conductivity of Alternative Materials 22

1.6.2 Electrocatalytic Activity of Alternative Anode Materials 28

1.6.3 Poisoning of Alternative Anode Materials 33

1.7 Infiltration as an Alternative Fabrication Method 33

1.8 Summary and Outlook 36

References 37

2 Advanced Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 49
Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao, Chan Kwak, and Hee Jung Park

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 Cathodes on Oxygen-Ion-Conducting Electrolytes 51

2.2.1 Cathodes on Doped Ceria Electrolytes 52

2.2.1.1 Perovskite 53

2.2.1.2 Double Perovskites 59

2.2.2 Cathodes on Stabilized Zirconia Electrolytes 65

2.2.2.1 La1-xSrxMnO3-Based Perovskites 65

2.2.2.2 Doped La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 66

2.2.2.3 Cobalt-Containing Cathodes with a Buffering Layer 67

2.3 Cathodes on Proton-Conducting Electrolytes 70

2.3.1 Cobaltite 71

2.3.2 Ferrite 72

2.3.3 Bismuthate 73

2.4 Advanced Techniques in Cathode Fabrication 73

2.4.1 Wet Impregnation 73

2.4.1.1 Alleviated Phase Reaction 74

2.4.1.2 Optimized Microstructure 74

2.4.1.3 Matched Thermal Expansion Coefficient 76

2.4.1.4 Reduced Cost of Metal Catalyst 76

2.4.2 Surfactant-Assisted Assembly Approach 77

2.4.3 Spray Pyrolysis 78

2.5 Summary 79

References 80

3 Oxide Ion-Conducting Materials for Electrolytes 97
Tatsumi Ishihara

3.1 Introduction 97

3.2 Oxide Ion Conductivity in Metal Oxide 98

3.2.1 Fluorite Oxides 98

3.2.1.1 Stabilized ZrO2 99

3.2.1.2 Doped CeO2 103

3.2.2 Perovskite Oxide 106

3.2.3 Perovskite-Related Oxide 112

3.2.4 New Class of Oxide Ion-Conducting Oxide 116

3.3 Electrolyte Efficiency 121

3.4 Strain Effects on Oxide Ion Conductivity 124

3.5 Degradation in Conductivity 127

3.6 Concluding Remarks 129

References 129

4 Proton-Conducting Materials as Electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 133
Rong Lan and Shanwen Tao

4.1 Introduction 133

4.2 The Principle of Proton-Conducting Oxides 133

4.3 Proton-Conducting Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 135

4.3.1 BaCeO3- and BaZrO3-Based Proton-Conducting Oxides 135

4.3.2 Other Perovskite-Related Proton-Conducting Oxides 137

4.3.3 Niobate- and Tantalate-Based Proton-Conducting Oxides 138

4.3.4 Proton Conduction in Typical O2- Ion Conducting Materials 138

4.3.5 Other Proton-Conducting Materials 139

4.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Based on Proton-Conducting Electrolytes 140

4.5 Electrode Materials and Anode Reactions for SOFCs Based on Proton-Conducting Electrolytes 148

4.6 Conclusion 151

References 152

5 Metallic Interconnect Materials of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 159
Li Jian, Hua Bin, and Zhang Wenying

5.1 Introduction 159

5.2 Oxidation Behaviors of Candidate Alloys 162

5.2.1 Oxidation in Cathode Atmosphere 163

5.2.2 Oxidation in Anode Atmosphere 167

5.2.3 Oxidation in Dual Atmospheres 172

5.2.4 Chromium Evaporation from Metallic Interconnects 175

5.2.5 Compatibility with Cell and Stack Components 178

5.3 Electrical Properties of Oxide Scale 180

5.4 Surface Modifications and Coatings 184

5.4.1 RE and Metallic Element Coatings 184

5.4.2 Perovskite Oxide Coatings 186

5.4.3 Spinel Oxides 189

5.5 New Alloy Development 191

5.6 Summary 194

References 198

6 Sealants for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 215
Qingshan Zhu, Lian Peng, and Tao Zhang

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Glass and Glass–Ceramic Sealants 216

