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Electroless Copper and Nickel-Phosphorus Plating. Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering

  • ID: 2719580
  • January 2011
  • 304 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Unlike electroplating, electroless plating allows uniform deposits of coating materials over all surfaces, regardless of size, shape and electrical conductivity. Electroless copper and nickel-phosphorus deposits provide protective and functional coatings in industries as diverse as electronics, automotive, aerospace and chemical engineering. This book discusses the latest research in electroless depositions.

After an introductory chapter, part one focuses on electroless copper depositions reviewing such areas as surface morphology and residual stress, modelling surface structure, adhesion strength of electroless copper deposit, electrical resistivity and applications of electroless copper deposits. Part two goes on to look at electroless nickel-phosphorus depositions with chapters on the crystallisation of nickel-phosphorus deposits, modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation of nickel-phosphorus deposits, artificial neural network (ANN) modelling of crystallisation temperatures, hardness evolution of nickel-phosphorus deposits and applications of electroless nickel-phosphorus plating.

Written by leading experts in the field Electroless copper and nickel-phosphorus READ MORE >

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Author contact details

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1: Introduction to electroless copper and nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) depositions

Abstract:

1.1 Electroless copper deposition

1.2 Electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposition

1.3 How to plate the depositions in the laboratory

1.4 Research objectives

1.5 Structure of the book

Part I: Electroless copper depositions

Chapter 2: Surface morphology evolution of electroless copper deposits

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction and surface morphology of the substrate

2.2 Formaldehyde high temperature solution deposits

2.3 Glyoxylic acid high temperature solution deposits

2.4 Formaldehyde high concentration low temperature (FHCLT) solution deposit

2.5 Formaldehyde low concentration low temperature (FLCLT) solution deposit

2.6 Glyoxylic acid high concentration low temperature (GHCLT) solution deposit

2.7 Glyoxylic acid low concentration low temperature (GLCLT) solution deposit

2.8 Electroplated and electroless copper deposits

2.9 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Cross-section of electroless copper deposits and the void fraction

Abstract:

3.1 Calculating the void fraction on an electron microscopy cross-section image

3.2 Determination of the optimum threshold values of grey scale and noise

3.3 The voids

3.4 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Crystal structure and surface residual stress of electroless copper deposits

Abstract:

4.1 X-ray normal scan patterns and the crystal structures of the deposits

4.2 Tilted scan patterns and the surface residual stress of the electroless copper

4.3 The error in calculating the position and the relative intensities of the peaks

4.4 The error in linear regression for surface residual stress analysis

4.5 Conclusions

Chapter 5: The atomic model of the diamond pyramid structure in electroless copper deposits

Abstract:

5.1 The unit diamond pyramid structure in a face centred cubic crystal lattice

5.2 Multi-layer atomic model

5.3 Twinning in the diamond pyramid model

5.4 The role of surface stress in the formation of twinning in a diamond pyramid

5.5 Conclusions

Chapter 6: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the diamond pyramid structure in electroless copper deposits

Abstract:

6.1 Simulation setup

6.2 Preparing models for molecular dynamics calculation

6.3 The effect of surface stress on the shape of the diamond pyramid structure

6.4 The relaxation of the diamond pyramid structure with different sizes

6.5 The effect of temperature on the relaxation of the diamond pyramid structure

6.6 The effect of temperature on the formation of voids in the electroless deposit

6.7 The formation and growth of the diamond pyramid structure in deposit

6.8 The radial distribution function (RDF) and the Fourier transform of X-ray diffraction (XRD)

6.9 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Adhesion strength of electroless copper deposit to epoxy board

Abstract:

7.1 Adhesion testing

7.2 Image processing for calculating pull-off fraction parameter of adhesion

7.3 Fracture surface

7.4 Image processing and the pull-off fraction parameter of adhesion testing

7.5 Adhesion strength of electroless copper deposits

7.6 Two failure modes for a partly pulled-off specimen

7.7 Conclusions

Chapter 8: Electrical resistivity of electroless copper deposit

Abstract:

8.1 Four-point probe method for the electrical resistance analysis

8.2 Calculation of the thickness of the deposits using the weight gain method

8.3 The error of calculating the digital length of a curve

8.4 The surface cross-section curve and the correction factors of FR4

8.5 The plating rates of the electroless copper deposits in different solutions

8.6 The sheet resistance and resistivity of the electroless copper deposit

8.7 Conclusions

Chapter 9: Applications of electroless copper deposits

Abstract:

9.1 Printed circuit board (PCB) industry

9.2 Properties of electroless copper deposition and their evaluation

9.3 Diffusion based simulation

Part II: Electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) depositions

Chapter 10: Crystallisation of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits with high phosphorus content

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Effects of phosphorus content

10.3 Effects of the heating process and degree of phase transformation

10.4 X-ray diffraction (XRD) data analysis procedures

10.5 Grain size and microstrain in the platings

10.6 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis

10.7 Microstructural evolution of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits with heat treatment

10.8 Conclusions

Chapter 11: Crystallisation of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits with medium and low phosphorus content

Abstract:

11.1 Calorimetric study and the major exothermal peak

11.2 X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis

11.3 Degree of phase transformation

11.4 The major exothermal peak

11.5 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Thermodynamic analysis of crystallisation in amorphous solids

12.3 Application of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) theory in isothermal crystallisation

12.4 Electroless and melt quenched nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P)

12.5 Melt quenched Fe40Ni40P14B6

12.6 Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic modelling of non-isothermal crystallisation

12.7 Determination of degree of transformation

12.8 Modelling of crystallisation kinetics

12.9 Comparison between simulations and experimental data

12.10 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Artificial neural network (ANN) modelling of crystallisation temperatures of nickel-phosphorus deposits

Abstract:

13.1 Artificial neural network (ANN) modelling

13.2 Performance of neural networks

13.3 Comparison between calculations and experimental data

13.4 MatLab programming for simulation of peak temperatures versus heating rate

13.5 Prediction using the model

13.6 Application of the model

13.7 Conclusions

Chapter 14: Hardness evolution of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits with thermal processing

Abstract:

14.1 Concept of kinetic strength

14.2 Thermal processing and phase structure

14.3 Vickers surface hardness

14.4 Vickers hardness of the cross-sections

14.5 Knoop hardness over the depth of cross-sections

14.6 Kinetics of increased hardening effects

14.7 Microstructure and hardness of alloy coatings containing tin and tungsten

14.8 Conclusions

Chapter 15: Applications of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) plating

Abstract:

15.1 Comparisons with other common engineering deposits

15.2 Advantages of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) deposits

15.3 Enhancement through heat-treatment processes

15.4 Electroless nickel-phosphorus-silicon carbide (Ni-P-SiC) coated aluminium cylinder liner: a research case study

15.5 Development and future trends

15.6 Conclusions

Index

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Sha, W
Professor Wei Sha is Professor of Materials Science at The Queen's University of Belfast, UK
Wu, Xiaomin
Keong, K G
Dr. Kim Ghee Keong currently resides in Malaysia. All three authors are internationally renowned for their research and work in the electroless field.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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