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Air Pollution Prevention and Control. Bioreactors and Bioenergy - Product Image

Air Pollution Prevention and Control. Bioreactors and Bioenergy

  • ID: 2330820
  • April 2013
  • 570 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

In recent years, air pollution has become a major worldwide concern. Air pollutants can affect metabolic activity, impede healthy development, and exhibit carcinogenic and toxic properties in humans. Over the past two decades, the use of microbes to remove pollutants from contaminated air streams has become a widely accepted and efficient alternative to the classical physical and chemical treatment technologies. Air Pollution Prevention and Control: Bioreactors and Bioenergy focusses on these biotechnological alternatives looking at both the optimization of bioreactors and the development of cleaner biofuels.

Structured in five parts, the book covers:

- Fundamentals and microbiological aspects
- Biofilters, bioscrubbers and other end-of-pipe treatment technologies
- Specific applications of bioreactors
- Biofuels production from pollutants and renewable resources (including biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel and bioethanol) and its environmental impacts
- Case studies of applications including biotrickling filtration of waste gases, industrial bioscrubbers applied in different industries and biogas upgradingAir Pollution Prevention and Control: Bioreactors and Bioenergy is the first reference work to give a broad overview of bioprocesses for the mitigation of air pollution. Primarily intended for researchers and students in environmental engineering, biotechnology and applied microbiology, the book will also be of interest to industrial and governmental researchers.

List of Contributors xix

Preface xxi

I FUNDAMENTALS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS 1

1 Introduction to Air Pollution 3
Christian Kennes and Maria C. Veiga

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Types and sources of air pollutants 3

1.2.1 Particulate matter 5

1.2.2 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide 6

1.2.3 Sulphur oxides 7

1.2.4 Nitrogen oxides 7

1.2.5 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 9

1.2.6 Odours 10

1.2.7 Ozone 11

1.2.8 Calculating concentrations of gaseous pollutants 11

1.3 Air pollution control technologies 11

1.3.1 Particulate matter 11

1.3.2 Volatile organic and inorganic compounds 12

1.3.2.1 Nonbiological processes 12

1.3.2.2 Bioprocesses 15

1.3.3 Environmentally friendly bioenergy 17

1.4 Conclusions 17

References 17

2 Biodegradation and Bioconversion of Volatile Pollutants 19
Christian Kennes, Haris N. Abubackar and Maria C. Veiga

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Biodegradation of volatile compounds 20

2.2.1 Inorganic compounds 20

2.2.1.1 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 20

2.2.1.2 Ammonia 20

2.2.2 Organic compounds 21

2.2.2.1 CxHy pollutants 22

2.2.2.2 CxHyOz pollutants 22

2.2.2.3 Organic sulphur compounds 22

2.2.2.4 Halogenated organic compounds 23

2.3 Mass balance calculations 24

2.4 Bioconversion of volatile compounds 25

2.4.1 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide 25

2.4.2 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 26

2.5 Conclusions 27

References 27

3 Identification and Characterization of Microbial Communities in Bioreactors 31
Luc Malhautier, L. Cabrol, S. Bayle and J.-L. Fanlo

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Molecular techniques to characterize the microbial communities in bioreactors 32

3.2.1 Quantification of the community members 32

3.2.1.1 Microscopic direct counts 32

3.2.1.2 Quantitative PCR 33

3.2.2 Assessment of microbial community diversity and structure 34

3.2.2.1 Biochemical methods 34

3.2.2.2 Genetic fingerprinting methods 34

3.2.2.3 Analysis of fingerprint data by multivariate statistical tools and diversity indices 38

3.2.3 Determination of the microbial community composition 39

3.2.3.1 Construction of small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA clone libraries followed by phylogenetic identification by randomly sequencing the clones 39

3.2.3.2 Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) 39

3.2.4 Techniques linking microbial identity to ecological function 40

3.2.4.1 Stable isotope probing (SIP) 40

3.2.4.2 Microautoradiography combined with FISH (FISH-MAR) 41

3.2.5 Microarray techniques 41

3.2.6 Synthesis 42

3.3 The link of microbial community structure with ecological function in engineered ecosystems 42

3.3.1 Introduction 42

3.3.2 Temporal and spatial dynamics of the microbial community structure under stationary conditions in bioreactors 43

3.3.2.1 Temporal stability and dynamics of the total bacterial community structure in the steady state 43

3.3.2.2 Microbial and functional stratification along the biofilter height 45

3.3.2.3 The microbial community structure–ecosystem function relationship 45

3.3.3 Impact of environmental disturbances on the microbial community structure within bioreactors 45

3.3.4 Conclusions 47

References 47

II BIOREACTORS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL 57

4 Biofilters 59
Eldon R. Rene, Maria C. Veiga and Christian Kennes

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Historical perspective of biofilters 59

