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Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. Production, Composition and Health - Product Image

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. Production, Composition and Health

  • ID: 2330685
  • May 2013
  • 728 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Milk is nature’s most complete food, and dairy products are considered to be the most nutritious foods of all. The traditional view of the role of milk has been greatly expanded in recent years beyond the horizon of nutritional subsistence of infants: it is now recognized to be more than a source of nutrients for the healthy growth of children and nourishment of adult humans.

Alongside its major proteins (casein and whey), milk contains biologically active compounds, which have important physiological and biochemical functions and significant impacts upon human metabolism, nutrition and health. Many of these compounds have been proven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition and health.

This comprehensive reference is the first to address such a wide range of topics related to milk production and human health, including: mammary secretion, production, sanitation, quality standards and chemistry, as well as nutrition, milk allergies, lactose intolerance, and the bioactive and therapeutic compounds found in milk. In addition to cow’s milk, the book also covers the milk of non-bovine dairy species which is of economic importance around the world.

The Editors have assembled a team of internationally renowned experts to contribute to this exhaustive volume which will be essential reading for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food scientists, allergy specialists and health professionals.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Contributors xxiv

Preface xxvii

1 Production Systems around the World 1
Christian F. Gall

1.1 Ecological conditions 1

1.2 Systems 2

1.3 Feed resources 6

1.4 Animal species used for milk production 6

1.5 Breed improvement 12

1.6 Nutrition 14

1.7 Animal health 15

1.8 Reproduction 15

1.9 Rearing of youngstock 17

1.10 Housing 17

1.11 Milking 18

1.12 Milk marketing 18

1.13 Economics of milk production 20

1.14 Criticism of milk production 22

1.15 Dairy development 23

References 24

2 Mammary Secretion and Lactation 31
Young W. Park, Pierre-Guy Marnet, Lucile Yart, and George F.W. Haenlein

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Origin and anatomy of mammary glands 32

2.3 Mammogenesis and mammary gland growth 33

2.4 Milk ejection (lactogenesis) and secretion 35

2.5 Maintenance of lactation (galactopoiesis) 36

2.6 Secretion of milk and its constituents 38

2.7 Involution of the mammary gland 40

2.8 Challenges and opportunities in mammary secretion today and tomorrow 41

References 42

3 Milking Procedures and Facilities 46
Pierre-Guy Marnet

3.1 Introduction 46

3.2 Machine milked animals throughout the world 46

3.3 Milking principles 48

3.4 Milking machine components and effects on milk harvesting and quality 49

3.5 Milking practices 59

3.6 Milking management of animals 60

3.7 Conclusions 61

References 61

4 Milk Lipids 65
Michael H. Gordon

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Fatty acids 65

4.3 Triacylglycerols 67

4.4 Polar lipids: phospholipids and cholesterol 68

4.5 Conjugated linoleic acids 68

4.6 Genetic influences on milk fat concentrations and fatty acid profiles 70

4.7 Influence of feeds, feeding regimes, pasture and stage of lactation on milk lipids and their levels 71

4.8 Digestion of milk fat 72

4.9 Nutritional effects of milk fatty acids 72

4.10 Evidence for effects of milk fat on CVD from prospective cohort studies 74

4.11 Evidence about the effects of dairy products on non-lipid risk factors 75

4.12 Conclusion 75

References 75

5 Milk Major and Minor Proteins, Polymorphisms and Non-protein Nitrogen 80
Sándor Kukovics and Tímea Németh

5.1 Milk proteins 80

5.2 The major milk proteins 81

5.3 The polymorphisms of milk proteins 86

5.4 Milk protein variants and human nutrition: the human benefit 97

5.5 The minor proteins 99

5.6 Non-protein nitrogen 101

References 103

6 Milk Protein Allergy 111
Melanie L. Downs, Jamie L. Kabourek, Joseph L. Baumert, and Steve L. Taylor

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 IgE-mediated food allergy 111

