Innovative Graphene Technologies: Evaluation and Applications, Volume 2

  • ID: 2624242
  • September 2013
  • 507 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Graphene has already gained a unique reputation among novel synthetic materials. Dedicated efforts and enormous resources are being invested in creating viable commercial products. The high electrical and thermal conductivities in graphene are well known, and most of the applications of this material are pivoted to these properties. In addition to electronic and thermal management applications there are several other vital areas where graphene can be used successfully.

This book is compiled in two volumes. Volume 1 is specifically meant for beginners who want to know the science and technology associated with this nanomaterial. This volume consists of chapters that are specifically written for readers who are looking for the applications of graphene and its derivatives.

The first objective of this book is to provide readers with numerical/physics based models for assessment of graphene for targeted applications. The second objective of this book is to introduce readers to the industrial applications of graphene. Chapters are carefully written so that readers can choose methodologies for screening of graphene materials for a particular application.

This second volume is written for broader readership including young scholars and researchers with diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering. It can be used as a textbook for graduate students, and also as a review or reference book for researchers from different branches of materials science.

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1 Graphene, Not Just Another Science Fantasy: Exploring the Real World Industrial Applications

2 Graphene Edges: Physics and Applications toward All Carbon Magnetism and Spintronics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Experimental Results and Discussion
2.2.1 Sample Fabrication and Characterisation
2.2.2 Evidence for Presence of Zigzag Pore Edges
2.2.3 Ferromagnetism Due to H-Terminated Pore Edges
2.2.4 Theoretical Discussion of Edge Magnetisation Values
2.2.5 Possibility of other Stable Edge-Atomic Structures and of other H-Termination Type with Stable Magnetism under Pressure
2.3 Novel Spin-phenomena in Few-layer Graphene Nanopore Arrays
2.4 Conclusion

3 Graphite Surface in Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Method and Principle of Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.2.1 Apparatus of Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy and Principle of Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Relationship between Capacitance and Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Infinite Series Expansion of CapacitanceñVoltage Curve Method of Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.2.2 Current Signal in Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.3 Observation of Graphite Surface by Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.3.1 Graphite Surface
3.3.2 Topographical and First-order Amplitude Images in Graphite Experimental Condition Topography and Error Image ?1 Image A1 Image
3.3.3 Relationship between Current Image and Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Images Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Images Current Image in Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy
3.3.4 Two Pattern Images in Graphite
3.4 Capacitance Induced by Tunnelling between Atomic Surface and Probe Tip
3.4.1 Relationship between Electrochemical Capacitance and Density of State
3.4.2 First- and Second-order Electrochemical Capacitances
3.4.3 Electrochemical Capacitance with Tunnelling
3.4.4 Conversion of Capacitance into Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Signals
3.4.5 Calculations of Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Signals Relationship between Odd and Even Components in Density of State and Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Signals Phase Reversal in ?
3.4.6 Origin of Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy and 2k– Current Signals of Graphite in Noncontact Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy Signals of Graphite Current Signal of Graphite
3.5 Conclusion

4 Numerical Modelling of Mechanical Behaviour of Graphene
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Basics of Computational Methods
4.3 Structural Defects in Graphene
4.3.1 StoneñWales Defect
4.3.2 Single/Multiple Vacancies
4.3.3 Grain Boundaries
4.4 Morphology of Graphene
4.4.1 Intrinsic Morphology
4.4.2 Extrinsic Morphology
4.5 Mechanical Properties of Graphene
4.5.1 Fundamental Properties
4.5.2 Effect of Defects on Mechanical Properties
4.5.3 Fracture and Failure Mechanisms
4.6 Summary

