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Industrial & Commercial Hybrid & Pure Electric Vehicles 2013-2023: Forecasts, Opportunities, Players Product Image

Industrial & Commercial Hybrid & Pure Electric Vehicles 2013-2023: Forecasts, Opportunities, Players

  • Published: December 2013
  • Region: Global
  • 232 Pages
  • IDTechEx

The Only Up-To-Date Report On The Largest Electric Vehicle Sector Today

Those selling components for electric vehicles and those wishing to make the vehicles themselves must seek where the majority of the money is spent and will be spent. That must lead them to industrial and commercial electric vehicles because today these represent 60% of the value of the electric vehicle market. Indeed, this sector is set to grow 4.2 times in the next decade. Industrial and commercial electric vehicles include heavy industrial vehicles, the term referring to heavy lifting, as with forklifts.

Then we have buses, trucks, taxis and the other light industrial and commercial vehicles. There are also a few work boats and commercial boats and one day there will be commercial electric aircraft but this is really a story about the burgeoning demand for off-road industrial vehicles and on-road commercial vehicles. In particular, industrial electric vehicles make industry more efficient and commercial electric vehicles reduce congestion. Both of them greatly reduce pollution and align closely with government objectives concerning industry and the environment, yet they minimally depend on subsidy, READ MORE >

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Scope of the report
1.2. Categories and trends
1.3. Forecasts 2012-2023
1.4. Market drivers
1.4.1. Synergies
1.4.2. Importance of battery price
1.5. Numbers of manufacturers
1.6. Full circle back to pure EVs
1.7. Key components
1.7.1. Batteries
1.7.2. Motors
1.7.3. Power trains
1.8. Winning strategies
1.9. Many options just for urban buses
1.10. Electric Futures for Transport Conference London 7 March 2013 - Lessons Learned
1.11. Why pure electric commercial vehicles succeed: cars do not
1.12. Collaboration
1.12.1. RDM Telematics and Electronics - Niche Vehicle Network - Coventry University, CU HDTI, Warwick University WMG Innovative solutions
1.12.2. Lithium Balance - Lotus Engineering - Tennant Green - Pascal Chretien
1.12.3. Bradshaw Electric - Taylor Dunn
1.13. European view
1.14. Industrial & Commercial EVs Eclipse e Cars

2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Definitions and scope of this report
2.1.1. Learning from the past
2.2. Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
2.3. Hybrid electric vehicles

3. MARKET DRIVERS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EVS
3.1. Trends for all types of vehicle
3.1.1. Peak car and light truck - different electric vehicles needed
3.1.2. Market drivers for electric industrial and commercial vehicles
3.2. Hybrid market drivers
3.3. Advantages of electric commercial vehicles

4. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS
4.1. What is included
4.2. Challenges
4.3. Listing of manufacturers
4.3.1. Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
4.3.2. Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs
4.4. Market forecasts 2012-2023

5. LIGHT INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EVS
5.1. What is included
5.1.1. One quarter of commercial vehicles in Germany can be electric now?
5.1.2. Guidance from a recent UK event on industrial and commercial EVs
5.1.3. Nissan van arrives
5.2. Sub categories
5.3. Trucks
5.3.1. Balqon Pure Electric Trucks
5.3.2. China Vehicles Company
5.3.3. Daimler Fuso
5.3.4. ePower Engine Systems USA
5.3.5. Nissan Japan
5.3.6. Via Motors USA
5.3.7. XL Hybrids
5.4. EVs for local services
5.4.1. Peugeot Citroën and Mitsubishi Motors
5.4.2. UPS & NREL
5.4.3. Renault Nissan DHL
5.5. Airport EVs
5.6. Small people-movers
5.7. Light industrial aids
5.7.1. Mining - PapaBravo Canada
5.8. Listing of manufacturers
5.9. Market forecasts 2012-2023

6. BUSES
6.1. History of electric buses
6.2. Pure electric buses
6.2.1. Smith - Wanxiang
6.3. MAN hybrid bus Germany: supercapacitor not battery
6.4. OLEV technology for Korean buses in 2013
6.5. ABB intermittent overhead charging
6.6. Market forecast for buses 2012-2023

7. TAXIS
7.1. Electric taxi projects in China, Europe, Mexico, UK, UK, Japan
7.2. Huge order from the Philippines in 2013

