• +353-1-415-1241(GMT OFFICE HOURS)
  • 1-800-526-8630(US/CAN TOLL FREE)
  • 1-917-300-0470(EST OFFICE HOURS)
Energy Efficiency Market Report 2013 - Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects - Product Image

Energy Efficiency Market Report 2013 - Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

  • Published: October 2013
  • Region: Global
  • 278 Pages
  • International Energy Agency

Energy efficiency has been referred to as a 'hidden fuel', one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation.

The Energy Efficiency Market Report provides a practical basis for understanding energy efficiency market activities, a review of the methodological and practical challenges associated with measuring the market and its components, and statistical analysis of energy efficiency and its impact on energy demand. It also highlights a specific technology sector in which there is significant energy efficiency market activity, in this instance appliances and ICT. The report presents a selection of country case studies that illustrate current energy efficiency markets in specific sectors, and how they may evolve in the medium term.

The energy efficiency market is diffuse, varied and involves all energy-consuming sectors of the economy. A comprehensive overview of market activity is complicated by the challenges READ MORE >

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Executive Summary

Introduction
The purpose of the market report
Approach taken
How to read this report
References

Part 1. The Market for Energy Efficiency

1. Understanding the Market for Energy Efficiency
- Defining the energy efficiency market
- The dynamics of supply and demand
- Key sectors in the energy efficiency market
- Multiple benefits of energy efficiency
- References

2. Measuring the Market for Energy Efficiency
- Quantifying the global energy efficiency market
- Challenges of defining the energy efficiency market
- A summary literature review on estimates: a variety of approaches
- Deriving an investment estimate for the global energy efficiency market
- Conclusions
- References

3. What the Numbers Say: Energy Efficiency and Changing Energy Use
- Quantifying energy use and the impacts of the energy efficiency market
- Energy efficiency: the first fuel?
- Energy intensity, productivity and per-capita consumption
- IEA indicators: moving beyond energy intensity for a subset of countries
- Sectoral indicators
- Conclusions
- References

4. Technology Focus: Appliances, Lighting and ICT
- Trends in global appliance, lighting and ICT markets
- Market transformation towards greater efficiency in appliances and lighting
- The opportunities and challenges of ICT markets
- Conclusions
- References

Part 2. Energy Efficiency Market Compendium: Country Case Studies

5. Introduction

6. Australia
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

7. Canada
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

8. China
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

9. European Union
- - Energy profile and context
- - Energy efficiency market activity
- - Conclusions
- - References

10. France
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

11. Germany
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

12. India
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

13. Japan
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

14. Korea
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- References

15. Mexico
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

16. New Zealand
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

17. South Africa
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

18. Southeast Asian Countries
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

19. United Kingdom
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

20. United States
- Summary outlook
- Energy profile and context
- Energy efficiency market activity
- Conclusions
- References

Part 3. Annex and Glossary

- Annex: Country-level Energy Use and Intensity Data
- Glossary
- Definitions
- Scenarios
- Regions
- Acronyms, abbreviations and units of measure