4.3 Process fundamentals 60

4.4 Operation parameters of biofilters 62

4.4.1 Empty-bed residence time (EBRT) 62

4.4.2 Volumetric loading rate (VLR) 63

4.4.3 Mass loading rate (MLR) 63

4.4.4 Elimination capacity (EC) 63

4.4.5 Removal efficiency (RE) 63

4.4.6 CO2 production rate (PCO2) 63

4.5 Design considerations 64

4.5.1 Reactor sizing 64

4.5.2 Irrigation system 66

4.5.3 Leachate collection and disposal 66

4.6 Start-up of biofilters 68

4.7 Parameters affecting biofilter performance 70

4.7.1 Inlet concentrations and pollutant load 70

4.7.2 Composition of waste gas and interaction patterns 71

4.7.3 Biomass support medium 72

4.7.4 Temperature 75

4.7.5 pH 78

4.7.6 Oxygen availability 79

4.7.7 Nutrient availability 80

4.7.8 Moisture content and relative humidity 81

4.7.9 Polluted gas flow direction 83

4.7.10 Carbon dioxide generation rates 83

4.7.11 Pressure drop 85

4.8 Role of microorganisms and fungal growth in biofilters 87

4.9 Dynamic loading pattern and starvation conditions in biofilters 89

4.10 On-line monitoring and control (intelligent) systems for biofilters 93

4.10.1 On-line flame ionization detector (FID) and photo-ionization detector (PID) analysers 93

4.10.2 On-line proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) 94

4.10.3 Intelligent moisture control systems 94

4.10.4 Differential neural network (DNN) sensor 95

4.11 Mathematical expressions for biofilters 95

4.12 Artificial neural network-based models 97

4.12.1 Back error propagation (BEP) algorithm 97

4.12.2 Important considerations during neural network modelling 99

4.12.2.1 Data selection, division and normalization 99

4.12.2.2 Network parameters 100

4.12.2.3 Sensitivity analysis of input parameters 101

4.12.2.4 Estimating errors in prediction 102

4.12.3 Neural network model development for biofilters and specific examples 103

4.13 Fuzzy logic-based models 105

4.14 Adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system-based models for biofilters 108

4.15 Conclusions 111

References 111

5 Biotrickling Filters 121
Christian Kennes and Maria C. Veiga

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Main characteristics of BTFs 122

5.2.1 General aspects 122

5.2.2 Packing material 123

5.2.3 Biomass and biofilm 126

5.2.4 Trickling phase 126

5.2.5 Gas EBRT 128

5.2.6 Liquid and gas velocities 129

5.3 Pressure drop and clogging 130

5.3.1 Excess biomass accumulation 130

5.3.1.1 Limitation of biomass growth 131

5.3.1.2 Physical and chemical methods 132

5.3.1.3 Biological methods – predation 132

5.3.1.4 Cleaning the packing material outside the reactor 133

5.3.2 Accumulation of solid chemicals 133

5.4 Full-scale applications and scaling up 134

5.5 Conclusions 135

References 135

6 Bioscrubbers 139
Pierre Le Cloirec and Philippe Humeau

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 General approach of bioscrubbers 140