8. KEY COMPONENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC VEHICLES
8.1. Types of electric vehicle
8.2. Many fuels
8.3. Born electric
8.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving
8.5. Series vs parallel hybrid
8.6. Modes of operation of hybrids
8.6.1. Plug in hybrids
8.6.2. Charge-depleting mode
8.6.3. Blended mode
8.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode
8.6.5. Mixed mode
8.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer
8.8. Deep hybridisation
8.9. Hybrid vehicle price premium
8.10. Battery cost and performance are key
8.11. Tradeoff of energy storage technologies
8.12. Ultracapacitors = supercapacitors
8.13. Where supercapacitors fit in
8.14. Advantages and disadvantages
8.15. Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
8.16. Supercabatteries or bacitors
8.17. What is a range extender?
8.18. What will be required of a range extender 2012-2023
8.19. Three generations of range extender
8.19.1. First generation range extender technology
8.19.2. Second generation range extender technology
8.19.3. Third generation range extender technology
8.20. Fuel cell range extenders
8.21. Big effect of many modest electricity sources combined
8.22. Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles
8.23. Trend to high voltage
8.24. Component choices for energy density/ power density
8.25. Trend to distributed components
8.26. Trend to flatness then smart skin
8.27. Traction batteries
8.27.1. After the shakeout in car traction batteries
8.27.2. The needs have radically changed
8.27.3. It started with cobalt
8.27.4. Great variety of recipes
8.27.5. Other factors
8.27.6. Check with reality
8.27.7. Lithium winners today and soon
8.27.8. Reasons for winning
8.27.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
8.27.10. Winning chemistry
8.27.11. Titanate establishes a place
8.27.12. Laminar structure
8.27.13. Niche winners
8.27.14. Fluid situation
8.28. Traction motors
8.29. Definition and background
8.30. Traction motor trends
8.31. Shape of motors
8.32. Location of motors
8.33. Born electric - in-wheel electric wheels
8.34. Examples of motors in action
8.35. EV Market 2012-2023
8.36. Total change

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

1.1. Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
1.1. Relevant characteristics of the three categories of industrial and commercial vehicle
1.2. Global sales of heavy industrial (heavy lifting, eg forklift and heavy earthmoving/pulling) EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
1.2. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2013 by application with numbers for China
1.3. 212 electric vehicle models analysed by category for % asynchronous, power and torque of their electric traction motors and where intensive or rough use is most typically encountered. The rated power and traction data are enhanced
1.3. Numbers of heavy industrial hybrid and pure electric vehicles by type 2012-2023, numbers thousands
1.4. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs, including on-road trucks but excluding buses and taxis, by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rou
1.5. Breakdown of numbers for 2013
1.6. Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
1.7. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
3.1. Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
3.2. Some primary hybrid market drivers
3.3. Advantages of pure electric commercial vehicles, enjoyed to some extent by hybrid electric buses
3.4. Potential challenges of electric commercial vehicles
4.1. 27 examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
4.2. Global sales of heavy industrial (heavy lifting, eg forklift and heavy earthmoving/pulling) EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
5.1. 150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
5.1. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs, including heavy trucks but excluding buses and taxis, by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, round
5.2. Breakdown of global market in 2010 for light industrial and commercial vehicles - global park, new vehicles, % electric, number electric, ex-factory unit price and value for the subsections Full Size Buses, Other On Road, Airport
6.1. 79 examples of manufacturers of hybrid electric buses or their power trains (the main added value), with country of headquarters and image
6.2. 36 Manufacturers of pure electric buses, country of headquarters and image
6.3. TOSA bus specification
6.4. TOSA charging infrastructure specification
6.5. Forecast for electric buses 2012-2023
7.1. 15 projects testing pure electric taxis
7.2. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
8.1. Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
8.2. Traction battery technologies in 2012, number percentage lead acid, NiMH and lithium
8.3. Traction battery technologies in 2022 number percentage lead acid, NiMH and lithium
8.4. Traction battery technology by applicational sector 2010 and 2020, examples of suppliers and trends
8.5. What is on the way in or out with traction batteries
8.6. 71 vertically integrated lithium traction battery cell manufacturers, their chemistry, cell geometry and customer relationships (not necessarily orders)
8.7. Summary of preferences of traction motor technology for vehicles
8.8. Advantages vs disadvantages of brushed vs brushless vehicle traction motors for today's vehicles
8.9. 68 industrial and commercial electric vehicles and their motor details.
8.10. Global sales of heavy industrial (heavy lifting, eg forklift and heavy earthmoving/pulling) EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
8.11. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs, including on-road trucks but excluding buses and taxis, by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rou
8.12. Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
8.13. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded

