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Wind Effects on Cable-Supported Bridges - Product Image

Wind Effects on Cable-Supported Bridges

  • ID: 2330835
  • October 2014
  • 776 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

As an in-depth guide to understanding wind effects on cable-supported bridges, this book uses analytical, numerical and experimental methods to give readers a fundamental and practical understanding of the subject matter. It is structured to systemically move from introductory areas through to advanced topics currently being developed from research work. The author concludes with the application of the theory covered to real-world examples, enabling readers to apply their knowledge.

The author provides background material, covering areas such as wind climate, cable-supported bridges, wind-induced damage, and the history of bridge wind engineering. Wind characteristics in atmospheric boundary layer, mean wind load and aerostatic instability, wind-induced vibration and aerodynamic instability, and wind tunnel testing are then described as the fundamentals of the subject. State-of-the-art contributions include rain-wind-induced cable vibration, wind-vehicle-bridge interaction, wind-induced vibration control, wind and structural health monitoring, fatigue analysis, reliability analysis, typhoon wind simulation, non-stationary and nonlinear buffeting response. Lastly, the theory is READ MORE >

Foreword xxi
by Ahsan Kareem and Robert M Moran

Foreword xxiii
by Hai-Fan Xian

Preface xxv

Acknowledgements xxvii

1 Wind Storms and Cable-Supported Bridges 1

1.1 Preview 1

1.2 Basic Notions of Meteorology 1

1.3 Basic Types of Wind Storms 6

1.4 Basic Types of Cable-Supported Bridges 11

1.5 Wind Damage to Cable-Supported Bridges 16

1.6 History of Bridge Aerodynamics 19

1.7 Organization of this Book 21

1.8 Notations 22

2 Wind Characteristics in Atmospheric Boundary Layer 25

2.1 Preview 25

2.2 TurbulentWinds in Atmospheric Boundary Layer 25

2.3 Mean Wind Speed Profiles 27

2.4 Wind Turbulence 31

2.5 Terrain and Topographic Effects 40

2.6 Design Wind Speeds 43

2.7 Directional Preference of High Winds 48

2.8 Case Study: Tsing Ma Bridge Site 49

2.9 Notations 57

3 Mean Wind Load and Aerostatic Instability 61

3.1 Preview 61

3.2 Mean Wind Load and Force Coefficients 61

3.3 Torsional Divergence 63

3.4 3-D Aerostatic Instability Analysis 66

3.5 Finite Element Modeling of Long-Span Cable-Supported Bridges 67

3.6 Mean Wind Response Analysis 73

3.7 Case Study: Stonecutters Bridge 74

3.8 Notations 80

4 Wind-Induced Vibration and Aerodynamic Instability 83

4.1 Preview 83

4.2 Vortex-Induced Vibration 84

4.3 Galloping Instability 88

4.4 Flutter Analysis 91

4.5 Buffeting Analysis in the Frequency Domain 101

4.6 Simulation of Stationary Wind Field 107

4.7 Buffeting Analysis in the Time Domain 109

4.8 Effective Static Loading Distributions 112

4.9 Case Study: Stonecutters Bridge 115

4.10 Notations 126

5 Wind-Induced Vibration of Stay Cables 131

5.1 Preview 131

5.2 Fundamentals of Cable Dynamics 131

5.3 Wind-Induced Cable Vibrations 136

5.4 Mechanism of Rain-Wind-Induced Cable Vibration 138

5.5 Prediction of Rain-Wind-Induced Cable Vibration 151

5.6 Occurrence Probability of Rain-Wind-Induced Cable Vibration 158

5.7 Case Study: Stonecutters Bridge 163

5.8 Notations 173

6 Wind-Vehicle-Bridge Interaction 177

6.1 Preview 177

6.2 Wind-Road Vehicle Interaction 178

6.3 Formulation of Wind-Road Vehicle-Bridge Interaction 196

6.4 Safety Analysis of Road Vehicles on Ting Kau Bridge under Crosswind 200

6.5 Formulation of Wind-Railway Vehicle Interaction 206

6.6 Safety and Ride Comfort of Ground Railway Vehicle under Crosswind 217

6.7 Wind-Railway Vehicle-Bridge Interaction 228

6.8 Notations 234

7 Wind Tunnel Studies 241

7.1 Preview 241

7.2 Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels 241

7.3 Model Scaling Requirements 244

7.4 Boundary Wind Simulation 247

7.5 Section Model Tests 254

7.6 Taut Strip Model Tests 258

7.7 Full Aeroelastic Model Tests 259

7.8 Identification of Flutter Derivatives 260

7.9 Identification of Aerodynamic Admittance 266

7.10 Cable Model Tests 268

7.11 Vehicle-Bridge Model Tests 274

7.12 Notations 283

8 Computational Wind Engineering 289

8.1 Preview 289

8.2 Governing Equations of Fluid Flow 289

8.3 Turbulence and its Modeling 293

8.4 Numerical Considerations 304

8.5 CFD for Force Coefficients of Bridge Deck 319

8.6 CFD for Vehicle Aerodynamics 323

8.7 CFD for Aerodynamics of Coupled Vehicle-Bridge Deck System 330

8.8 CFD for Flutter Derivatives of Bridge Deck 336

8.9 CFD for Non-Linear Aerodynamic Forces on Bridge Deck 339

8.10 Notations 341

9 Wind and Structural Health Monitoring 345

9.1 Preview 345

9.2 Design of Wind and Structural Health Monitoring Systems 346

