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Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Prevention, Diagnosis, Repair. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2330648
  • April 2013
  • 434 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Steel–reinforced concrete is used ubiquitously as a building material due to its unique combination of the high compressive strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of steel. Therefore, reinforced concrete is an ideal composite material that is used for a wide range of applications in structural engineering such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, harbor quays, foundations, tanks and pipes. To ensure durability of these structures, however, measures must be taken to prevent, diagnose and, if necessary, repair damage to the material especially due to corrosion of the steel reinforcement.

The book examines the different aspects of corrosion of steel in concrete, starting from basic and essential mechanisms of the phenomenon,

moving up to practical consequences for designers, contractors and owners both for new and existing reinforced and prestressed concrete

structures. It covers general aspects of corrosion and protection of reinforcement, forms of attack in the presence of carbonation and chlorides,

problems of hydrogen embrittlement as well as techniques of diagnosis, monitoring and repair. This second edition updates the contents with

recent findings on the different topics considered and bibliographic references, with particular attention to recent European standards. This

book is a self–contained treatment for civil and construction engineers, material scientists, advanced students and architects concerned with the design and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures. Readers will benefit from the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand corrosion in reinforced concrete and how to prevent it or keep it within acceptable limits.

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CEMENTS AND CEMENT PASTE

Portland Cement and Hydration Reactions

Porosity and Transport Processes

Blended Cements

Common Cements

Other Types of Cement

TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN CONCRETE

Composition of Pore Solution and Water Content

Diffusion

Capillary Suction

Permeation

Migration

Mechanisms and Significant Parameters

DEGRADATION OF CONCRETE

Freeze –

Thaw Attack

Attack by Acids and Pure Water

Sulfate Attack

Alkali Silica Reaction

Attack by Seawater

GENERAL ASPECTS

Initiation and Propagation of Corrosion

Corrosion Rate

Consequences

Behavior of Other Metals

CARBONATION–INDUCED CORROSION

Carbonation of Concrete

Initiation Time

Corrosion Rate

CHLORIDE–INDUCED CORROSION

Pitting Corrosion

Corrosion Initiation

Corrosion Rate

ELECTROCHEMICAL ASPECTS

Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion

Noncarbonated Concrete without Chlorides

Carbonated Concrete

Concrete Containing Chlorides

Structures under Cathodic or Anodic Polarization

MACROCELLS

Structures Exposed to the Atmosphere

Buried Structures and Immersed Structures

Electrochemical Aspects

Modeling of Macrocells

STRAY–CURRENT–INDUCED CORROSION

DC Stray Current

AC Stray Current

High–Strength Steel

Fiber–Reinforced Concrete

Inspection

Protection from Stray Current

HYDROGEN–INDUCED STRESS CORROSION CRACKING

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

Failure under Service of High–Strength Steel

Metallurgical, Mechanical and Load Conditions

Environmental Conditions

Hydrogen Generated during Operation

Hydrogen Generated before Ducts Are Filled

Protection of Prestressing Steel

DESIGN FOR DURABILITY

Factors Affecting Durability

Approaches to Service–Life Modeling

The Approach of the European Standards

The fi b Model Code for Service–Life Design for Chloride–Induced Corrosion

Other Methods

Additional Protection Measures

Costs

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY FOR CORROSION PREVENTION

Constituents of Concrete

Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Requirements for Concrete and Mix Design

Concrete Production

Design Details

Concrete with Special Properties

CORROSION INHIBITORS

Mechanism of Corrosion Inhibitors

Mode of Action of Corrosion Inhibitors

Corrosion Inhibitors to Prevent or Delay Corrosion Initiation

Corrosion Inhibitors to Reduce the Propagation Rate of Corrosion

Transport of the Inhibitor into Mortar or Concrete

Field Tests and Experience with Corrosion Inhibitors

Critical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors

Effectiveness of Corrosion Inhibitors

SURFACE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

General Remarks

Organic Coatings

Hydrophobic Treatment

Treatments That Block Pores

Cementitious Coatings and Layers

Concluding Remarks on Effectiveness and Durability of Surface Protection Systems

CORROSION–RESISTANT REINFORCEMENT

Steel for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete

Stainless Steel Rebars

Galvanized Steel Rebars

Epoxy–Coated Rebars

INSPECTION AND CONDITION ASSESSMENT

Visual Inspection and Cover Depth

Electrochemical Inspection Techniques

Analysis of Concrete

MONITORING

Introduction

Monitoring with Nonelectrochemical Sensors

Monitoring with Electrochemical Sensors

Critical Factors

On the Way to 'Smart Structures'

Structural Health Monitoring

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR REPAIR

Approach to Repair

Overview of Repair Methods for Carbonated Structures

Overview of Repair Methods for Chloride–Contaminated Structures

Design, Requirements, Execution and Control of Repair Works

CONVENTIONAL REPAIR

Assessment of the Condition of the Structure

Removal of Concrete

Preparation of Reinforcement

Application of Repair Material

Additional Protection

Strengthening

ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

Development of the Techniques

Effects of the Circulation of Current

Cathodic Protection and Cathodic Prevention

Electrochemical Chloride Extraction and Realkalization

INDEX

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Luca Bertolini is Full Professor in the field of materials science and technology at the Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy, where he teaches Construction Materials and Durability of Materials to students of Civil Engineering and Building Engineering Faculties. The scientific activity of Luca Bertolini is focused on the durability of building materials, especially reinforced concrete.

Bernhard Elsener is Professor for materials science at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Cagliari, Italy, and a lecturer at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. He is an internationally well–known expert on the durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. His extensive research work and numerous publications focus on non–destructive methods to detect and quantify corrosion, the use of new electrically isolated post–tensioning tendons and electrochemical restoration techniques.

Pietro Pedeferri (1938–2008), a graduate in chemical engineering and former Professor of Electrochemistry at the University of Bari, has been Professor of Corrosion and Protection of Materials at the Technical University of Milan since 1983. His work has been mainly concerned with the corrosion of steel in concrete, and he has published more than 300 papers and a dozen books in the field of corrosion and materials technology.

Elena Redaelli is Assistant Professor in the field of materials science and technology at the Polytechnic University of Milan where she teaches Construction Materials to Building Engineering students. Her main scientific interests are connected with the corrosion of steel in concrete, its characterization and methods to prevent and control it. In particular, her research activity has focused on electrochemical techniques in concrete and methods for durability design of concrete structures.

Rob B. Polder is a senior materials scientist at the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, and a full professor of materials and durability at Delft University of Technology in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. The main focus of his work is on corrosion of steel in concrete, from modeling and prediction to prevention and remediation, including electrochemical methods.

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