6.3 Operating conditions 141

6.3.1 Absorption column 142

6.3.2 Biodegradation step – activated sludge reactor 143

6.4 Removing families of pollutants 143

6.4.1 Volatile organic compound (VOC) removal 144

6.4.2 Odor control 146

6.4.3 Sulfur compounds degradation 146

6.4.3.1 Sulfur compounds present in air 146

6.4.3.2 Biogas desulfurization 147

6.4.3.3 Ammonia absorption and bio-oxidation 147

6.5 Treatment of by-products generated by bioscrubbers 148

6.6 Conclusions and trends 148

References 149

7 Membrane Bioreactors 155
Raquel Lebrero, Ra´ ul Mu˜ noz, Amit Kumar and Herman Van Langenhove

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Membrane basics 156

7.2.1 Types of membranes 156

7.2.1.1 Porous membranes 157

7.2.1.2 Dense membranes 157

7.2.1.3 Composite membranes 158

7.2.2 Membrane materials 159

7.2.3 Membrane characterization parameters 159

7.2.3.1 Membrane thickness 159

7.2.3.2 Membrane performance: selectivity and permeance 159

7.2.4 Mass transport through the membrane 160

7.2.4.1 Transport in porous membranes 162

7.2.4.2 Transport in homogeneous membranes 162

7.3 Reactor configurations 163

7.3.1 Flat-sheet membranes 164

7.3.1.1 Plate and frame modules 164

7.3.1.2 Spiral-wound modules 164

7.3.2 Tubular configuration membranes 165

7.3.2.1 Tubular modules 165

7.3.2.2 Capillary membrane modules 166

7.3.2.3 Hollow-fiber membrane modules 166

7.3.3 Membrane-based bioreactors 166

7.4 Microbiology 166

7.5 Performance of membrane bioreactors 168

7.5.1 Membrane-based bioreactors 168

7.5.2 Bioreactor operation: influence of the operating parameters 169

7.6 Membrane bioreactor modeling 170

7.7 Applications of membrane bioreactors in biological waste-gas treatment 172

7.7.1 Comparison with other technologies 172

7.8 New applications: CO2–NOx sequestration 173

7.8.1 NOx removal 173

7.8.2 CO2 sequestration 176

7.9 Future needs 177

References 178

8 Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactors 185
Hala Fam and Andrew J. Daugulis

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Features of the sequestering phase – selection criteria 186

8.3 Liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) 187

8.3.1 Performance 187

8.3.2 Mass transfer 189

8.3.2.1 Mass transfer pathways and mechanisms 190

8.3.2.2 Substrate uptake mechanisms 191

8.3.2.3 Mass transfer of poorly soluble substrates and oxygen 192

8.3.2.4 Physical parameters affecting Kla 193

8.3.3 Modeling and design elements 194

8.3.4 Limitations and research opportunities 196

8.4 Solids as the partitioning phase 197

8.4.1 Rationale 197

8.4.2 Performance 197

8.4.3 Mass transfer 198

8.4.4 Modeling and design elements 199

8.4.5 Limitations and research opportunities 200

References 200

9 Rotating Biological Contactors 207
R. Ravi, K. Sarayu, S. Sandhya and T. Swaminathan

9.1 Introduction 207

9.1.1 Limitations of conventional gas-phase bioreactors 208

9.2 The rotating biological contactor 209

9.2.1 Modified RBCs for waste-gas treatment 210

9.2.1.1 Generation of humidified VOC stream 210

9.2.1.2 Biofilm development and start-up 211

9.2.1.3 VOC removal studies 212

9.3 Studies on removal of dichloromethane in modified RBCs 213

9.3.1 Comparison of different bioreactors (biofilters, biotrickling filters, and modified RBCs) 215

9.3.2 Studies on removal of benzene and xylene in modified RBCs 216

9.3.3 Microbiological studies of biofilms 217

9.3.3.1 Phylogenic analysis 219

References 219

10 Innovative Bioreactors and Two-Stage Systems 221
Eldon R. Rene, Maria C. Veiga and Christian Kennes

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Innovative bioreactor configurations 222

10.2.1 Planted biofilter 222

10.2.2 Rotatory-switching biofilter 223

10.2.3 Tubular biofilter 224

10.2.4 Fluidized-bed bioreactor 225

10.2.5 Airlift and bubble column bioreactors 227

10.2.6 Monolith bioreactor 229

10.2.7 Foam emulsion bioreactor 231

10.2.8 Fibrous bed bioreactor 233

10.2.9 Horizontal-flow biofilm reactor 234

10.3 Two-stage systems for waste-gas treatment 235

10.3.1 Adsorption pre-treatment plus bioreactor 235

10.3.2 Bioreactor plus adsorption polishing 237

10.3.3 UV photocatalytic reactor plus bioreactor 237

10.3.4 Bioreactor plus bioreactor 240

10.4 Conclusions 242

References 243

III BIOPROCESSES FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 247

11 Bioprocesses for the Removal of Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Gas Streams 249
Albert Janssen, Pim L.F. van den Bosch, Robert Cornelis van Leerdam, and Marco de Graaff

