Recent scientific advances and technological breakthroughs have revolutionized our understanding of the molecular and biochemical processes that control fruit ripening. The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening provides a succinct yet detailed overview of the physiochemical and molecular changes in fruit that impact its quality, color, flavor, and texture.
The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening takes a mechanistic approach that compares and contrasts ripening processes between various fruit species. An understanding of the basic mechanisms that control ripening processes can then be applied toward improvement in yield, nutritional content, and distribution. Chapters explore diverse biological aspects of the ripening process reinforced by vibrant full–color illustrations, including the evolution of fruits, the role of the plant hormone ethylene, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and the structure of fruit cell walls.
Providing an essential update for this fast moving area of research, The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening will be a valuable resource for plant and crop science researchers, crop biotechnologists, industry personnel, horticulturists, and food scientists.
List of Contributors ix
Chapter 1 Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening 1Sonia Osorio and Alisdair R. Fernie
Central Carbon Metabolism 4
Ethylene in Ripening 7
Cell Wall Metabolism 11
Concluding Remarks 13
Chapter 2 Fruit An Angiosperm Innovation 21Sandra Knapp and Amy Litt
Fruit in the Fossil Record 30
Fruit Variation and Angiosperm Phylogeny 32
Fruit Development 33
Fruit as a Driver of Angiosperm Diversity 36
Chapter 3 Ethylene and the Control of Fruit Ripening 43Don Grierson
Ethylene and Climacteric and Nonclimacteric Fruits 46
A Molecular Explanation for System–1 and System–2 Ethylene 48
Ethylene and Ripening Gene Networks in Flower and Fruit Development 53
Ethylene Perception and Signaling 54
Ethylene Response Factors 60
Ethylene and Ripening Gene Expression 60
Chapter 4 Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Chlorophyll Degradation 75Peter M. Bramley
Distribution of Carotenoids and Chlorophylls in Fruit 75
Chlorophyll Degradation and Recycling 78
Carotenoids and Carotenoid Metabolites 82
Future Perspectives 100
Chapter 5 Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins 117Laura Jaakola
Cinnamic Acids 119
Monolignols, Lignans, and Lignin 120
Engineering Elevated Levels of Flavonoids and Other Phenylpropanoids 128
Chapter 6 Biosynthesis of Volatile Compounds 135Antonio Granell and Jos´e Luis Rambla
Metabolic Pathways 136
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Volatiles 152
Metabolic Engineering of the Fruit Volatile Pathways 153
Future Perspectives 154
Chapter 7 Cell Wall Architecture and Metabolism in Ripening Fruit and the Complex Relationship with Softening 163Eliel Ruiz–May and Jocelyn K.C. Rose
Building Blocks of Fruit Cell Walls 164
The Architecture of Fruit Cell Walls 168
Cell Wall Dynamics in Ripening Fruit 171
The Cuticular Cell Wall and Fruit Softening 177
Chapter 8 Regulatory Networks Controlling Ripening 189Betsy Ampopho, Natalie Chapman, Graham B. Seymour, and James J. Giovannoni
Hormonal Control 189
Genetic Networks 191
Epigenetic Regulation 200
Graham B. Seymour is Professor of Plant Biotechnology and Head of the Plant and Crop Science Division at The University of Nottingham, UK.
Mervin Poole is Section Manager at Campden BRI – the UK′s largest independent membership–based organization carrying out research and development for the food and drinks industry worldwide.
James J. Giovannoni is a Research Molecular Biologist for the United States Department of Agriculture, Professor at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research and Adjunct Professor of Plant Biology at Cornell University, USA.
Gregory A. Tucker is Professor of Plant Biochemistry and Associate Dean (Science) at The University of Nottingham, UK.