6.3 Delayed food allergies 116

6.4 Cows’ milk allergy 116

6.5 Cross-reactivity with milk from other species 120

6.6 Effects of processing on allergenicity 121

6.7 Other mechanisms 123

References 124

7 Milk Carbohydrates and Oligosaccharides 129
Alessandra Crisà

7.1 Introduction 129

7.2 Lactose and minor sugar 129

7.3 Oligosaccharides 134

7.4 Carbohydrates as prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract 138

7.5 Other oligosaccharide functions 139

7.6 Genetics of carbohydrate metabolism during lactation 140

References 141

8 Milk Bioactive Proteins and Peptides 148
Hannu J. Korhonen and Pertti Marnila

8.1 Introduction 148

8.2 Caseins 149

8.3 Whey proteins 149

8.4 Bioactive peptides 158

8.5 Other minor proteins 163

8.6 Conclusions 163

References 164

9 Milk Minerals, Trace Elements, and Macroelements 172
Frédéric Gaucheron

9.1 Introduction 172

9.2 Macroelements in milk and dairy products from the cow 172

9.3 Trace elements in milk and dairy products from the cow 182

9.4 Minerals in milk and dairy products of other species 188

9.5 Conclusion 191

References 191

10 Vitamins in Milks 200
Benoît Graulet, Bruno Martin, Claire Agabriel and Christiane L. Girard

10.1 Introduction 200

10.2 Availability of vitamins in milk in relation to human health 201

10.3 Animal and nutritional factors modulating vitamin content in bovine milk 212

10.4 Vitamin content in cheeses 214

10.5 Conclusions 215

References 215

11 Milk Minor Constituents, Enzymes, Hormones, Growth Factors, and Organic Acids 220
Lígia R. Rodrigues

11.1 Introduction 220

11.2 Milk minor constituents 221

11.3 Milk enzymes 227

11.4 Milk hormones and growth factors 233

11.5 Milk organic acids 237

11.6 Future perspectives and concerns 238

References 239

12 Lactose Intolerance 246
Salam A. Ibrahim and Rabin Gyawali

12.1 Introduction 246

12.2 Conclusions 256

References 256

13 Milk Quality Standards and Controls 261
Young W. Park, Marzia Albenzio, Agostino Sevi, and George F.W. Haenlein

13.1 Introduction 261

13.2 General principles for production of quality milk 262

13.3 Regulatory standards of quality milk and dairy products for different species 262

13.4 Quality control principles for milk production on dairy farms 264

13.5 HACCP plans and hazard components in the production of quality dairy products 265

13.6 Recommended control systems for production of quality milk products 271

13.7 Etiology of mastitis and milk hygiene 272

13.8 Cell types and composition of milk in response to mammary gland inflammation 273

13.9 Flow cytometric method for leukocyte differential count 275

13.10 Factors affecting milk composition and yield in relation to milk quality 277

13.11 Factors affecting quality of raw milk before and after milking 281

13.12 Pasteurization and post-pasteurization treatments for production of quality milk 282

References 284

14 Sanitary Procedures, Heat Treatments and Packaging 288
Golfo Moatsou

14.1 Introduction 288

14.2 Sanitary aspects related to raw milk 288

14.3 Strategies for producing heat-treated milk for human consumption 293

14.4 Effects of heat treatments on milk 298

14.5 Conclusions 305

References 305

15 Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Milk 310
Irma V. Wolf, Carina V. Bergamini, Maria C. Perotti, and Erica R. Hynes