11.1 Introduction 249

11.2 Toxicity of VOSCs to animals and humans 250

11.3 Biological formation of VOSCs 251

11.4 VOSC-producing and VOSC-emitting industries 252

11.4.1 VOSCs produced from biological processes 252

11.4.2 Chemical processes and industrial applications 252

11.4.3 Oil and gas 253

11.5 Microbial degradation of VOSCs 253

11.5.1 Aerobic degradation 253

11.5.2 Anaerobic degradation 254

11.5.3 Degradation via sulfate reduction 255

11.5.4 Anaerobic degradation of higher thiols 255

11.5.5 Inhibition of microorganisms 256

11.6 Treatment technologies for gas streams containing volatile sulfur compounds 256

11.6.1 Biofilters 256

11.6.2 Bioscrubbers 258

11.7 Operating experience from biological gas treatment systems 261

11.7.1 Shell–Paques process for H2S removal 266

11.8 Future developments 266

References 266

12 Bioprocesses for the Removal of Nitrogen Oxides 275
Yaomin Jin, Lin Guo, Osvaldo D. Frutos, Maria C. Veiga and Christian Kennes

12.1 Introduction 275

12.2 NOx emission at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) 276

12.2.1 Nitrification 276

12.2.2 Denitrification 276

12.2.3 Parameters that affect the formation of nitrogen oxides 277

12.2.3.1 DO concentration 277

12.2.3.2 High nitrite concentration 278

12.2.3.3 Cu2+ concentration 278

12.2.3.4 Salinity 278

12.2.3.5 pH effects 278

12.2.3.6 Solids retention time 278

12.2.3.7 Sudden changes in operating parameters 278

12.2.3.8 Low COD/N ratios 279

12.3 Recent developments in bioprocesses for the removal of nitrogen oxides 279

12.3.1 NOx removal 279

12.3.1.1 Rotating drum bioreactor (RDB) 279

12.3.1.2 BioDeNOx 280

12.3.1.3 Hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMB) 282

12.3.1.4 Photobioreactor 283

12.3.1.5 Integrated system 284

12.3.2 N2O removal 285

12.3.2.1 Bioelectrochemical system 285

12.3.2.2 Biotrickling filter 285

12.3.2.3 Biofilter 286

12.4 Challenges in NOx treatment technologies 287

12.5 Conclusions 288

References 288

13 Biogas Upgrading 293
M. Estefanía López, Eldon R. Rene, Maria C. Veiga and Christian Kennes

13.1 Introduction 293

13.2 Biotechnologies for biogas desulphurization 294

13.2.1 Environmental aspects 294

13.2.2 The natural sulphur cycle and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria 294

13.2.3 Bioreactor configurations for hydrogen sulphide removal at laboratory scale 295

13.2.3.1 Hydrogen sulphide biodegradation under aerobic or oxygen-limited conditions 295

13.2.3.2 Hydrogen sulphide removal under anoxic conditions 302

13.2.4 Case studies of biogas desulphurization in full-scale systems 302

13.2.4.1 THIOPAQ biogas desulphurization process 302

13.2.4.2 BioSulfurex biogas desulphurization process 304

13.2.4.3 BIO-Sulfex biogas desulphurization process 305

13.3 Removal of mercaptans 306

13.4 Removal of ammonia and nitrogen compounds 307

13.5 Removal of carbon dioxide 308

13.6 Removal of siloxanes 309

13.7 Comparison between biological and non-biological methods 311

13.8 Conclusions 311

References 315

IV ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY BIOENERGY 319

14 Biogas 321
Marta Ben, Christian Kennes and Maria C. Veiga

14.1 Introduction 321

14.2 Anaerobic digestion 321

14.2.1 A brief history 321

14.2.2 Overview of the anaerobic digestion process 323

