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Lobsters. Biology, Management, Aquaculture & Fisheries. 2nd Edition - Product Image

Lobsters. Biology, Management, Aquaculture & Fisheries. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2329826
  • April 2013
  • 488 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

This expanded and fully updated Second Edition of the most comprehensive and successful book on lobsters, comprises contributions from many of the world’s experts, each providing core information for all those working in lobster biology, fisheries research and management and lobster aquaculture.

Under the editorship of Bruce Phillips, the Second Edition of Lobsters: Biology, Management, Fisheries and Aquaculture delivers exhaustive coverage of these fascinating creatures, stretching from growth and development to management and conservation. A number of chapters from the First Edition covering Growth, Reproduction, Diseases, Behaviour, Nutrition, Larval and Post-Larval Ecology and Juvenile and Adult Ecology have been replaced by new chapters including Lobsters in Ecosystems, Genetics, Translocation, Climate Change, Ecolabelling of Lobsters, Casitas and Other Artificial Shelters, Systems to maximise Economic Benefits.. These new chapters reflect changes that are occurring in lobster management and new research developments brought on by social, climatic and economic changes.

As well as information from new research output, information in each chapter is also included READ MORE >

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Contributors xi

Preface xiv

Chapter 1 Lobsters as Part of Marine Ecosystems – A Review 1
Bruce F. Phillips, Richard A. Wahle and Trevor J. Ward

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Species overviews 3

1.2.1 Western rock (spiny) lobster Panulirus cygnus 3

1.2.2 The American lobster Homarus americanus 7

1.3 How far have we come in thinking about lobsters as part of the ecosystem? 11

1.3.1 Panulirus cygnus 11

1.3.2 Homarus americanus 15

1.4 Human role in ecosystem dynamics 18

1.4.1 Institutional structures 18

1.4.2 Direct effects of management 19

1.4.3 Indirect effects – top-down forcing by predator removal 20

1.4.4 Indirect effects – bottom-up forcing by bait subsidies 21

1.4.5 Climate change impacts 21

1.5 Single species to ecosystem management – how far have we come? 22

1.5.1 Panulirus cygnus 23

1.5.2 Homarus americanus 26

1.6 Implications for management and research 27

1.6.1 Top-down, bottom-up ecology 27

1.6.2 Inclusive governance systems 27

1.6.3 Stock rebuilding strategies 28

1.6.4 Environmental drivers of settlement patterns 28

1.6.5 Historical ecosystem structure 29

1.7 Conclusions 29

References 30

Chapter 2 Genetics of Wild and Captive Lobster Populations 36
W. Jason Kennington, Roy Melville-Smith and Oliver Berry

2.1 Introduction 36

2.2 Population structure 37

2.2.1 Chaotic genetic patchiness 39

2.2.2 Post-glaciation demographic expansions 39

2.3 Species identifi cation 40

2.4 Applications of species identifi cation and DNA barcoding to lobster research and management 41

2.4.1 DNA surveillance of product substitution and cross-contamination 41

2.4.2 Identification of wild lobsters 41

2.4.3 Charactering lobster diets 42

2.4.4 DNA-based methods typically employed for species identifi cation 43

2.4.5 Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism 43

2.4.6 Melt-curve analysis 44

2.4.7 Species-specifi c polymerase chain reaction 44

2.5 Variation in reproductive success 45

2.6 Genetic effects of harvesting 46

2.6.1 Fishing-induced evolution 46

2.6.2 Impacting genetic diversity 50

2.7 Considerations for aquaculture and stock enhancement 50

2.7.1 Aquaculture 50

2.7.2 Stock enhancement 51

2.8 Conclusions and future directions 52

References 54

Chapter 3 Enhancement of Lobster Fisheries to Improve Yield and Value 64
Bridget S. Green, Caleb Gardner and Gro I. van der Meeren

