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VMware vSphere Design. 2nd Edition - Product Image

VMware vSphere Design. 2nd Edition

  • Published: April 2013
  • Region: Global
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Achieve the performance, scalability, and ROI your business needs

What can you do at the start of a virtualization deployment to make things run more smoothly? If you plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere solutions in your company, this unique book provides keen insight and solutions. From hardware selection, network layout, and security considerations to storage and hypervisors, this book explains the design decisions you'll face and how to make the right choices.

Written by two virtualization experts and packed with real-world strategies and examples, VMware vSphere Design, Second Edition will help you design smart design decisions.

- Shows IT administrators how plan, deploy, maintain, and optimize vSphere virtualization solutions
- Explains the design decisions typically encountered at every step in the process and how to make the right choices
- Covers server hardware selection, network topology, security, storage, virtual machine design, and more
- Topics include ESXi hypervisors deployment, vSwitches versus dvSwitches, and FC, FCoE, iSCSI, or NFS storage

Find out the "why" behind virtualization design decisions and make better choices, with VMware vSphere Design, Second Edition, which has been fully updated for vSphere 5.x.

Introduction xxi

Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Designing VMware Environments  1

What Is Design?        1

The Facets of vSphere Design     5

The Technical Facet  6

The Organizational Facet      7

The Operational Facet         8

The Principles of Design 9

Availability         9

Manageability      10

Performance       10

Recoverability      10

Security  11

The Process of Design  11

Gathering and Defining Functional Requirements 11

Assessing the Environment   13

Performing a Gap Analysis    14

Assembling the Design       15

Documenting the Design     16

Performing the Implementation        17

Summary   17

Chapter 2 - The ESXi Hypervisor  19

Evolution of the vSphere Hypervisor       19

The ESXi Concept   21

ESXi Design 22

ESXi Components   22

ESXi Agents        23

ESXi System Image  24

ESXi Customized Images     25

ESXi Disk Layout   27

Tardisks and Ramdisks       29

ESXi Deployment      29

Hardware Requirements      29

ESXi Flavors: Installable, Embedded, and Stateless 29

Auto Deploy Infrastructure   36

Comparing Deployments Options      38

Upgrading ESXi       41

Migrating from ESX   42

Testing   42

Deployment        43

Management       44

Postinstallation Design Options  45

Management Tools Overview    51

Host-Management Tools      51

Centralized Management Tools         54

Hardware Monitoring        56

Logging  57

Summary   58

Chapter 3 - The Management Layer       59

Reviewing the Components of the Management Layer         59

VMware vCenter Server      59

vSphere Client and vSphere Web Client  62

vSphere Update Manager     63

Management Applications    64

Examining Key Management Layer Design Decisions 69

Virtual or Physical vCenter Server?     70

vCenter Server on Windows or vCenter Server Appliance?   72

Local or Remote Database Server?       73

Which Operating System for vCenter Server?      75

Creating the Management Layer Design    76

Availability        76

Manageability      82

Performance       86

Recoverability      92

Security  92

Summary   94

Chapter 4 - Server Hardware    95

Hardware Considerations       95

Factors in Selecting Hardware 96

Computing Needs  99

Server Constraints 101

Differentiating among Vendors        104

Server Components   106

CPU    107

RAM    110

NUMA  117

Motherboard      118

Storage  118

Network 119

PCI     119

Preparing the Server  121

Configuring the BIOS       122

Other Hardware Settings    122

Burn-in  123

Preproduction Checks       123

Scale-Up vs Scale-Out         123

Advantages of Scaling Up    125

Advantages of Scaling Out   126

Scaling Is a Matter of Perspective      127

Risk Assessment   127

Choosing the Right Size     128

CPU to Memory Design Ratio         129

Sizing the Hosts   130

Blade Servers vs Rack Servers  131

Blade Servers      132

Rack Servers      135

Form-Factor Conclusions    136

Alternative Hardware Approaches        136

Cloud Computing  136

Converged Hardware       138

Summary  139

Chapter 5 - Designing Your Network      141

Examining Key Network Components    141

Physical Connectivity       142

Network Traffic Types       142

Software Components       144

Exploring Factors Influencing the Network Design  144

Physical Switch Support     145

vSwitches and Distributed vSwitches   152

IP-Based Storage   154

10Gb Ethernet     156

I/O Virtualization 158

SR-IOV and DirectPath I/O  159

Server Architecture         160

Crafting the Network Design   161

Availability       161

Manageability     168

Performance      171

Recoverability     173

Security 174

Design Scenarios     177

Two NICs         177

Four NICs        178

Six NICs 178

Eight NICs        179

Looking to the Future 180

Summary  180

Chapter 6 - Storage   181

Dimensions of Storage Design   181

Storage Design Factors       182

Storage Efficiency  183

vSphere Storage Features    186

Designing for Capacity         186

RAID Options     187

Estimating Capacity Requirements     189

VMFS Capacity Limits       190

Large or Small Datastores?   191

Thin Provisioning 193

Data Deduplication         195

Array Compression         196

Downside of Saving Space   197

Designing for Performance     197

Measuring Storage Performance       197

How to Calculate a Disk’s IOPS        197

What Can Affect a Storage Array’s IOPS?        198

Measuring Your Existing IOPS Usage  206

Local Storage vs Shared Storage 207

Local Storage      207

What about Local Shared Storage?     209

Shared Storage    212

Choosing a Protocol  212

Fibre Channel     215

iSCSI    218

NFS     221

Protocol Choice    224

Multipathing        225

SAN Multipathing 225

NAS Multipathing 229

