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Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

  • ID: 2719655
  • January 2011
  • 512 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Radioactive wastes are generated from a wide range of sources, including the power industry, and medical and scientific research institutions, presenting a range of challenges in dealing with a diverse set of radionuclides of varying concentrations. Conditioning technologies are essential for the encapsulation and immobilisation of these radioactive wastes, forming the initial engineered barrier required for their transportation, storage and disposal. The need to ensure the long term performance of radioactive waste forms is a key driver of the development of advanced conditioning technologies.

The Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies. Part one reviews the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction, incineration and plasma treatment, as well as encapsulation methods such as cementation, READ MORE >

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Chapter 1: Radioactive waste characterization and selection of processing technologies

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Radioactive waste classification

1.3 Radioactive waste characterization

1.4 Radioactive waste processing

1.5 Selection of conditioning technologies

1.6 Sources of further information and advice

1.7 Acknowledgements

Part I: Radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies

Chapter 2: Compaction processes and technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste

Abstract:

2.1 Applicable waste streams in compaction processes and technology

2.2 Compaction processes and technology

2.3 End waste forms and quality control of compaction processes

2.4 Pre-treatment in compaction processes

2.5 Secondary wastes of compaction processes and technology

2.6 Advantages and limitations of compaction processes and technoligy

2.7 Future trends

2.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: Incineration and plasma processes and technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Applicable waste streams in incineration processes and technology

3.3 Incineration process and technology

3.4 Plasma process and technology

3.5 End waste form and quality control in incineration (plasma) processes

3.6 Advantages and limitations of incineration (plasma) processes

3.7 Future ternds

3.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 4: Application of inorganic cements to the conditioning and immobilisation of radioactive wastes

Abstract:

4.1 Overview

4.2 Manufacture of Portland cement

4.3 Application of Portland cement

4.4 Hydration of Portland cement

4.5 Porosity and permeability

4.6 Supplementary cementitious materials

4.7 Mineral aggregates

4.8 Service environments and cement performance in its service environment

4.9 Standards and testing

4.10 Organic materials added to Portland cement

4.11 Service environments and lessons from historic concrete

4.12 Non-Portland cement

4.13 Immobilisation mechanisms

4.14 Deterioration processes affecting Portland cement: processes and features

4.15 Deterioration processes: carbonation

4.16 Miscellaneous interactions of cement in its service environment

4.17 Summary and conclusions

Chapter 5: Calcination and vitrification processes for conditioning of radioactive wastes

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Calcination and vitrification processes

5.3 End waste forms and quality control in calcination and vitrification processes

5.4 Future trends

Chapter 6: Historical development of glass and ceramic waste forms for high level radioactive wastes

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Borosilicate glass development in the United States

6.3 Borosilicate glass development in France

6.4 Borosilicate glass development in the United Kingdom

6.5 Aluminosilicate glass development in Canada

6.6 Phosphate glass development in the United States, Russia, Germany and Belgium

6.7 Ceramic waste form development in various countries

Chapter 7: Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and environmental remediation: generation and management of radioactive and other wastes

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 What is decommissioning?

7.3 Generation of decommissioning waste

7.4 Waste from dismantling of nuclear facilities

7.5 Waste from decontamination for decommissioning purposes

7.6 Problematic decommissioning waste

7.7 Environmental remediation as a decommissioning component

7.8 Future trends

Part II: Advanced materials and technologies for the immobilisation of radioactive wastes

Chapter 8: Development of geopolymers for nuclear waste immobilisation

Abstract:

8.1 Nuclear wastes around the world

8.2 Cementitious low-level waste (LLW)/intermediate-level waste (ILW) waste forms

8.3 Future work

8.4 Conclusions

8.5 Sources of further information and advice

8.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 9: Development of glass matrices for high level radioactive wastes

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 High level radioactive waste (HLW) glass processing

9.3 Glass formulation and waste loading

9.4 Glass quality: feed-forward process control

9.5 Other glasses

9.6 Future trends

9.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 10: Development of ceramic matrices for high level radioactive wastes

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Ceramic phases

10.3 Ceramic waste forms for the future

10.5 Acknowledgement

Chapter 11: Development of waste packages for the disposal of radioactive waste: French experience

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Existing waste packages used for the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste

11.3 Waste packages being developed for other types of radioactive waste

11.4 Future trends

11.5 Sources of further information and advice

11.6 Glossary of terms

Chapter 12: Development and use of metal containers for the disposal of radioactive wastes

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Safety in radioactive waste disposal

12.3 Approaches to physical containment of radioactive waste

12.4 Metal corrosion: an overview

12.5 Radioactive waste containers in use or proposed

12.6 Quality management of metal containers

12.7 Future trends

12.8 Sources of further information and advice

Part III: Radioactive waste long-term performance assessment and knowledge management techniques

Chapter 13: Failure mechanisms of high level nuclear waste forms in storage and geological disposal conditions

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction: the main aspects of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

13.2 Effects of radiation on properties relevant for storage and disposal of high level waste (HLW)

13.3 Chemical corrosion of high level waste (HLW) in presence of water

13.4 Future trends

Chapter 14: Development of long-term behavior models for radioactive waste forms

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Thermo-hydro-mechanical performance modeling

14.3 Corrosion modeling

14.4 Source term release modeling

14.5 Future trends

Chapter 15: Knowledge management for radioactive waste management organisations

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Challenges for managing nuclear knowledge in radioactive waste management organisations

15.3 Managing nuclear knowledge over very long timescales

15.4 Implementing knowledge management in radioactive waste management organisations

15.5 Knowledge management tools and techniques for use in radioactive waste management

15.6 Conclusions

Index

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Ojovan, Michael I
Dr Michael I. Ojovan is an Associate Professor (Reader) in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK.

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