14.2.2.1 Biological process 323

14.2.2.2 Environmental factors affecting anaerobic digestion 323

14.2.2.3 Important parameters in anaerobic digesters 327

14.3 Substrates 328

14.3.1 Agricultural and farming wastes 328

14.3.1.1 Manure 328

14.3.1.2 Agricultural wastes 329

14.3.2 Industrial wastes 329

14.3.2.1 Food processing waste 330

14.3.2.2 Pulp and paper industry 332

14.3.3 Urban wastes 333

14.3.3.1 Food waste 333

14.3.4 Sewage sludge 333

14.4 Biogas 334

14.4.1 Biogas composition 334

14.4.2 Substrate influence on biogas composition 335

14.5 Bioreactors 335

14.5.1 Batch reactors 337

14.5.2 Continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) 337

14.5.3 Continuously stirred tank reactor with solids recycle (CSTR/SR) 337

14.5.4 Plug-flow reactor 337

14.5.5 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) 337

14.5.6 Attached film digester 338

14.5.7 Two-phase digester 338

14.6 Environmental impact of biogas 338

14.7 Conclusions 339

References 339

15 Biohydrogen 345
Bikram K. Nayak, Soumya Pandit and Debabrata Das

15.1 Introduction 345

15.1.1 Current status of hydrogen production and present use of hydrogen 346

15.1.2 Biohydrogen from biomass: present status 346

15.2 Environmental impacts of biohydrogen production 346

15.2.1 Air pollution due to conventional hydrocarbon-based fuel combustion 346

15.2.2 Biohydrogen, a zero-carbon fuel as a potential alternative 348

15.3 Properties and production of hydrogen 348

15.3.1 Properties of zero-carbon fuel 348

15.3.2 Biohydrogen production processes 350

15.3.2.1 Biophotolysis of water using algae and cyanobacteria 350

15.3.2.2 Photo-fermentation of organic compounds by photosynthetic bacteria 353

15.3.2.3 Factors involved in the production of biohydrogen using light 354

15.3.2.4 Dark fermentation 356

15.3.2.5 Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) 359

15.3.2.6 Hybrid systems using dark, photo-fermentations and/or MECs 363

15.4 Potential applications of hydrogen as a zero-carbon fuel 363

15.4.1 Transport sector 363

15.4.1.1 Current status of technology 364

15.4.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen as a transport fuel 365

15.4.2 Fuel cells 366

15.4.2.1 Classifications of fuel cells 366

15.4.2.2 Characteristics of fuel cells 368

15.4.2.3 Current status of technology 369

15.4.2.4 Advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen-based fuel cells 370

15.5 Policies and economics of hydrogen production 371

15.5.1 Economics of biohydrogen production 372

15.6 Issues and barriers 373

15.7 Future prospects 374

15.8 Conclusion 375

References 375

16 Catalytic Biodiesel Production 383
Zhenzhong Wen, Xinhai Yu, Shan-Tung Tu and Jinyue Yan

16.1 Introduction 383

16.2 Trends in biodiesel production 384

16.2.1 Reactors 384

16.2.2 Catalysts 389

16.2.2.1 Solid base catalysts 389

16.2.2.2 Solid acid catalysts 391

16.2.2.3 Enzyme catalysts 393

16.3 Challenges for biodiesel production at industrial scale 393

16.3.1 Economic analysis 393

16.3.2 Ecological considerations 393

16.4 Recommendations 394

16.5 Conclusions 395

References 395

17 Microalgal Biodiesel 399
Hugo Pereira, Helena M. Amaro, Nadpi G. Katkam, Luísa Barreira, A. Catarina Guedes, João Varela and F. Xavier Malcata