vSphere Storage Features       229

vSphere Storage APIs        230

Performance and Capacity   233

Storage Management        242

Summary  247

Chapter 7 - Virtual Machines  249

Components of a Virtual Machine        249

Base Virtual Machine Hardware       251

Hardware Versions 251

Virtual Machine Maximums 253

Hardware Choices 253

Removing or Disabling Unused Hardware       259

Virtual Machine Options    259

SDRS Rules       263

vApp Options     263

vServices         263

Naming Virtual Machines   263

VMware Tools     264

Notes, Custom Attributes, and Tagging 264

Sizing Virtual Machines        265

Virtual Machine CPU Design   265

Cores per Socket   267

CPU Hot Plug     267

Resources         268

Additional CPU Settings     269

Virtual Machine Memory Design         270

Resources         271

Additional Memory Settings 272

Virtual Machine Storage Design 272

Disks    273

Disk Types        274

Disk Shares and IOPS Limits 275

Disk Modes       275

SCSI Controllers   276

RDMs   277

Storage vMotion   279

Cross-Host vMotion         279

VM Storage Profi le 280

Virtual Machine Network Design        280

vNIC Drivers      281

MAC Addresses   284

VLAN Tagging    284

Guest Software       285

Selecting an OS    285

Guest OS and Application Licensing   286

Disk Alignment   287

Defragmentation  288

Optimizing the Guest for the Hypervisor        289

Clones, Templates, and vApps   291

Clones   291

Templates         292

Preparing a Template        293

Virtual Appliances 294

OVF Standard     295

vApps   295

Virtual Machine Availability    295

vSphere VM Availability     296

Third-Party VM Clustering  298

vCenter Infrastructure Navigator         302

Summary  303

Chapter 8 - Datacenter Design  305

vSphere Inventory Structure    305

Inventory Root    306

Folders  307

Datacenters       307

Clusters 309

Resource Pools    309

Hosts    309

Virtual Machines  309

Templates         309

Storage  309

Networks         310

Why and How to Structure   310

Clusters    311

EVC     313

Swapfile Policy    313

Cluster Sizing     314

Resource Pools       315

Resource Pool Settings      317

Admission Control 319

Distributed Resource Scheduling         319

Load Balancing    319

Affinity Rules     324

Distributed Power Management       327

High Availability and Clustering         331

High Availability  331

Fault Tolerance    347

Summary  355

Chapter 9 - Designing with Security in Mind       357

Why Is Security Important?     357

Separation of Duties  358

Risk Scenario      358

Risk Mitigation    359

vCenter Server Permissions     360

Risk Scenario      360

Risk Mitigation    360

Security in vCenter Linked Mode         363

Risk Scenario      363

Risk Mitigation    363

Command-Line Access to ESXi Hosts     365

Risk Scenario      365

Risk Mitigation    366

Managing Network Access     368

Risk Scenario      368

Risk Mitigation    369

The DMZ   371

Risk Scenario      371

Risk Mitigation    372

Firewalls in the Virtual Infrastructure    375

The Problem      375

The Solution      376

Change Management 378

Risk Scenario      378

Risk Mitigation    378

Protecting the VMs   379

Risk Scenario      379

Risk Mitigation    380

Protecting the Data   381

Risk Scenario      382

Risk Mitigation    382

Cloud Computing    383

Risk Scenario      383

Risk Mitigation    384

Auditing and Compliance      385

The Problem      385

The Solution      385

Summary  387

Chapter 10 - Monitoring and Capacity Planning     389

Nothing Is Static     389

Building Monitoring into the Design      390

Determining the Tools to Use 390

Selecting the Items to Monitor         396

Selecting Thresholds        398

Taking Action on Thresholds 399

Alerting the Operators      400

Incorporating Capacity Planning in the Design      400

Planning before Virtualization        401

Planning during Virtualization        405

Summary  408

Chapter 11 - Bringing a vSphere Design Together     411

Sample Design       411

Business Overview for XYZ Widgets   411

Hypervisor Design 413

vSphere Management Layer  413

Server Hardware  413

Networking Confi guration   414

Shared Storage Configuration         414

VM Design        415

VMware Datacenter Design  415

Security Architecture       415

Monitoring and Capacity Planning     416

Examining the Design         416

Hypervisor Design 416

vSphere Management Layer  417

Server Hardware  418

Networking Configuration   419

Shared Storage Confi guration         421

VM Design        423

VMware Datacenter Design  423

Security Architecture       424

Monitoring and Capacity Planning     424

Summary  425

Chapter 12 - vCloud Design    427

Differences between Cloud and Server Virtualization         428

Role of vCloud Director in Cloud Architecture      429

vCloud Director Use Cases     430

Use Case ---1       432

Use Case ---2       432

Use Case ---3       432

Use Case ---4       433

Components of the vCloud Management Stack      433

vCloud Cell and NFS Design Considerations        435

Management vs Consumable Resources   437

Database Concepts    438

vCenter Design      439

vCloud Management: Physical Design    442

The Physical Side of Provider Virtual Datacenters   444

The Logical Side of Provider Virtual Datacenters    449

Network Pool Decisions        455

External Networks    456

Designing Organizations, Catalogs, and Policies     461

Correlating Organizational Networks to Design     464

End Users and vApp Networking         466

Designing Organization Virtual Datacenters        470

Multiple Sites        476

Backup and Disaster Recovery  477

Summary  478

Index       479

Forbes Guthrie, VCAP-DCD, (tweet @forbesguthrie) is a technical architect who specializes in virtualization and storage technologies. He is also a VMware vExpert and the creator of several popular virtualization reference cards. Forbes blogs at www.vReference.com. Scott Lowe, VCDX 39, (tweet @scott_lowe) is a technical architect at VMware. Scott is a VMware vExpert and the author of Mastering VMware vSphere 5. Scott also writes at blog.scottlowe.org, which attracts thousands of visitors daily.

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