3.1 Introduction 64

3.1.1 What is enhancement? 64

3.1.2 The motivation for enhancement 65

3.2 Monitoring the outcomes of enhancement operations 67

3.2.1 Growth and reproduction 68

3.2.2 Survival/changes to natural mortality 68

3.2.3 Displacement and integration of released lobsters 69

3.2.4 Habitat and predator change 69

3.3 Economic and policy issues 70

3.3.1 Economic feasibility 70

3.3.2 Optimal management of harvests with enhancement 71

3.3.3 Ownership, policy and risk 72

3.4 Case studies 73

3.4.1 Clawed lobster restocking 73

3.4.2 Range extension of American lobster to Europe 74

3.4.3 Improving yield in Southern rock lobster: translocating low quality adults 74

3.5 Conclusions 75

References 75

Chapter 4 The Impact of Climate Change on Exploited Lobster Stocks 84
Nick Caputi, Simon de Lestang, Stuart Frusher and Richard A. Wahle

4.1 Introduction 84

4.2 Case studies 85

4.2.1 Western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) 85

4.2.2 Southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) 89

4.2.3 American lobster (Homarus americanus) 92

4.3 Other lobster species 98

4.3.1 Caribbean lobster (Panulirus argus) 98

4.3.2 Southern African west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) 98

4.3.3 Hawaiian lobster (Panulirus marginatus) 99

4.3.4 Japanese lobster (Panulirus japonicus) 99

4.3.5 Californian lobster (Panulirus interruptus) 100

4.3.6 Pronghorn spiny lobster (Panulirus pencillatus) 100

4.3.7 European lobster (Homarus gammarus) 100

4.3.8 Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) 101

4.4 Discussion 101

4.4.1 Climate change effect type 101

4.4.2 Sensitivity to environmental effects 101

4.4.3 Climate change effects 102

4.4.4 Implications for stock assessment 104

4.4.5 Implications for management 104

4.4.6 Risk assessment approach to assess vulnerability 105

4.5 Conclusions and future research 105

References 106

Chapter 5 Systems to Maximize Economic Benefits in Lobster Fisheries 113
Caleb Gardner, Sherry Larkin and Juan Carlos Seijo

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Economic concepts used in lobster fi shery management 114

5.2.1 Net economic benefits 114

5.2.2 Economic targets and performance measures 115

5.2.3 Economic modelling 116

5.3 Lobster fishery management systems 118

5.3.1 Limited entry 118

5.3.2 Effort limitation 118

5.3.3 Quota management 121

5.3.4 Territorial use rights 123

5.4 Resource sharing and allocation of lobster stocks 124

5.4.1 Recreational and commercial sectors 124

5.4.2 Customary harvests 125

5.4.3 Non-extractive users 126

5.4.4 Dividing catches between nations 126

5.4.5 Managing conflicting objectives 127

5.5 Developing issues in lobster fishery economics 128

5.5.1 Rights-based management systems 128

5.5.2 Multiple species and ecosystem interactions 128

5.5.3 Marine protected areas 129

5.5.4 Climate change 130

5.6 Conclusions 131

References 132

Chapter 6 Lobster Ecolabelling 139
Trevor J Ward and Bruce F Phillips

6.1 Introduction 139

6.1.1 What is ecolabelling? 142

6.1.2 Global context 146

6.2 Ecolabelling objectives 147

6.2.1 Consumers 147

6.2.2 Retailers and wholesalers 148

6.2.3 Fishing and aquaculture industry 149

6.2.4 Non-government organizations 149

6.2.5 Governments 150

6.2.6 Developing countries 151

6.3 Comparative performance assessment 152

6.3.1 Criteria 152

6.3.2 Assessing performance 155

6.4 Ecolabelled lobsters 158

6.4.1 Panulirus cygnus (Australia) 158

6.4.2 Homarus americanus (Canada) 161

6.4.3 Homarus gammarus (France, UK) 163

6.4.4 Panulirus interruptus (Mexico) 166

6.5 Conclusions 168

6.5.1 Management issues 169

6.5.2 Stock issues 170

6.5.3 Environmental impacts 171

6.5.4 Developing countries 173

6.5.5 Successful certification and ecolabelling of lobsters 174

Appendix 175

Example Aquaculture Criteria and Grades: ecological performance and sustainability stringency 175

