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Asthma Therapeutics: New Treatment Options and Emerging Drug Discovery Targets Product Image

Asthma Therapeutics: New Treatment Options and Emerging Drug Discovery Targets

  • ID: 28403
  • April 2003
  • Lead Discovery

From 1980 to 1996, the number of Americans afflicted with asthma more than doubled to almost 15 million, with children under five years old experiencing the highest rate of increase. The steady rise in the prevalence of asthma constitutes an epidemic, which by all indications is continuing. Even if rates were to stabilize, asthma would continue to be a profound public health problem, responsible for 9 million visits to health care providers per year, over 1.8 million emergency room visits per year, and over 460 thousand hospitalizations per year. As well as placing a considerable burden in terms of direct medical costs, asthma is one of the leading causes of work or school absenteeism. In 1990, the annual cost of asthma to the U.S. economy was estimated to be $6.2 billion, with the majority of the expense attributed to medical care. The epidemic in the US is representative of many developed countries.

Paralleling the dramatic growth in its incidence, asthma is driving one of the most rapidly growing global therapeutic markets. The impact that increased incidence is having on therapeutic market values is further exaggerated by a considerable degree of undertreatment of asthma. READ MORE >

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<P>INTRODUCTION</P>

<P>BACKGROUND INFORMATION</P>

<P>The increasing prevalence of asthma </P>

<P>The role of genetic factors in asthma</P>

<P>The role of infective agents in asthma</P>

<P>Asthma as an inflammatory disease</P>

<P>Airway remodelling</P>

<P>Airway hyperresponsiveness</P>

<P>Anti-inflammatory mechanisms</P>

<P>Transcription factors</P>

<P>MODERN ASTHMA MANAGEMENT</P>

<P>Asthma guidelines</P>

<P>Inhaled corticosteroids</P>

<P>Add-on therapies</P>

<P>Anti-leukotrienes
NEW BRONCHODILATORS</P>

<P>ß2-Agonists.</P>

<P>Drugs which increase cyclic AMP</P>

<P>Drugs which increase cyclic GMP
Selective anticholinergics
K+ channel openers</P>

<P>MEDIATOR ANTAGONISTS</P>

<P>Leukotriene modifiers</P>

<P>Prostaglandin inhibitors</P>

<P>Endothelin antagonists</P>

<P>Antioxidants</P>

<P>Purine receptor modulators</P>

<P>Nitric Oxide</P>

<P>Tryptase inhibitors</P>

<P>CYTOKINES AND CYTOKINE INHIBITORS</P>

<P>Strategies for inhibiting cytokines
Inhibition of Th2 cytokines</P>

<P>Anti-IL-5
Anti-IL-4
Anti-IL-13
Anti-IL-9
Anti-IL-25
Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines</P>

<P>Anti-inflammatory cytokines</P>

<P>IL-10
Interferons
IL-12
IL-18
CHEMOKINE INHIBITORS
CCR3 inhibitors</P>

<P>inhibitors</P>

<P>Other CCR inhibitors</P>

<P>NEW ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS</P>

<P>Novel corticosteroids</P>

<P>Soft steroids
Ciclesonide
Dissociated corticosteroids
Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors
Transcription factor inhibitors</P>

<P>NF-AT/calcineurin inhibitors
GATA-3 inhibitors
MAP kinase inhibitors</P>

<P>p38 MAP kinase inhibitors
JNK inhibitors
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors</P>

<P>Syk kinase inhibitors
Lyn kinase inhibitors
EGF receptor kinase
Immunomodulators</P>

<P>Th2 cell inhibitors
Cell adhesion blockers</P>

<P>SPECIFIC ANTI-ALLERGIC DRUGS</P>

<P>Cromones</P>

<P>Furosemide</P>

<P>Co-stimulation inhibitors</P>

<P>Anti-IgE</P>

<P>PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES IN ASTHMA</P>

<P>Specific allergen vaccination (immunotherapy)</P>

<P>Peptide immunotherapy</P>

<P>Vaccination</P>

<P>CgP oligonucleotides</P>

<P>GENE THERAPY</P>

<P>Gene transfer</P>

<P>Antisense oligonucleotides</P>

<P>THE ASTHMA THERAPEUTICS MARKET</P>

<P>ASTHMA THERAPEUTICS DEVELOPMENT</P>

<P>Full listing of therapeutics on the market or in developement aranged by originating company, phase of development, pharmacology
Therapeutic profiles of marketed products
zileuton
pseudoephedrine
(R)-salbutamol
bambuterol
formoterol
pirbuterol
reproterol
salbutamol
salmeterol + fluticasone
suplatast tosilate
epinastine
oxatomide
amlexanox
tranilast
Broncostat
Alergim PG
TO-194
pranlukast
montelukast sodium
zafirlukast
cyclidrol
letosteine
flutropium bromide
budilast
aminophylline
doxofylline
theophylline
triamcinolone
beclometasone
budesonide
deflazacort
fluticasone
methylprednisolone
budesonide
beclometasone
budesonide
flunisolide
mometasone
budesonide + formoterol
seratrodast
Therapeutic profiles of clincial stage products
salbutamol
formoterol
omalizumab
ciclesonide
budesonide
flunisolide
israpafant
(R,R)-formoterol
ebastine
roflumilast
CONCLUSIONS & STRATEGIC ADVICE </P>

<P> </P>

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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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