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Novel Ecosystems. Intervening in the New Ecological World Order - Product Image

Novel Ecosystems. Intervening in the New Ecological World Order

  • ID: 2329625
  • February 2013
  • Region: Global
  • 380 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Land conversion, climate change and species invasions are contributing to the widespread emergence of novel ecosystems, which demand a shift in how we think about traditional approaches to conservation, restoration and environmental management. They are novel because they exist without historical precedents and are self-sustaining. Traditional approaches emphasizing native species and historical continuity are challenged by novel ecosystems that deliver critical ecosystems services or are simply immune to practical restorative efforts. Some fear that, by raising the issue of novel ecosystems, we are simply paving the way for a more laissez-faire attitude to conservation and restoration. Regardless of the range of views and perceptions about novel ecosystems, their existence is becoming ever more obvious and prevalent in today’s rapidly changing world. In this first comprehensive volume to look at the ecological, social, cultural, ethical and policy dimensions of novel ecosystems, the authors argue these altered systems are overdue for careful analysis and that we need to figure out how to intervene in them responsibly. This book brings together researchers from a range of disciplines together with practitioners and policy makers to explore the questions surrounding novel ecosystems. It includes chapters on key concepts and methodologies for deciding when and how to intervene in systems, as well as a rich collection of case studies and perspective pieces. It will be a valuable resource for researchers, managers and policy makers interested in the question of how humanity manages and restores ecosystems in a rapidly changing world.

A companion website with additional resources is available at company website

Contributors, ix

Acknowledgements, xi

PART I INTRODUCTION, 1

1 Introduction: Why novel ecosystems?, 3
RICHARD J. HOBBS, ERIC S. HIGGS AND CAROL M. HALL

PART II WHAT ARE NOVEL ECOSYSTEMS?, 9

2 Case Study: Hole-in-the-donut, everglades, 11
JOHN J. EWEL

3 Towards a conceptual framework for novel ecosystems, 16
LAUREN M. HALLETT, RACHEL J. STANDISH, KRISTIN B. HULVEY, MARK R. GARDENER, KATHARINE N. SUDING, BRIAN M. STARZOMSKI, STEPHEN D. MURPHY AND JAMES A. HARRIS

4 Islands: Where novelty is the norm, 29
JOHN J. EWEL, JOSEPH MASCARO, CHRISTOPH KUEFFER, ARIEL E. LUGO, LORI LACH AND MARK R. GARDENER

5 Origins of the novel ecosystems concept, 45
JOSEPH MASCARO, JAMES A. HARRIS, LORI LACH, ALLEN THOMPSON, MICHAEL P. PERRING, DAVID M. RICHARDSON AND ERLE C. ELLIS

6 Defining novel ecosystems, 58
RICHARD J. HOBBS, ERIC S. HIGGS AND CAROL M. HALL

PART III WHAT WE KNOW (AND DON’T KNOW) ABOUT NOVEL ECOSYSTEMS, 61

7 Perspective: Ecological novelty is not new, 63
STEPHEN T. JACKSON

8 The extent of novel ecosystems: Long in time and broad in space, 66
MICHAEL P. PERRING AND ERLE C. ELLIS

9 Case study: Geographic distribution and level of novelty of Puerto Rican Forests, 81
SEBASTIÁN MARTINUZZI, ARIEL E. LUGO, THOMAS J. BRANDEIS AND EILEEN H. HELMER

10 Novel ecosystems and climate change, 88
BRIAN M. STARZOMSKI

11 Plant invasions as builders and shapers of novel ecosystems, 102
DAVID M. RICHARDSON AND MIRIJAM GAERTNER

12 Infectious disease and novel ecosystems, 114
LAITH YAKOB

Infectious disease and the novel Caribbean coral reef, 118
LAITH YAKOB AND PETER J. MUMBY

13 Case study: Do feedbacks from the soil biota secure novelty in ecosystems?, 124
JAMES A. HARRIS

14 Fauna and novel ecosystems, 127
PATRICIA L. KENNEDY, LORI LACH, ARIEL E. LUGO AND RICHARD J. HOBBS

15 Case study: Ecosystem transformations along the Colorado Front Range: Prairie dog interactions with multiple components of global environmental change, 142
TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT, LAUREL M. HARTLEY AND JESSE B. NIPPERT

16 Perspective: Plus ça change, plus c’est la meme chose, 150
STEPHEN D. MURPHY

PART IV WHEN AND HOW TO INTERVENE, 153

17 Perspective: From rivets to rivers, 155
JOSEPH MASCARO

18 Incorporating novel ecosystems into management frameworks, 157
KRISTIN B. HULVEY, RACHEL J. STANDISH, LAUREN M. HALLETT, BRIAN M. STARZOMSKI, STEPHEN D. MURPHY, CARA R. NELSON, MARK R. GARDENER, PATRICIA L. KENNEDY, TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT AND KATHARINE N. SUDING