References 182

Chapter 7 Essential Habitats for Panulirus Spiny Lobsters 186
Patricia Briones-Fourzán and Enrique Lozano-Álvarez

7.1 Introduction 186

7.2 Essential habitats for ontogenetic shifters 189

7.2.1 Nursery and juvenile habitats 189

7.2.2 Adult and breeding habitats 192

7.2.3 Foraging habitats 193

7.3 Habitat specialists 194

7.4 Coexisting species: interspecific trade-offs 196

7.5 Global and local threats to habitats used by Panulirus lobsters 198

7.5.1 Fishing practices 198

7.5.2 Coastal development 199

7.5.3 Climate change and ocean acidification 199

7.5.4 Potential effects of habitat loss 200

7.6 Habitat management 200

7.6.1 Marine protected areas 200

7.6.2 Corollary: marine reserves and invasive species 202

7.6.3 Habitat enhancement 202

7.6.4 Casitas and the controversy over their use 203

7.6.5 Corollary: habitat enhancement and disease transmission 204

7.7 Conclusions 205

References 206

Chapter 8 Homarus 221
Richard A. Wahle, Kathleen M. Castro, Oliver Tully and J. Stanley Cobb

8.1 Introduction 221

8.2 Species overview 222

8.3 Life-history overview 224

8.4 Growth and age 225

8.4.1 Components of growth 225

8.4.2 Age determination 227

8.5 Maturation 228

8.5.1 Size at onset of maturity 228

8.5.2 Clutch size and fecundity 230

8.6 Larval and pre-settlement dynamics 230

8.7 Postlarval settlement and benthic recruitment 231

8.7.1 Settlement indices 231

8.7.2 Settler – fishery recruit relationship 233

8.8 Meta-population structure 233

8.9 Post-settlement mortality sources 235

8.9.1 Predators and habitat-mediated survival bottlenecks 235

8.9.2 Evidence of density-dependence 236

8.9.3 Disease 236

8.10 Homarus in a changing ecosystem 239

8.10.1 Global climate change effects 239

8.10.2 Altered food webs 240

8.11 Harvest and management of wild populations 240

8.11.1 Gear type and methods 240

8.11.2 Commercial exploitation 241

8.11.3 Fishery management 242

8.12 Mariculture and population enhancement 244

8.12.1 Mariculture 244

8.12.2 Stock enhancement 244

8.12.3 Habitat enhancement 245

8.13 Conclusions and future research 246

References 247

Chapter 9 Jasus and Sagmariasus Species 259
Andrew G. Jeffs, Caleb Gardner and Andy Cockcroft

9.1 Species and distribution 259

9.2 Reproduction, life history and growth 261

9.3 Ecology and behaviour 265

9.4 Predators and disease 267

9.5 Population dynamics 267

9.6 Harvest of wild populations and their regulation 268

9.6.1 South Africa and Namibia 269

9.6.2 Australia 270

9.6.3 New Zealand 271

9.6.4 Other Jasus fi sheries 272

9.7 Aquaculture 274

9.8 Marine protected areas 275

9.9 Managing ecosystem effects of fi shing 276

9.10 Conclusions 277

References 277

Chapter 10 Panulirus Species 289
Bruce F. Phillips, Roy Melville-Smith Matthew C. Kay and Armando Vega-Velázquez