FIGURES

1.1. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
1.2. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.3. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.4. Global sales of heavy industrial (heavy lifting, eg forklift and heavy earthmoving/pulling) EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
1.5. New Toyota forklifts
1.6. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs, including on-road trucks but excluding buses and taxis, by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rou
1.7. Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
1.8. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
1.9. Electric vehicle upfront cost vs their traction battery energy storage
1.10. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2013
1.11. Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2013
1.12. Possible evolution of affordable, mainstream electric cars and other electric vehicles
1.13. Some new commercial electric vehicles shown at eCarTec in Europe
1.14. Isuzu hybrid truck acting as road furniture in Tokyo in 2012
1.15. Pure electric bus in China, in late 2012, with supercapacitors and no battery
1.16. The Terra Motors e-trike
2.1. EV sectors with the largest gross sales value and profits over the years
2.1. Toyota hybrid outdoor forklift
2.2. Electric vehicle value chain
2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles and the electric vehicle markets they dominate.
3.1. Efficiency in power needed per person per distance for different forms of on-road passenger transport
3.2. Bus size vs fuel consumption
4.1. Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
4.2. Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
4.3. Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2011
4.4. Lift truck market demand increase in 2012
4.5. World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
5.1. The tiny sales of pure electric on-road vehicle sales in Europe showing carrier goods EVs/ light industrial and commercial vehicles outselling pure electric passenger EVs, according to trade association AVERE
5.2. Balqon Quiet-shift Technology
5.3. Electric pick-up truck from China Vehicles Company
5.4. Exhibited Daimler commercial vehicles
5.5. The ePower truck
5.6. The full-size pickup and a cargo van in use by PGE
5.7. Citroën Berlingo electric light commercial vehicle
5.8. e-NV200 van
5.9. Electric bus in Nepal
5.10. Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
5.11. Garbage collecting electric car
5.12. Pure electric light mining vehicles
6.1. Pure electric bus in 1907
6.2. Proposal for new London double decker hybrid electric bus
6.3. Capoco driverless electric bus concept
6.4. Insectbus concept
6.5. 78 examples of hybrid electric bus producers by continent of headquarters.
6.6. Pure electric bus manufacturers by continent
6.7. MAN Lion urban hybrid bus
6.8. MAN Lion urban hybrid bus in section showing supercapacitors (ultracapacitors) in place of traction battery
6.9. ABB TOSA charging system
6.10. Passenger space is not compromised, with onboard equipment packaged on the electric bus' roof.
6.11. Rapid battery charging takes place at every third or fourth bus stop along the pilot project's route, which runs between Geneva airport and the city's exhibition center.
6.12. The 38-kW-h, water-cooled LTO (lithium titanate oxide) battery pack consists of 14 modules in series.
7.1. Taxi fire caused by a bad lithium-ion battery in a Chinese electric taxi
7.2. The Terra Motors e-trike
7.3. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
8.1. ThunderVolt hybrid bus
8.2. BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
8.3. Hybrid bus powertrain
8.4. Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
8.5. Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
8.6. Some hybrid variants
8.7. Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
8.8. Trend to deep hybridisation
8.9. Evolution of hybrid structure
8.10. Price premium for hybrid buses
8.11. Three generations of lithium-ion battery with technical features that are sometimes problematical
8.12. Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored.
8.13. Probable future improvement in parameters of lithium-ion batteries for pure electric and hybrid EVs
8.14. Comparison of battery technologies
8.15. Where supercapacitors fit in
8.16. Energy density vs power density for storage devices
8.17. Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
8.18. Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
8.19. Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
8.20. Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
8.21. The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
8.22. Trend of size of the largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in 98 bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years.
8.23. Evolution of traction batteries and range extenders for large hybrid electric vehicles as they achieve longer all-electric range over the next decade.
8.24. Main modes of rotational energy harvesting in vehicles
8.25. Main forms of photovoltaic energy harvesting on vehicles
8.26. Maximum power from the most powerful forms of energy harvesting on or in vehicles
8.27. Hybrid bus with range improved by a few percent using solar panels
8.28. Possible trend in battery power storage and voltage of power distribution
8.29. Mitsubishi view of hybrid vehicle powertrain evolution
8.30. Flat lithium-ion batteries for a car and, bottom, UAVs
8.31. Supercapacitors that facilitate fast charging and discharging of the traction batteries are spread out on a bus roof
8.32. Here comes lithium
8.33. Approximate percentage of manufacturers offering traction batteries with less cobalt vs those offering ones with no cobalt vs those offering both. We also show the number of suppliers that offer lithium iron phosphate versions.
8.34. Location of motors sold in 2022 in vehicles in which they are fitted, in millions of motors and percent of all motors with all figures rounded. Figures in red refer to high priced motors and figures in green refer to low priced mo
8.35. The Lohner-Porsche electric vehicle of 1898 showing its two in-wheel electric motors. Another version had four
8.36. Mitsubishi in-wheel motor
8.37. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
8.38. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
8.39. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
8.40. Global sales of electric taxis, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded

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