9.3 Sensors and Sensing Technology 347

9.4 Data Acquisition and Transmission System (DATS) 351

9.5 Data Processing and Control System 354

9.6 Data Management System 355

9.7 Structural Health Monitoring System of Tsing Ma Bridge 356

9.8 Monitoring Results of Tsing Ma Bridge during Typhoon Victor 363

9.9 System Identification of Tsing Ma Bridge during Typhoon Victor 376

9.10 Notations 381

10 Buffeting Response to Skew Winds 385

10.1 Preview 385

10.2 Formulation in the Frequency Domain 386

10.2.1 Basic Assumptions 386

10.3 Formulation in the Time Domain 401

10.4 Aerodynamic Coefficients of Bridge Deck under Skew Winds 409

10.5 Flutter Derivatives of Bridge Deck under Skew Winds 413

10.6 Aerodynamic Coefficients of Bridge Tower under Skew Winds 418

10.7 Comparison with Field Measurement Results of Tsing Ma Bridge 424

10.8 Notations 433

11 Multiple Loading-Induced Fatigue Analysis 439

11.1 Preview 439

11.2 SHM-oriented Finite Element Modeling 440

11.3 Framework for Buffeting-Induced Stress Analysis 445

11.4 Comparison with Field Measurement Results of Tsing Ma Bridge 452

11.5 Buffeting-Induced Fatigue Damage Assessment 464

11.6 Framework for Multiple Loading-Induced Stress Analysis 476

11.7 Verification by Case Study: Tsing Ma Bridge 483

11.8 Fatigue Analysis of Long-Span Suspension Bridges under Multiple Loading 488

11.9 Notations 503

12 Wind-Induced Vibration Control 509

12.1 Preview 509

12.2 Control Methods for Wind-Induced Vibration 509

12.3 Aerodynamic Measures for Flutter Control 513

12.4 Aerodynamic Measures for Vortex-Induced Vibration Control 518

12.5 Aerodynamic Measures for Rain-Wind-Induced Cable Vibration Control 520

12.6 Mechanical Measures for Vortex-Induced Vibration Control 523

12.7 Mechanical Measures for Flutter Control 525

12.8 Mechanical Measures for Buffeting Control 530

12.9 Mechanical Measures for Rain-Wind-Induced Cable Vibration Control 541

12.10 Case Study: Damping Stay Cables in a Cable-Stayed Bridge 552

12.11 Notations 564

13 Typhoon Wind Field Simulation 569

13.1 Preview 569

13.2 Refined Typhoon Wind Field Model 570

13.3 Model Solutions 574

13.4 Model Validation 576

13.5 Monte Carlo Simulation 585

13.6 Extreme Wind Analysis 593

13.7 Simulation of Typhoon Wind Field over Complex Terrain 597

13.8 Case Study: Stonecutters Bridge Site 600

13.9 Notations 611

14 Reliability Analysis of Wind-Excited Bridges 615

14.1 Preview 615

14.2 Fundamentals of Reliability Analysis 615

14.3 Reliability Analysis of Aerostatic Instability 626

14.4 Flutter Reliability Analysis 626

14.5 Buffeting Reliability Analysis 628

14.6 Reliability Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibration 632

14.7 Fatigue Reliability Analysis based on Miner’s Rule for Tsing Ma Bridge 632

14.8 Fatigue Reliability Analysis based on Continuum Damage Mechanics 650

14.9 Notations 658

15 Non-Stationary and Non-Linear Buffeting Response 661

15.1 Preview 661

15.2 Non-Stationary Wind Model I 662

15.3 Non-Stationary Wind Model II 673

15.4 Buffeting Response to Non-Stationary Wind 680

15.5 Extreme Value of Non-Stationary Response 688

15.6 Unconditional Simulation of Non-Stationary Wind 697

15.7 Conditional Simulation of Non-Stationary Wind 698

15.8 Non-Linear Buffeting Response 711

15.9 Notations 721

16 Epilogue: Challenges and Prospects 729

16.1 Challenges 729

16.2 Prospects 733

Index 735

You Lin Xu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China. Prof. Y L Xu obtained his Doctorate from The University of Sydney, Australia, in 1991. Having worked at James Cook University, Australia, as a research fellow from 1991-95, he joined The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 1995. He was promoted to Professor in 1999 and to Chair Professor in 2003. Prof. Xu has been the founding Director of Research Centre for Urban Hazards Mitigation of the University since 2002, and was appointed as Head of the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering of the University in 2007.. Prof. Xu has conducted research and consultancy work in the field of wind engineering and bridge engineering for almost 30 years. He has worked extensively on wind loading and effect on the Tsing Ma suspension bridge in Hong Kong since 1995. Prof. Xu has also been heavily involved in wind studies of the Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong. At The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Prof. Xu has taught the subject "Wind Engineering" to MSc students since 1998. He has edited 5 books, published over 160 refereed international journal papers, and presented over 200 conference papers. Prof. Xu is a Fellow Member of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE) and a Fellow Member of the American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE).

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