5 Photonic Applications of Graphene and Its Composites
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Parameters of Interest in Photonics: Refractive Index and Polarisation
5.2.1 Refractive Index and its Intensity Dependence
5.2.2 Refractive Index-induced Changes in Polarisation
5.3 Phenomenon of Saturable Absorption
5.3.1 Spectroscopic Description of Saturable Absorption
5.3.3 Reverse-saturable Absorption Excited State Absorption Free Carrier Absorption Two-photon Absorption
5.4 A Typical Application of Saturable Absorption Materials in Photonics: Passive Mode-locking Technique
5.5 Techniques to Characterise Saturable Absorption Materials
5.5.1 Steady-state Absorption Spectra
5.5.2 Experimental Determination of Nonlinear Optical Parameters Degenerate Four-wave Mixing Techniques Self-diffraction Geometry Phase Conjugation Geometry Z-scan Technique
5.6 Materials for Saturable Absorption Applications
5.6.1 Conventional Materials: Organic Dyes
5.6.2 Semiconductor Materials
5.6.3 Metal Nanoparticles
5.6.4 Carbon Nanotubes
5.6.5 Graphene Composites as Mode-lockers The Band Diagram Figure of Merit for All-optical Switching Applications
5.7 New Studies on Silver-nanoparticle Embedded Graphene
5.7.1 Characterisation of Graphene and Silver-nanoparticle/Graphene Absorption Spectra X-ray Diffraction Spectra Raman Spectra
5.7.2 Z-scan Studies on Graphene Composites Z-scan Profiles at 1064 nm Z-scan Profiles at 532 nm Modification of the Band Diagram of Graphene-metal Nanoparticles Composites
5.7.3 Optical Limiting Region
5.8 Charge Transfer Interaction between Graphene and Fluorescent Dyes
5.8.1 Fluorescence Quenching of Dye in the Presence of Graphene
5.8.2 Dye in the Presence of Silver Nanoparticles
5.8.3 Dye in the Presence of Silver-decorated Graphene
5.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

6 Graphene/Metal Self-assemble into Core-shelled Composite Nanostructures
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Self-scrolling of Graphene Induced by Nickel Nanostructures
6.2.1 Computational Methods
6.2.2 Results and Discussion
6.3 Self-scrolling of Graphene Induced by Iron Nanostructures
6.3.1 Computational Methods
6.3.2 Results and Discussion The Spontaneous Scrolling of Graphene Nanosheet Interface Characteristics The Mechanism The Thermodynamic Model Innovative Graphene Technologies: Evaluation and Applications Volume

7 Advanced Structural Modelling of Graphene Based NanomechanicalSystems
7.1 Introduction and Scope
7.2 Modelling of Nanostructures
7.3 Popular Approaches for Understanding Graphene
7.3.1 Experimental Methods
7.3.2 Molecular Dynamics Simulations
7.3.3 Continuum Mechanics Approach
7.3.4 Failure of Classical Continuum Mechanics in Graphene
7.4 Concept of Nonlocal Elasticity
7.5 Mathematical Formulation of Nonlocal Elasticity
7.5.1 Integral Form
7.5.2 Nonlocal Modulus
7.5.3 Differential Form Equation of Nonlocal Elasticity
7.6 Nonlocal Elastic Theories for Graphene Sheets
7.6.1 Development of Nonlocal Constitutive Relations
7.6.2 Free Vibration of Single-layer Graphene Sheets Transverse Free Vibration Graphene Sheets Embedded in Elastic Medium Vibration of Double-graphene-sheet-systems . Synchronous and Asynchronous Vibration of Double-graphene-sheet-systems Axially Stressed Graphene In-plane Vibration of Graphene Sheets
7.6.3 Nonlocal Buckling of Graphene Sheets Uniaxial Buckling Graphene Sheets Embedded in Elastic Medium Buckling of Double-graphene-sheets Systems
7.7 Nonlocal Elasticity Theory versus Molecular Dynamics
7.8 Mechanism of Nonlocal Effects in Graphene
7.9 Summary and Conclusion

8 Catalysis by Graphene and Related Materials
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Synthesis
8.3 Characterisation
8.4 Heterogeneous Catalysis
8.4.1 Graphene-based Materials as Acid Catalysts
8.4.2 Graphene-based Materials as Base Catalysts
8.4.3 Graphene-based Materials as Oxidation Catalysts
8.4.4 Graphene-based Materials as Reduction Catalysts
8.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

9 Thermal Properties of Graphene ñ Applications in Thermal Management
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Thermal Properties of Graphene and Few-layer Graphene
9.3 Graphene-based Thermal Interface Materials
9.4 Graphene Quilts for Thermal Management of High-power Transistors
9.5 Conclusions

10 Towards Biosensing with Graphene-based Materials
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Synthesis of Graphene and Reduced Graphene Oxide
10.3 Graphene-based Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing of Clinical Analytes
10.3.1 Biosensing of Glucose
10.3.2 Biosensing of Cholesterol
10.3.3 Electrochemical Immunosensing
10.4 Graphene-based Bio-field Effect Transistors
10.5 Graphene-based Platform for Impedimetric Biosensing
10.6 Optical Sensing based on Graphene-based Materials
10.6.1 Optical Immunosensing
10.6.2 Biosensing Based on Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer
10.6.3 Graphene-promoted Optical Sensing of Bioanalytes
10.7 Conclusion and Perspectives