17.1 Introduction 399

17.2 Wild versus modified microalgae 402

17.3 Lipid extraction and purification 404

17.3.1 Mechanical methods 405

17.3.2 Chemical methods 406

17.4 Lipid transesterification 407

17.4.1 Acid-catalyzed transesterification 408

17.4.2 Base-catalyzed transesterification 408

17.4.3 Heterogeneous acid/base-catalyzed transesterification 410

17.4.4 Lipase-catalyzed transesterification 410

17.4.5 Ionic liquid-catalyzed reactions 411

17.5 Economic considerations 412

17.5.1 Competition between microalgal biodiesel and biofuels 412

17.5.2 Main challenges to biodiesel production from microalgae 413

17.5.3 Economics of biodiesel production 414

17.6 Environmental considerations 415

17.6.1 Uptake of carbon dioxide 416

17.6.2 Upgrade of wastewaters 416

17.6.3 Management of microalgal biomass 417

17.7 Final considerations 418

17.7.1 Current state 418

17.7.2 Future perspectives 418

References 420

18 Bioethanol 431
Johan W. van Groenestijn, Haris N. Abubackar, Maria C. Veiga and Christian Kennes

18.1 Introduction 431

18.2 Fermentation of lignocellulosic saccharides to ethanol 432

18.2.1 Raw materials 432

18.2.2 Pretreatment 434

18.2.2.1 Dilute acid 434

18.2.2.2 Liquid hot water 435

18.2.2.3 Concentrated acid 436

18.2.2.4 Steam explosion 436

18.2.2.5 Ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) 436

18.2.2.6 Wet oxidation 437

18.2.2.7 Ozonolysis 437

18.2.2.8 Alkali 437

18.2.2.9 The Organosolv process 437

18.2.2.10 Lignolytic fungi 438

18.2.2.11 Other 439

18.2.3 Production of inhibitors 439

18.2.4 Hydrolysis 439

18.2.5 Fermentation 440

18.3 Syngas conversion to ethanol – biological route 441

18.3.1 Sources of carbon monoxide 441

18.3.1.1 Biomass gasification for syngas production 441

18.3.1.2 Industrial waste gases 443

18.3.2 The Wood–Ljungdahl pathway involved in the bioconversion of carbon monoxide 445

18.3.3 Parameters affecting the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to ethanol 446

18.3.3.1 Fermentation medium pH and temperature 446

18.3.3.2 Mass transfer limitations 447

18.3.3.3 Fermentation media composition 448

18.3.3.4 Effect of gas composition 449

18.3.3.5 Media redox potential 449

18.4 Demonstration projects 450

18.5 Comparison of conventional fuels and bioethanol (corn, cellulosic, syngas) on air pollution 451

18.6 Key problems and future research needs 455

18.7 Conclusions 456

References 456

V CASE STUDIES 465

19 Biotrickling Filtration of Waste Gases from the Viscose Industry 467
Andreas Willers, Christian Dressler and Christian Kennes

19.1 The waste-gas situation in the viscose industry 467

19.1.1 The viscose process 467

19.1.2 Overview of emission points 468

19.1.3 Technical solutions to treat the emissions 469

19.1.3.1 CS2 condensation 469

19.1.3.2 Wet catalytic oxidation 469

19.1.3.3 Regenerative adsorption 470

19.1.3.4 Thermal oxidation 470

19.1.3.5 Scrubbers 470

19.1.4 Potential to use biotrickling filters in the viscose industry 470

19.2 Biological CS2 and H2S oxidation 471

19.3 Case study of biological waste-gas treatment in the casing industry 472

19.3.1 Products from viscose 472

19.3.2 Process flowsheet of fibre-reinforced cellulose casing (FRCC) 473

19.3.2.1 Production of viscose 473

19.3.2.2 Production of fibre-reinforced cellulose casing 473

19.3.3 Alternatives for biotrickling filter configurations 473

19.3.4 Characteristics of the CaseTech plant 475

19.3.5 Description of the BioGat installation 475

19.3.6 Performance of the BioGat process 475

19.3.6.1 Start-up problems 475

19.3.6.2 Reasons for increasing pressure drop 475

19.3.6.3 Tower packing material 479

19.3.6.4 Influence of sulphuric acid on biological degradation 480

19.3.6.5 Removal efficiency 481

19.4 Conclusions 484

References 484

20 Biotrickling Filters for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air in the Coating Sector 485
Carlos Lafita, F. Javier Álvarez-Hornos, Carmen Gabaldón, Vicente Martínez-Soria and Josep-Manuel Penya-Roja