List of Figures

Figure ES.1 Global levels of investment and subsidy in selected areas of the energy system, 2011
Figure ES.2 The “first fuel”: avoided energy use from energy efficiency in 11 IEA member countries
Figure ES.3 Change in aggregate intensity, decomposed into structure and efficiency effects, 1990-2010
Figure ES.4 The market for energy efficiency
Figure 1.1 The market for energy efficiency
Figure 1.2 Energy efficiency cost curve for the United States
Figure 1.3 Progress in implementation of IEA 25 EEPR by IEA countries
Figure 1.4 Growing magnitude of imports of coal and coal products, oil and oil products and gas (from left to right), 2001-11
Figure 1.5 The multiple benefits of energy efficiency 38
Figure 2.1 Reductions in TFC due to efficiency by region in IEA World Energy Outlook scenarios
Figure 2.2 Cumulative reductions in TFC by sector in the EWS compared to the NPS, 2013-20
Figure 3.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-11, and energy supply by source, 2011
Figure 3.2 Sectoral breakdown of global TFC by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 3.3 Th e “first fuel”: long-term improvements in energy efficiency in 11 IEA member countries
Figure 3.4 The “first fuel”: contribution of energy efficiency compared to other energy resources consumed in 2010 in 11 IEA member countries
Figure 3.5 Evolution of IEA and World average energy intensity, TPES per GDP
Figure 3.6 Evolution of energy productivity for selected IEA member countries, GDP per unit of TPES, 2002-12
Figure 3.7 Approximate trends in GDP per unit of TPES and TPES per capita for IEA member countries, 2002-12
Figure 3.8 Approximate trends in GDP per unit of TPES and TPES per capita in BRICS countries, 2002-12
Figure 3.9 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects for 15 IEA member countries
Figure 3.10 Changes in aggregate intensities of 15 member IEA countries, decomposed into structure and efficiency effects, 1990-2010
Figure 3.11 Industrial energy use per unit of value-added for 20 IEA member countries, 1990 and 2010
Figure 3.12 Composition of industrial value-added for 21 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right)
Figure 3.13 Change in industrial energy intensity, decomposed into structure and efficiency effects for 20 IEA member countries, 1990-2010
Figure 3.14 Global potential savings from the adoption of BAT in the five most energy-intensive industries
Figure 3.15 Residential energy consumption by end-use for 20 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right)
Figure 3.16 Share of space heating by fuel for 22 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right) . 68
Figure 3.17 Changes in space heating per capita, decomposed into contributing factors for 20 IEA member countries, 1990-2010
Figure 3.18 Energy per passenger-kilometre for 20 IEA member countries, 1990 and 2010
Figure 3.19 Share of total passenger-kilometres by mode for 22 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right)
Figure 3.20 Trends in new-car fuel efficiency for 15 IEA member countries, 1990-2010
Figure 3.21 Freight transport energy per tonne-kilometre for 20 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right)
Figure 3.22 Share of tonne-kilometres by transport mode for 24 IEA member countries, 1990 (left) and 2010 (right)
Figure 3.23 Trends in truck freight energy intensity for 20 IEA member countries, 1990-2010 . 74
Figure 4.1 Global appliance and ICT production forecast, 2010-17
Figure 4.2 The expanding scope of networked technologies
Figure 4.3 Network-connected-product shipment forecast
Figure 4.4 Smart appliance global market value, 2010-19
Figure 4.5 Projection of general lighting market expansion by region
Figure 4.6 Lighting market penetration by technology: total worldwide lighting stock
Figure 4.7 Market transformation of products due to implementation of standards and labels
Figure 4.8 Sales of ENERGY STAR certified products since 1993
Figure 4.9 Energy efficiency classes of domestic appliances sales in the European Union, 2011
Figure 4.10 Smart meter shipment forecast
Figure 6.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 6.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 6.3 Evolution of Australian energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 6.4 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 6.5 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 6.6 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 7.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 7.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 7.3 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 7.4 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 7.5 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 7.6 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 7.7 Final energy use, with and without energy efficiency improvements, 1990-2010
Figure 7.8 ENERGY STAR qualified appliances as a percentage of total shipments in Canada, 1999-2010
Figure 8.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-11, and energy supply by source, 2011
Figure 8.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 8.3 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-11
Figure 8.4 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 8.5 SC and USC capacity in major coal-using countries
Figure 9.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-11, and energy supply by source, 2011
Figure 9.2 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 9.3 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 9.4 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 9.5 Projection of primary energy use for the European Union to 2020
Figure 9.6 Direct and avoided costs in five-year periods as a result of the EED
Figure 10.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 10.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 10.3 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 10.4 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 10.5 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP
Figure 10.6 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 10.7 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 10.8 Overall energy savings from improvements in energy efficiency
Figure 11.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012 149 Figu re 11.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 11.3 Overall energy savings from improvement in energy efficiency
Figure 11.4 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 11.5 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 11.6 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 11.7 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 11.8 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 11.9 Volume of grants and loans under building refurbishment programmes
Figure 11.10 Reductions in final energy demand from building retrofit programmes
Figure 12.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-11, and energy supply by source, 2011
Figure 12.2 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-11
Figure 12.3 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 12.4 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 13.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 13.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 13.3 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 13.4 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 13.5 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 13.6 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 13.7 Average fuel economy of cars and share of passenger transport, 2000-10
Figure 13.8 Comparison of light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency standards and targets
Figure 14.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 14.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 14.3 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 14.4 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 14.5 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 14.6 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 14.7 Energy demand and target, 2008-30
Figure 14.8 Breakdown by efficiency level of appliances and equipment sold in Korea, 2008-12
Figure 14.9 Car ownership in Korea
Figure 14.10 Breakdown by efficiency level of car sales in Korea, 2007-11
Figure 15.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 15.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 15.3 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 15.4 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 15.5 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 16.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 16.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 16.3 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 16.4 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 16.5 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 16.6 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 16.7 Changes in final residential energy consumption, decomposed into contributing factors
Figure 16.8 Energy consumption by type of appliance
Figure 16.9 Improvement in the average efficiency of appliance classes in New Zealand since 2000
Figure 17.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-11, and energy supply by source, 2011 206
Figure 17.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 17.3 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2001-11
Figure 17.4 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-11
Figure 17.5 Eskom's programmes to engage different market segments . 210
Figure 18.1 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-11
Figure 18.2 TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001-11
Figure 18.3 Reduction in TPES in the Efficient ASEAN Scenario relative to the NPS
Figure 18.4 Share of total projected primary energy demand to be met through energy efficiency, 2030
Figure 18.5 Annual electricity savings potential in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, 2010-20
Figure 18.6 Investment (left) and savings (right) potential by country by sector
Figure 19.1 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 19.2 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 19.3 Changes in electricity generation and consumption, 2002-12
Figure 19.4 Overall avoided energy use from improvements in energy efficiency, 2000-10
Figure 19.5 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 19.6 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 19.7 Volume, price and costs of oil imports, 2002-12
Figure 19.8 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 20.1 Impact of supply- and demand-side improvements on oil import needs
Figure 20.2 TPES and TFC, 2001-12, and energy supply by source, 2012
Figure 20.3 Share of TFC by sector, 2011, and TFC by sector and by energy source, 2001 and 2011
Figure 20.4 Evolution of energy intensity as a function of GDP, 2001-12
Figure 20.5 Changes in TFC, decomposed into structure, activity and efficiency effects
Figure 20.6 Proportion of household expenditure on energy
Figure 20.7 International comparison of light-duty vehicle fuel economy standards
Figure 20.8 Potential energy savings from new appliance energy performance standards
Figure 20.9 Ratepayer-funded natural gas and electric energy efficiency spending
Figure 20.10 Projected electric and gas energy efficiency programme spending under three scenarios, 2012-25
Figure 20.11 Impact of energy efficiency policies on retail electricity sales, 2010-35
Figure 20.12 Historical and forecast revenues of ESCO industry, 1990-2020
Figure 20.13 ESCO project value under DOE's Super-ESPC programme, 1998-2013
Figure 20.14 Estimated ESCO market potential in commercial and MUSH sectors
Figure 20.15 Actual and forecast annual savings from energy efficiency policies and markets, 2011 and 2020