10.1 Species and distribution 289

10.2 Life history, growth and reproduction 290

10.3 Predators and diseases 291

10.4 Ecology and behaviour 292

10.5 Population dynamics and regulation 293

10.6 Harvest of wild populations and their regulations 293

10.6.1 Australia and Papua New Guinea 293

10.6.2 Cuba 300

10.6.3 USA (Florida) 302

10.6.4 Brazil 304

10.6.5 Baja California Mexico and California USA 305

10.6.6 India 310

10.6.7 Kenya and Somalia 311

10.6.8 Indonesia 311

10.6.9 Japan 311

10.7 Aquaculture and enhancement 312

10.7.1 Aquaculture 312

10.7.2 Enhancement 314

10.8 Management and conservation 314

10.9 Conclusions 315

References 315

Chapter 11 Palinurus Species 326
Johan C. Groeneveld, Raquel Goñi and David Díaz

11.1 Introduction 327

11.2 Species and distribution 327

11.2.1 Present-day distributions 327

11.2.2 Effects of climate change on past distribution patterns 327

11.3 Biology and ecology 329

11.3.1 Reproductive biology 329

11.3.2 Larval dispersal patterns and recruitment of pueruli 332

11.3.3 Moulting and growth 336

11.3.4 Population structure, size composition and sex ratios 338

11.3.5 Migrations and movement 339

11.3.6 Predators, defence and natural mortality 340

11.3.7 Diet 341

11.4 Molecular phylogeny and evolution 341

11.5 Harvest of wild populations 342

11.5.1 Palinurus elephas 342

11.5.2 Palinurus mauritanicus 343

11.5.3 Palinurus charlestoni 344

11.5.4 Palinurus gilchristi 344

11.5.5 Palinurus delagoae 344

11.5.6 Palinurus barbarae 346

11.6 Protection and enhancement 346

11.6.1 Marine Protected Areas 346

11.6.2 Enhancement 347

11.7 Monitoring and management 347

11.7.1 Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean fi sheries 347

11.7.2 Southwest Indian Ocean fisheries 348

11.8 Conclusions 349

References 349

Chapter 12 Nephrops Species 357
Mike Bell, Ian Tuck and Helen Dobby

12.1 Introduction 357

12.2 Species and distribution 357

12.3 Life history 361

12.3.1 Growth 361

12.3.2 Reproduction 364

12.3.3 Food and feeding 369

12.3.4 Activity patterns 371

12.4 Population dynamics 375

12.4.1 Population structure 375

12.4.2 Mortality 377

12.4.3 Population regulation 382

12.5 Harvest of wild populations 383

12.5.1 Fishing methods 383

12.5.2 Catchability 388

12.5.3 Catches 389

12.6 Monitoring and management 389

12.6.1 Management measures and structures 389

12.6.2 Stock assessments 391

12.6.3 Status of stocks 395

References 396

Chapter 13 Commercial Scyllarids 414
Ehud Spanier and Kari L. Lavalli

13.1 Introduction 414

13.2 Taxonomy and systematic hierarchy 415

13.2.1 Features of the genera 415

13.2.2 Species and distribution 416

13.3 Anatomy 426

13.4 Life history 429

13.4.1 Phyllosoma 430

13.4.2 Nistos 431

13.4.3 Juveniles 432

13.4.4 Adults 434

13.5 Behaviour 436

13.5.1 Feeding behaviour 436

13.5.2 Sheltering behaviour and substrate preferences 440

13.5.3 Predators and antipredator behaviour 442

13.5.4 Mating behaviour 444

13.5.5 Movement patterns 445

13.6 Diseases 449

13.7 Harvest of wild populations 450

13.7.1 Thenus spp. fishery 451

13.7.2 Ibacus alticrenatus fishery 451

13.7.3 Ibacus brucei fishery 451

13.7.4 Ibacus chacei fishery 451

13.7.5 Ibacus ciliatus fishery 452

13.7.6 Ibacus peronii fishery 452

13.7.7 Parribacus spp. fisheries 452

13.7.8 Scyllarides aequinoctialis fishery 452

13.7.9 Scyllarides astori fishery 452

13.7.10 Scyllarides deceptor fishery 453

13.7.11 Scyllarides latus fi shery 453

13.7.12 Scyllarides nodifer fishery 453

13.7.13 Scyllarides obtusus fishery 454

13.7.14 Scyllarides squammosus fishery 454

13.7.15 Fishery concerns 454

13.8 Aquaculture and restocking 455

13.9 Summary 456

References 456

Chapter 14 Conclusions 467
Bruce F. Phillips

References 468

Index 471

Colour plate section between pp
130 and 131

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“The volume’s 15 contributors represent considerable expertise, so the book is an authoritative resource on lobster life history and management.  Summing Up: Highly recommended.  Graduate students, researchers/faculty, and professionals.”  (Choice, 1 November 2013)

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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