20.1 Introduction 485

20.2 Case study 1: VOC removal in a furniture facility 486

20.2.1 Characterization of the waste-gas sources 486

20.2.2 Design and operation of the system 487

20.2.3 Performance data 488

20.2.4 Economic aspects 490

20.3 Case study 2: VOC removal in a plastic coating facility 491

20.3.1 Characterization of the waste-gas sources 492

20.3.2 Design and operation of the system 492

20.3.3 Performance data 493

20.3.4 Economic aspects 495

References 496

21 Industrial Bioscrubbers for the Food and Waste Industries 497
Pierre Le Cloirec and Philippe Humeau

21.1 Introduction 497

21.2 Food industry emissions 498

21.2.1 Identification and quantification of waste-gas emissions 498

21.2.2 Choice of the technology 499

21.2.3 Design and operating conditions 500

21.2.3.1 Gas–liquid transfer 500

21.2.3.2 Biological regeneration of the washing solution 500

21.2.4 Performance of the system 501

21.3 Bioscrubbing treatment of gaseous emissions from waste composting 502

21.3.1 Waste-gas emissions: nature, concentrations, and flow 503

21.3.2 Choice of the gas treatment process 504

21.3.3 Design and operating conditions 505

21.3.4 Gas collection system 506

21.3.5 Gas treatment system 508

21.3.6 Performance of the overall system 509

21.4 Conclusions and perspectives 510

References 511

22 Desulfurization of biogas in biotrickling filters 513
David Gabriel, Marc A. Deshusses and Xavier Gamisans

22.1 Introduction 513

22.2 Microbiology and stoichiometry of sulfide oxidation 514

22.2.1 Microbiology of sulfide oxidation 514

22.2.2 Stoichiometry of sulfide biological oxidation 515

22.3 Case study background and description of biotrickling filter 517

22.3.1 Site description 517

22.3.2 Biotrickling filter design 517

22.4 Operational aspects of the full-scale biotrickling filter 519

22.4.1 Start-up and biotrickling filter performance 519

22.4.2 Facing operational and design challenges 520

22.5 Economic aspects of desulfurizing biotrickling filters 522

References 522

23 Full-Scale Biogas Upgrading 525
J. Langerak, R. Lems and E.H.M. Dirkse

23.1 Introduction 525

23.2 Case 1: Zalaegerszeg, PWS system with car fuelling station 526

23.2.1 Biogas composition and biomethane requirements at Zalaegerszeg 526

23.2.2 Plant configuration at Zalaegerszeg 526

23.2.2.1 Pre-treatment at Zalaegerszeg 528

23.2.2.2 Upgrading technique at Zalaegerszeg 528

23.2.2.3 Post-treatment at Zalaegerszeg 529

23.3 Case 2: Zwolle, PWS system with gas grid injection 529

23.3.1 Biogas composition and biomethane requirements at Zwolle 531

23.3.2 Plant configuration at Zwolle 531

23.3.2.1 Pre-treatment at Zwolle 532

23.3.2.2 Upgrading technique at Zwolle 532

23.3.2.3 Post-treatment at Zwolle 533

23.4 Case 3: Wijster, PWS system with gas grid injection 534

23.4.1 Biogas composition and biomethane requirements at Wijster 534

23.4.2 Plant configuration at Wijster 534

23.4.2.1 Pre-treatment at Wijster 535

23.4.2.2 Upgrading technique at Wijster 536

23.4.2.3 Post-treatment at Wijster 536

23.5 Case 4: Poundbury, MS system with gas grid injection 536

23.5.1 Biogas composition and biomethane requirements at Poundbury 537

23.5.2 Plant configuration at Poundbury 537

23.5.2.1 Pre-treatment at Poundbury 538

23.5.2.2 Upgrading technique at Poundbury 538

23.5.2.3 Post-treatment at Poundbury 538

23.6 Configuration overview and evaluation 539

23.7 Capital and operational expenses 540

23.7.1 Zalaegerszeg 540

23.7.2 Zwolle 541

23.7.3 Wijster 541

23.7.4 Poundbury 541

23.7.5 Overview table of capital and operating expenses 541

23.8 Conclusions 542

References 543

Index 545

“Summing Up: Recommended.  Upper-division undergraduates through professionals/practitioners.”  (Choice, 1 February 2014)

“This book is an excellent compilation of engineering and scientific data pertaining to biological systems for both pollution control and energy production, providing real-world scientific information and scholarly research.”  (Chemical Engineering Progress, 1 August 2013)

"I highly recommend the landmark and all encompassing book Air Pollution Prevention and Control: Bioreactors and Bioenergy edited by Christian Kennes and Maria C. Veiga, to any students, faculty, researchers, in environmental engineering, biotechnology, and applied microbiology, business leaders in industries facing air pollution challenges, and government policy makers seeking alternative concepts for air pollution control. This book provides the most proven and widely accepted biotechnological solutions to any air pollutant based problems."  (Blog Business World, 10 June 2013)

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