15.1 Introduction 310

15.2 Significance of flavor and off-flavor on milk quality: sensory and instrumental methods 311

15.3 Milk from ruminant species 312

15.4 Milk from monogastric species 328

References 329

16 Fermented Milk and Yogurt 338
Sae-Hun Kim and Sejong Oh

16.1 General aspects of fermented milk 338

16.2 Standards and regulations 343

16.3 Health benefits of fermented milk products 346

16.4 Future aspects 353

References 353

17 Cheese Science and Technology 357
Patrick F. Fox and Timothy P. Guinee

17.1 Introduction 357

17.2 Selection and treatment of milk 357

17.3 Conversion of milk to cheese curd 361

17.4 Post-coagulation operations 365

17.5 Membrane processing in cheese technology 371

17.6 Ripening 372

17.7 Factors that affect the quality of cheese 375

17.8 Cheese flavour 377

17.9 Cheese texture 377

17.10 Processed cheese products 378

17.11 Cheese as a food ingredient 380

17.12 Cheese production and consumption 381

17.13 Classification of cheese 381

17.14 Cheese as a source of nutrients 383

17.15 Conclusions 385

References 386

18 Butter, Ghee, and Cream Products 390
Hae-Soo Kwak, Palanivel Ganesan, and Mohammad Al Mijan

18.1 Introduction 390

18.2 Manufacture of butter, ghee, and cream products 391

18.3 Nutritive values of butter, ghee, and cream 394

18.4 Human health benefit components in butter, ghee, and cream 397

18.5 Conjugated linoleic acid 400

18.6 Short- and medium-chain fatty acids 404

18.7 New approach on cholesterol removal in butter, ghee, and cream 404

18.8 Conclusion 405

References 405

19 Condensed and Powdered Milk 412
Pierre Schuck

19.1 Introduction 412

19.2 World dairy powder situation 412

19.3 Overview of operations 413

19.4 Properties of dehydrated products 425

References 432

20 Frozen Dairy Foods 435
Arun Kilara and Ramesh C. Chandan

20.1 Introduction 435

20.2 Technology essentials 435

20.3 Nutritional profile of ice cream 448

References 456

21 Nutritional Formulae for Infants and Young Children 458
Séamus McSweeney, Jonathan O’Regan and Dan O’Callaghan

21.1 Introduction 458

21.2 History of infant formula 458

21.3 Classification and regulation of formulae for infants and young children 459

21.4 Safety and quality 459

21.5 Product range and formulation 459

21.6 Processing and manufacture of formulae for infants and young children 471

21.7 Packaging of formulae for infants and young children 473

21.8 Future developments 473

References 473

22 Whey and Whey Products 477
Sanjeev Anand, Som Nath Khanal, and Chenchaiah Marella

22.1 Introduction 477

22.2 Sources and types of whey 477

22.3 Whey production and utilization 480

22.4 Major commercialized whey products 480

22.5 Nutritional value of whey components 487

22.6 Future prospects for dietary applications of whey 492

References 492

23 Goat Milk 498
George Zervas and Eleni Tsiplakou

23.1 Introduction 498

23.2 Composition of goat milk 499

23.3 Effects of feeding and management on goat milk composition 502

23.4 The contribution of goat milk to human nutrition and health 504

23.5 Conclusions 512

References 512

24 Buffalo Milk 519
Sarfraz Ahmad

24.1 Introduction 519

24.2 Major milk constituents and their nutritional importance 522

24.3 Nutritional and health benefits of buffalo milk and its products 538

24.4 Conclusions 545

References 546

25 Sheep Milk 554
Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Mercedes Ramos, Isidra Recio and Manuela Juárez

25.1 Introduction 554

25.2 Lipids 555

25.3 Proteins and their biological functions 561

25.4 Carbohydrates 567

25.5 Minerals 568

25.6 Vitamins 569

25.7 Sheep milk products 569

References 570

26 Camel Milk 578
Kenji Fukuda

26.1 Introduction 578

26.2 Camel milk production and utilization worldwide 579

26.3 Camel milk components and their nutritional aspects 582

26.4 Milk allergy 586

26.5 Health-beneficial microorganisms in camel milk and its products 587

References 589

27 Horse and Donkey Milk 594
Elisabetta Salimei and Francesco Fantuz

27.1 Introduction 594

27.2 Worldwide horse and donkey distribution and milk production 594

27.3 Gross composition and physical properties of horse and donkey milk 596

27.4 Nitrogen fraction of horse and donkey milk 598

27.5 Fat and lipid fractions in horse and donkey milk 601

27.6 Lactose and other carbohydrates in horse and donkey milk 602

27.7 Minerals and vitamins in horse and donkey milk 603

27.8 Bioactive compounds 603

27.9 Horse and donkey milk in the human diet and well-being 605

27.10 Conclusions 608

References 609

28 Sow Milk 614
Sung Woo Kim

28.1 Introduction 614

28.2 Porcine mammary gland 614

28.3 Porcine colostrum and milk 621

28.4 Dietary manipulations that affect milk production and composition 622

28.5 Sow milk in human nutrition research 623

28.6 Summary 623

References 623

29 Yak Milk 627
Ying Ma, Shenghua He, and Haimei Li

29.1 Introduction 627

29.2 Basic composition 627

29.3 Physical characteristics 629

29.4 Proteins 630

29.5 Lipids 638

29.6 Minerals 640

29.7 Vitamins 640

References 641

30 Other Minor Species Milk (Reindeer, Caribou, Musk Ox, Llama, Alpaca, Moose, Elk, and Others) 644
Young W. Park and George F.W. Haenlein

30.1 Introduction 644

30.2 General aspects of milk of minor species 644

30.3 Production, composition, and utilization of milk from minor dairy species 645

References 656

31 Human Milk 659
Duarte P.M. Torres and Young W. Park

31.1 Introduction 659

31.2 Human milk feeding and its practice 660

31.3 Production of human milk 661

31.4 Composition of human milk 661

31.5 Infant formulae and alternative feeding 672

References 673

Index 679

A color plate section falls between pages 52 and 53

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Professor Young W. Park, Georgia Small Ruminant Research and Extension Center, Fort Valley State University, Georgia and Adjunct Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

Professor George F.W. Haenlein, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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