6.2.1 Properties Related to Short-Term Performance 216

6.2.2 Properties Related to Long-Term Performance 222

6.2.3 Sealing Structure Optimization 229

6.3 Mica 230

6.3.1 The Leakage Mechanism of Mica 231

6.3.2 The Effect of Compressive Stress and Differential Pressure on the Leak Rate of Mica 231

6.3.3 The Effect of Long-Term Aging on the Leak Rate of Mica 233

6.3.4 The Effect of Thermal Cycles on the Leak Rate of Mica 234

6.3.5 The Combined Effect of Aging and Thermal Cycles on the Leak Rate of Mica 235

6.4 Metal Braze 235

6.5 Composite Sealants 236

6.6 Conclusion 237

Acknowledgment 239

References 239

7 Degradation and Durability of Electrodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 245
Kongfa Chen and San Ping Jiang

7.1 Introduction 245

7.2 Anodes 246

7.2.1 Sintering and Agglomeration of Ni Particles 246

7.2.2 Redox Cycling 249

7.2.3 Carbon Deposition 252

7.2.4 Sulfur Poisoning 256

7.2.5 Poisoning by Impurities in Coal Gasification Syngas 260

7.2.6 Silicon Contamination 262

7.3 Cathodes 263

7.3.1 Degradation due to Interfacial Chemical Reactions 263

7.3.2 Microstructure Degradation 265

7.3.3 Chromium Poisoning 269

7.3.4 Contaminants from Glass Sealant 275

7.3.5 Poisoning by Impurities in Ambient Air 276

7.4 Degradation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells 279

7.4.1 Fuel Electrodes 280

7.4.2 Oxygen Electrodes 282

7.5 Summary and Conclusions 286

References 287

8 Materials and Processing for Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 309
Rob Hui

8.1 Introduction 309

8.2 Cell Architectures 310

8.3 Substrate Materials and Challenges 313

8.3.1 Requirements for Substrates 313

8.3.2 Properties of Selected Alloys 314

8.3.2.1 Selected Alloys and Roles of Elements 314

8.3.2.2 Oxidation in Oxidizing or Reducing Atmosphere 316

8.3.2.3 Scale Conductivity 318

8.3.2.4 Additional Improvement 320

8.4 Cell Fabrication and Challenges 321

8.4.1 Sintering Approaches 322

8.4.2 Deposition Approaches 326

8.5 Summary 333

References 334

9 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 341
Stephen J. McPhail, Ping-Hsun Hsieh, and Jan Robert Selman

9.1 Introduction 341

9.1.1 Development History of the MCFCs 342

9.2 Operating Principle 344

9.3 State-of-the-Art Components 347

9.3.1 Electrolytes 349

9.3.2 Electrolyte Support 351

9.3.3 Anode Materials 352

9.3.4 Cathode Materials 353

9.4 General Needs 354

9.4.1 NiO Dissolution from the Cathode 354

9.4.2 Creeping in the Anode 355

9.4.3 Electrolyte Loss 356

9.4.4 Corrosion of Cell Hardware 357

9.4.5 Electrolyte Optimization 358

9.4.6 Power Density 359

9.4.7 Tolerance to Contaminants 360

9.5 Status of MCFC Systems Implementation 362

References 367

Index 373

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Professor San Ping Jiang is a professor at the Curtin Centre for Advanced Energy Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Australia and Adjunct Professor of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. He also holds Visiting/Guest Professorships at Wuhan University of Technology, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Sichung University, and Shandong University. Dr. Jiang has broad experience in both academia and industry, having held positions at Nanyang Technological University, the CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology Division in Australia, and Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd (CFCL). His research interests encompass solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange and direct methanol fuel cells, and direct alcohol fuel cells. With an h-index of 32, Jiang has published over 180 journal papers, which have acrrued ~3500 citations. In 2007 two papers were ranked in the top 1% in Chemistry and Engineering (Web of Sciences Essential Science Indicators).. . Professor Yushan Yan has been a professor at the University of California, Riverside since 1998. Prior to that he worked for AlliedSignal Inc. as a Senior Staff Engineer and Project Manager. His research focuses on zeolite thin films for semiconductors and aerospace applications and new materials for cheaper and durable fuel cells. He is co-Founder and Director of the start-up companies Full Cycle Energy and Zeolite Materials Solutions (ZSM). To-date Yan has published ca. 100 journal articles which have attracted an average of 33 citations per paper.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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