Microwaves in Nanoparticle Synthesis. Fundamentals and Applications

  • ID: 2330160
  • April 2013
  • 352 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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For the first time, this comprehensive handbook presents the emerging field of microwave technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Divided into three parts--fundamentals, methods, and applications--it covers topics including microwave theory, scale-up, microwave plasma synthesis, characterization, and more. This offers both an important volume for academic researchers, and a resource for those in industry exploring the applications of nanoparticles in semiconductors, electronics, catalysis, sensors, and more.

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Preface XI

List of Contributors XIII

1 Introduction to Nanoparticles 1
Satoshi Horikoshi and Nick Serpone

1.1 General Introduction to Nanoparticles 1

1.2 Methods of Nanoparticle Synthesis 8

1.3 Surface Plasmon Resonance and Coloring 10

1.4 Control of Size, Shape, and Structure 12

1.4.1 Size Control of Nanoparticles 12

1.5 Reducing Agent in Nanoparticle Synthesis 18

1.6 Applications of Metallic Nanoparticles 19

References 23

2 General Features of Microwave Chemistry 25
Satoshi Horikoshi and Nick Serpone

2.1 Microwave Heating 25

2.2 Some Applications of Microwave Heating 26

2.3 Microwave Chemistry 29

2.4 Microwave Chemical Reaction Equipment 33

References 36

3 Considerations of Microwave Heating 39
Satoshi Horikoshi and Nick Serpone

3.1 General Considerations of Microwave Heating 39

3.2 Peculiar Microwave Heating 47

3.3 Relevant Points of Effective Microwave Heating 52

References 53

4 Combined Energy Sources in the Synthesis of Nanomaterials 55
Luisa Boffa, Silvia Tagliapietra, and Giancarlo Cravotto

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Simultaneous Ultrasound/Microwave Treatments 58

4.3 Sequential Ultrasound and Microwaves 63

4.4 Conclusions 72

References 72

5 Nanoparticle Synthesis through Microwave Heating 75
Satoshi Horikoshi and Nick Serpone

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Microwave Frequency Effects 76

5.3 Nanoparticle Synthesis under a Microwave Magnetic Field 81

5.4 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles by a Greener Microwave Hydrothermal Method 84

5.5 Nanoparticle Synthesis with Microwaves under Cooling Conditions 85

5.6 Positive Aspects of Microwaves’ Thermal Distribution in Nanoparticle Synthesis 87

5.7 Microwave-Assisted Nanoparticle Synthesis in Continuous Flow Apparatuses 90

References 103

6 Microwave-Assisted Solution Synthesis of Nanomaterials 107
Xianluo Hu and Jimmy C. Yu

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystals 110

6.3 Synthesis of a-Fe2O3 Nanostructures 114

6.4 Element-Based Nanostructures and Nanocomposite 118

6.5 Chalcogenide Nanostructures 125

6.6 Graphene 132

6.7 Summary 135

References 135

7 Precisely Controlled Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles under Microwave Irradiation 145
Zhi Chen, Dai Mochizuki, and Yuji Wada

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Precise Control of Single Component under Microwave Irradiation 152

7.3 Precise Control of Multicomponent Structures under Microwave Irradiation 164

7.4 An Example of Mass Production Oriented to Application 178

7.5 Conclusion 180

References 180

8 Microwave-Assisted Nonaqueous Routes to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Nanostructures 185
Markus Niederberger

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Nonaqueous Sol–Gel Chemistry 186

8.3 Polyol Route 189

8.4 Benzyl Alcohol Route 191

8.5 Other Mono-Alcohols 197

8.6 Ionic Liquids 198

8.7 Nonaqueous Microwave Chemistry beyond Metal Oxides 199

8.8 Summary and Outlook 201

References 202

9 Input of Microwaves for Nanocrystal Synthesis and Surface Functionalization Focus on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles 207
Irena Milosevic, Erwann Guenin, Yoann Lalatonne, Farah Benyettou, Caroline de Montferrand, Frederic Geinguenaud, and Laurence Motte

9.1 Introduction 207

9.2 Biomedical Applications of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles 208

9.3 Nanoparticle Synthesis 211

9.4 Nanoparticle Surface Functionalization 214

9.5 Microwave-Assisted Chemistry 222

9.6 Conclusions 236

References 236

10 Microwave-Assisted Continuous Synthesis of Inorganic Nanomaterials 247
Naftali N. Opembe, Hui Huang, and Steven L. Suib

10.1 Introduction and Overview 247

10.2 Microwave-Assisted Continuous Synthesis of Inorganic Nanomaterials 249

10.3 Types of Microwave Apparatus Used in Continuous Synthesis 250

10.4 Microwave Continuous Synthesis of Molecular Sieve Materials 253

10.5 Microwave Continuous Synthesis of Metal Oxides and Mixed Metal Oxide Materials 259

10.6 Microwave Continuous Synthesis of Metallic Nanomaterials 267

10.7 Conclusions and Outlook 268

References 269

11 Microwave Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles: From Theoretical Background and Experimental Realization to Nanoparticles with Special Properties 271
Dorothée Vinga Szabó

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Using Microwave Plasmas for Nanoparticle Synthesis 272

11.3 Experimental Realization of the Microwave Plasma Synthesis 279

11.4 Influence of Experimental Parameters 282

11.5 Nanoparticle Properties and Application 294

11.6 Summary 300

References 301

12 Oxidation, Purification and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes under Microwave Irradiation 311
Davide Garella and Giancarlo Cravotto

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Oxidation and Purification 313

12.3 Functionalization 316

12.4 Conclusion 321

References 321

Index 325

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Satoshi Horikoshi received his PhD degree in 1999 from Meisei University, and subsequently was a postdoctoral researcher at the Frontier Research Center for the Global Environment Science unitl 2006. He joined Sophia University as Assistant Professor in 2006, and then moved to Tokyo University of Science as an associate professor in 2008. He is currently the Vice-President of the Japan Society of Electromagnetic Wave Energy Applications, a Member of the Board of the International Microwave Power Institute, and the Editorial Advisory Board of Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry.His research interests include the application of microwave radiation to catalytic chemistry, to the effects of microwaves on photocatalysts for environmental protection, to the microwave-assisted organic syntheses, and to microwave effects on nanoparticles. He has authored over 110 scientific publications.. . Nick Serpone received his Ph.D. from Cornell University (Physical-Inorganic Chemistry, 1968), after which he joined Concordia University in Montreal as Assistant Professor (1968-73), Associate Professor (1973-1980), and Professor (1980-1998). He was a consultant to 3M?s Imaging Sector for over 10 years. He took early retirement from Concordia University (1998) and was made a University Research Professor (1998-2004) and Professor Emeritus (2000 to present). He was Program Director at NSF (1998-2001) and has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Pavia, Italy, since 2002. His research interests are currently in the photophysics and photochemistry of semiconductor metal oxides, heterogeneous photocatalysis, environmental photochemistry, photochemistry of sunscreen active agents, and application of microwaves to nanomaterials and to environmental remediation. He has co-authored over 400 articles and has co-edited four monographs (for Wiley, Elsevier and the American Chemical Society).

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