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Metrics describing energy supply and consumption
Table 1.2 Selected national studies of energy efficiency potential
Table 2.1 Comparison of energy efficiency spending estimates
Table 3.1 Variables and metrics used for sectoral indicators
Table 4.1 Projected market share by label efficiency category in China
Table 4.2 Estimated annual savings in 2030 in SEAD economies
Table 4.3 Appliance and equipment efficiency programmes in Korea
Table 4.4 Medium-term smart meter developments in key regions
Table 6.1 Opportunities for avoided energy use in Australian industry in 2010/11
Table 7.1 Overview of key federal government programmes targeting energy efficiency
Table 7.2 Estimated impact of the energy efficiency regulations, 2010 and 2020 (aggregate annual savings)
Table 8.1 Summary of investments in programmes within the 11th FYP
Table 9.1 Energy efficiency market drivers in the EED
Table 9.2 EU energy efficiency funding
Table 10.1 Investments and outcomes of the French white certificate scheme (CEE)
Table 11.1 Estimated 2020 final energy consumption under business-as-usual scenario and Energy Concept scenario
Table 11.2 KfW current refurbishment and construction residential buildings sector programmes
Table 12.1 Expected investment and impact
Table 12.2 Energy savings investment potential in India by sector .
Table 12.3 Overview of key energy efficiency policies
Table 13.1 Results of quantitative cost-benefit analysis of Top Runner energy efficiency standards
Table 14.1 Projected energy demand under current policies and new policies (Mtoe)
Table 14.2 Global market size for major appliances (USD billion) and Korea's market share
Table 14.3 Results of Korean energy efficiency standards and labelling programmes, 2011
Table 14.4 New fuel economy label stringency levels
Table 14.5 Fuel savings when moving one level up
Table 14.6 Korean Average Fuel Economy Programme standards
Table 14.7 ESCO sector turnover, 2007-11 (USD million)
Table 14.8 Cumulative ESCO expenditure by technology, 2007-11 (USD million)
Table 15.1 Mexican energy policies and programmes
Table 15.2 Mexican equipment labels and standards coverage
Table 16.1 Cost-benefit analysis of New Zealand's WUNZ-HS Programme
Table 16.2 Estimated producer surplus of the WUNZ-HS Programme
Table 18.1 Changes in energy supply and energy consumption
Table 18.2 Selected energy efficiency and conservation goals
Table 18.3 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in Indonesia
Table 18.4 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in Singapore
Table 18.5 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in the Philippines
Table 18.6 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in Thailand
Table 18.7 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in Vietnam
Table 18.8 Efficiency programmes, investments and outcomes in Malaysia
Table 18.9 Investment needed to meet national energy efficiency targets by 2020
Table 19.1 Energy-saving potentials and energy savings from policy, 2020 (Mtoe)
Table 19.2 Scope and market activity under CERT and CESP
Table 19.3 Scope and expected market activity under the Green Deal and ECO
Table 20.1 Energy efficiency policies and results
Table 20.2 Tailwinds and headwinds for US medium-term energy efficiency markets
Table A.1 Total primary energy supply (TPES) by country (million tonnes of oil equivalent ([Mtoe])
Table A.2 Total final consumption (TFC) by country (million tonnes of oil equivalent ([Mtoe])
Table A.3 TPES/GDP PPP by country (toe per thousand 2005 USD)
Table A.4 TPES/population by country (toe per capita)
Table A.5 Electricity consumption by country (Mtoe)

