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The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening

  • ID: 2330647
  • Book
  • May 2013
  • 226 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Recent scientific advances and technological breakthroughs have revolutionized our understanding of the molecular and biochemical processes that control fruit ripening. The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening provides a succinct yet detailed overview of the physiochemical and molecular changes in fruit that impact its quality, color, flavor, and texture.

The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening takes a mechanistic approach that compares and contrasts ripening processes between various fruit species.  An understanding of the basic mechanisms that control ripening processes can then be applied toward improvement in yield, nutritional content, and distribution. Chapters explore diverse biological aspects of the ripening process reinforced by vibrant full–color illustrations, including the evolution of fruits, the role of the plant hormone ethylene, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and the structure of fruit cell walls.

Providing an essential update for this fast moving area of research, The Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening will be a valuable resource for plant and crop science researchers, crop biotechnologists, industry personnel, horticulturists, and food scientists.

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List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening 1Sonia Osorio and Alisdair R. Fernie

Introduction 1

Central Carbon Metabolism 4

Ethylene in Ripening 7

Polyamines 9

Volatiles 10

Cell Wall Metabolism 11

Concluding Remarks 13

References 13

Chapter 2 Fruit An Angiosperm Innovation 21Sandra Knapp and Amy Litt

Introduction 21

Fruit in the Fossil Record 30

Fruit Variation and Angiosperm Phylogeny 32

Fruit Development 33

Fruit as a Driver of Angiosperm Diversity 36

Acknowledgments 38

References 38

Chapter 3 Ethylene and the Control of Fruit Ripening 43Don Grierson

Introduction 43

Ethylene and Climacteric and Nonclimacteric Fruits 46

A Molecular Explanation for System–1 and System–2 Ethylene 48

Ethylene and Ripening Gene Networks in Flower and Fruit Development 53

Ethylene Perception and Signaling 54

Ethylene Response Factors 60

Ethylene and Ripening Gene Expression 60

Conclusions 67

Acknowledgments 68

References 68

Chapter 4 Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Chlorophyll Degradation 75Peter M. Bramley

Introduction 75

Distribution of Carotenoids and Chlorophylls in Fruit 75

Chlorophyll Degradation and Recycling 78

Carotenoids and Carotenoid Metabolites 82

Future Perspectives 100

Acknowledgments 102

Bibliography 102

Chapter 5 Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins 117Laura Jaakola

Introduction 117

Cinnamic Acids 119

Monolignols, Lignans, and Lignin 120

Coumarins 120

Stilbenoids 122

Flavonoids 122

Engineering Elevated Levels of Flavonoids and Other Phenylpropanoids 128

Conclusion 129

References 129

Chapter 6 Biosynthesis of Volatile Compounds 135Antonio Granell and Jos´e Luis Rambla

Introduction 135

Metabolic Pathways 136

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Volatiles 152

Metabolic Engineering of the Fruit Volatile Pathways 153

Future Perspectives 154

References 155

Chapter 7 Cell Wall Architecture and Metabolism in Ripening Fruit and the Complex Relationship with Softening 163Eliel Ruiz–May and Jocelyn K.C. Rose

Introduction 163

Building Blocks of Fruit Cell Walls 164

The Architecture of Fruit Cell Walls 168

Cell Wall Dynamics in Ripening Fruit 171

The Cuticular Cell Wall and Fruit Softening 177

Summary 179

Acknowledgments 180

References 180

Chapter 8 Regulatory Networks Controlling Ripening 189Betsy Ampopho, Natalie Chapman, Graham B. Seymour, and James J. Giovannoni

Hormonal Control 189

Genetic Networks 191

Epigenetic Regulation 200

References 201

Index 207

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Graham B. Seymour is Professor of Plant Biotechnology and Head of the Plant and Crop Science Division at The University of Nottingham, UK.

Mervin Poole is Section Manager at Campden BRI – the UK′s largest independent membership–based organization carrying out research and development for the food and drinks industry worldwide.

James J. Giovannoni is a Research Molecular Biologist for the United States Department of Agriculture,  Professor at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research and Adjunct Professor of Plant Biology at Cornell University, USA.

Gregory A. Tucker is Professor of Plant Biochemistry and Associate Dean (Science) at The University of Nottingham, UK.

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