19 The management framework in practice – making decisions in AtlanticCanadian Meadows: Chasing the elusive reference state, 172
STEPHEN D. MURPHY

20 The management framework in practice – prairie dogs at the urban interface: Conservation solutions when ecosystem change drivers are beyond the scope of management actions, 176
TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT

21 The management framework in practice – how social barriers contribute to novel ecosystem maintenance: Managing reindeer populations on St George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 180
KRISTIN B. HULVEY

22 The management framework in practice – can’t see the wood for the trees: The changing management of the novel Miconia–Cinchona ecosystem in the humid highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, 185
MARK R. GARDENER

23 The management framework in practice – designer wetlands as novel ecosystems, 189
STEPHEN D. MURPHY

24 Characterizing novel ecosystems: Challenges for measurement, 192
JAMES A. HARRIS, STEPHEN D. MURPHY, CARA R. NELSON, MICHAEL P. PERRING AND PEDRO M. TOGNETTI

25 Case study: Novelty measurement in pampean grasslands, 205
PEDRO M. TOGNETTI

26 Plant materials for novel ecosystems, 212
THOMAS A. JONES

27 Case study: Management of novel ecosystems in the Seychelles, 228
CHRISTOPH KUEFFER, KATY BEAVER AND JAMES MOUGAL

28 Perspective: Moving to the dark side, 239
PATRICIA L. KENNEDY

PART V HOW DO WE APPRECIATE NOVEL ECOSYSTEMS?, 243

29 Perspective: Coming of age in a trash forest, 245
EMMA MARRIS

30 Engaging the public in novel ecosystems, 247
LAURIE YUNG, STEVE SCHWARZE, WYLIE CARR, F. STUART CHAPIN III AND EMMA MARRIS

31 Valuing novel ecosystems, 257
ANDREW LIGHT, ALLEN THOMPSON AND ERIC S. HIGGS

32 Case study: A rocky novel ecosystem: Industrial origins to conservation concern, 269
MICHAEL P. PERRING

33 The policy context: Building laws and rules that embrace novelty, 272
PETER BRIDGEWATER AND LAURIE YUNG

34 Perspective: Lake Burley Griffin, 284
PETER BRIDGEWATER

35 Case study: Shale bings in central Scotland: From ugly blots on the landscape to cultural and biological heritage, 286
BARBRA A. HARVIE AND RICHARD J. HOBBS

PART VI WHAT’S NEXT?, 291

36 Perspective: A tale of two natures, 293
ERIC S. HIGGS

37 Concerns about novel ecosystems, 296
RACHEL J. STANDISH, ALLEN THOMPSON, ERIC S. HIGGS AND STEPHEN D. MURPHY

38 Novel urban ecosystems and ecosystem services, 310
MICHAEL P. PERRING, PETE MANNING, RICHARD J. HOBBS, ARIEL E. LUGO, CRISTINA E. RAMALHO AND
RACHEL J. STANDISH

39 Ecosystem stewardship as a framework for conservation in a directionally changing world, 326
TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT, KATHARINE N. SUDING AND F. STUART CHAPIN III

40 Case study: Novel socio-ecological systems in the North: Potential pathways toward ecological and societal resilience, 334
F. STUART CHAPIN III, MARTIN D. ROBARDS, JILL F. JOHNSTONE, TREVOR C. LANTZ AND STEVEN V. KOKELJ

41 Perspective: Is Everything a novel ecosystem? If so, do we need the concept?, 345
EMMA MARRIS, JOSEPH MASCARO AND ERLE C. ELLIS

PART VII SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS, 351

42 What do we know about, and what do we do about, novel ecosystems?, 353
RICHARD J. HOBBS, ERIC S. HIGGS AND CAROL M. HALL

Index, 361

“Overall, this is a timely book that thoroughly addresses a critical issue in the management of ecosystems in a dynamically changing world. Its strength lies in its treatment of decision making processes and its real-world illustrations through case studies.”  (Frontiers of Biogeography, 1 November 2013)

“In conclusion, I recommend this book to all researchers and practitioners working on man-made ecosystems.”  (Basic and Applied Ecology, 1 October 2013)

“If this dialogue takes place, with the inclusion of ‘‘classic,’’ ‘‘traditional,’’ and ‘‘orthodox’’ restoration ecology, at least with regards historical knowledge (a paradigm change rather than a paradigm shift), as well as the issues concerning novel ecosystems, then this provocative book will remain an interesting and stimulating standard work for a long time.”  (Restoration Ecology, 1 July 2013)

“Summing Up: Recommended. All academic and professional audiences.”  (Choice, 1 October 2013). . “Although the authors’ new terminology does not seem a step forward, Novel Ecosystemsprovides relevant and stimulating ideas for discussion and integration into conservation and restoration methods, strategies, and goals.”  (Science, 2 August 2013)

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