11 Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites by In Situ Polymerisation or Surface Functionalisation
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Synthesis of Graphene for Composite Filler
11.2.1 Direct Exfoliation of Graphite
11.2.2 Chemical Vapour Deposition
11.2.3 Chemical Reduction and Functionalisation of Graphene Oxide Platelets
11.3 Preparation of Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites
11.3.1 Noncovalent Dispersion Methods: Solution and Melt Mixing
11.3.2 Covalent Functionalisation between Graphene and Polymers
11.3.3 Other Methods for Composite Preparation
11.4 Morphology and Compatibilisation Behaviour
11.5 Properties of Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites
11.5.1 Electrical Properties
11.5.2 Mechanical Properties
11.5.3 Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stability
11.5.4 Improvement in the Glass Transition Temperature
11.5.5 Flame-retardant Properties
11.5.6 Gas-barrier Properties
11.6 Summary and Prospects

12 Applications of Graphene and Graphite Oxide in Fuel Cells
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Graphite Oxide Used in Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
12.3 Proton Transport Mechanism
12.4 Membranes for Low-temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
12.5 Membranes for Intermediate Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
12.5.1 Membrane Preparation
12.5.2 Conductivity
12.5.3 Fuel-cell Performance
12.6 Graphene for Catalysts in Fuel Cells
12.7 Challenges and Prospects for Graphite Oxide in Fuel Cells
12.8 Conclusions

13 Design, Preparation and Application of Graphene/Poly(ether etherketone) (Poly(ether sulfone)) Composites
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Covalent Functionalisation of Chemical Reduced Graphene Sheets
13.2.1 Diazonium Functionalisation of Chemical Reduced Graphene Sheets Preparation of Hydrazine-reduced Graphene Preparation of Chemical Functionalised Graphene by Diazonium Functionalisation Characterisation of Chemical Functionalised Graphene
13.2.2 Chemical Functionalisation of Chemical Reduced Graphene by Using Residual Oxygen-containing Groups Preparation of Chemical Functionalised Graphene Characterisation of Graphene and Functionalised Graphene
13.3 Functionalised Graphene/Poly(ether sulfone) Composites
13.3.1 The Preparation and Electrical Properties of the Functionalised Graphene/Poly(ether sulfone) Nanocomposites Direct Current Electrical Conductivity Study Alternating Current Electrical Conductivity Study Dielectric Constant Measurement Impedance Spectroscopy Study
13.3.2 Preparation of Hybrid Poly(ether sulfone) Composites
13.4 Synergetic Effects of Functionalised Graphene and Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of Poly(ether sulfone) Composites
13.4.1 Preparation of Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
13.4.2 Preparation of Functionalised Graphene Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Poly(ether sulfone) Composite Films
13.4.3 Characterisation of Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Functionalised Graphene-Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
13.4.4 Comparison of Five Different Carbon Materials as Conductive Filler in Poly(ether sulfone) Composites
13.4.5 5.0 Functionalised Graphene-Functionalised-Multiwalled Carbon Nannotubes/Poly(ether sulfone) Composites with Different Weight Ratios of Functionalised Graphene and Functionalised- Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
13.4.6 Functionalised Graphene-Functionalised Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (Wf–G/W =1:1)/Poly(ether sulfone) Compositef–MWCNT
13.5 Application and Preparation of Noncovalent Functionalised Graphene Oxide
13.5.1 Functionalisation of Graphene Oxide and Preparation of Functionalised Graphene/Poly(ether sulfone) Composite Films
13.5.2 Mechanical Properties of Functionalised Graphene/ Poly(ether sulfone) Composite Films
13.5.3 Graphene/Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Composites used in Supercapacitors
13.5.4 Functionalised Graphene-based Electrodes and Assembly of the Supercapacitor
13.5.5 Characterisation of Electrodes and Performance of the Supercapacitor Cell

14 Functional Graphene-based Nanomaterials: Rational Synthesis, Engineering of Electrochemical Interface and Related Applications
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Electrochemical Synthesis of Graphene-based Nanomaterials
14.3 Graphene-based Electrochemical Sensors
14.3.1 Amperometric and Electrochemical Impedance Sensors .
14.3.2 Other Electrochemical Sensing Platforms with other Techniques Photoelectrochemical Sensors Electrochemiluminescence Sensor
14.4 Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells
14.4.1 Anode Reaction
14.4.2 Cathode Reaction
14.5 Supercapacitors
14.6 Li-ion Battery
14.7 Conclusions, Opportunities and Perspectives


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