List of Boxes

Box ES.1 Definitions and approach taken
Box 1.1 Energy savings as avoided energy consumption
Box 1.2 The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations and progress in policy implementation
Box 1.3 The multiple benefits of energy efficiency
Box 2.1 Methodological challenges
Box 2.2 The IEA Efficient World Scenario
Box 3.1 Methodology: how decomposition analysis is used to identify the role of efficiency
Box 4.1 Intelligent efficiency
Box 8.1 Importance of supply-side efficiency in managing coal demand
Box 8.2 China's pilot carbon emissions trading schemes
Box 9.1 EU legislation at work
Box 20.1 Near-zero-energy schools in Kentucky
Box 20.2 Is the end of US electricity demand growth at hand?

Energy Efficiency: An Important Market That is Gaining Momentum

- Energy efficiency markets deliver goods and services that reduce the energy required to fuel our economies. It is estimated that investment in key energy efficiency markets worldwide totalled up to USD 300 billion in 2011. This is a conservative estimate based on an assessment of direct and leveraged investment in identifiable energy efficiency initiatives by the public sector, multilateral finance institutions and major private institutions.

- Energy efficiency investment has already delivered significant reductions in energy demand. It is estimated that for 11 IEA member countries, 1 investment in energy efficiency since 2005 has resulted in cumulative avoided energy consumption of 570 million tonnes of oil-equivalent (Mtoe) over the five years to 2010. Without these energy efficiency measures, 5% more energy would have been consumed by the 11 countries over that period. This amount of avoided energy is greater than oil used in the United States' transport sector in 2010 (554 Mtoe). In monetary terms, 570 Mtoe of crude oil would be valued at USD 420 billion at a price of USD 100 per barrel. Despite these measures being taken only relatively recently, they have already had a significant impact on total final consumption.

The Emerging Energy Efficiency Market

- In 2011, total investment in energy efficiency was similar in magnitude to supply-side investment in renewable or fossil fuel electricity generation (Figure ES.1). However, investment in energy efficiency is still less than two-thirds of the level of fossil fuel subsidies. Investment in energy efficiency is distributed unevenly across countries and energy-consuming sectors (buildings, domestic appliances, transport and industry). The estimate provided is considered conservative because, first, limited information on private sector investment means it relies primarily on public-sector investment information, and second, the energy efficiency components of investment are frequently not discernable from business-as-usual infrastructure and consumer investment.

- The energy efficiency market is increasingly delivering outcomes that can help address important public policy challenges. Energy efficiency investments can produce multiple benefits by reducing or limiting the demand for energy. This includes reducing both domestic and international pressures on energy supply systems, thereby increasing system resilience and improving security. It can also produce positive economic outcomes, such as allowing spending on energy to be redirected towards other economic sectors, and by reducing public expenditures. Energy efficiency investments can also result in improved health and well-being, and avoided emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Energy efficiency has a role as an important domestically produced energy resource – it can improve the trading position of countries by reducing the need for fuel imports, or freeing up other domestic energy reserves for export. Governments will need to understand the dynamics that stimulate energy efficiency activity if they are to successfully fulfil the parallel objectives of maintaining a high level of energy services, fuelling economic growth, keeping energy affordable and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

* Please see free download for continuation of executive summary.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

ALSO AVAILABLE

RELATED PRODUCTS

Our Clients

Our clients' logos