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Polymer Reference Book

  • ID: 312455
  • Book
  • January 2006
  • 704 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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The aim of the Polymer Reference Book is to familiarise the reader with all aspects of the techniques used in the examination of polymers, including chemical, physiochemical and purely physical methods of examination.

This book describes the types of techniques now available to the polymer chemist and technician, and discusses their capabilities, limitations and applications. All types of modern instrumentation are covered including those used in general quality control, research analysis, process monitoring and for determining the mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical characteristics. Aspects such as automated analysis and computerised control of instruments are also included.

The book covers not only instrumentation for the determination of metals, non metals, functional groups, polymer structural analysis and end-groups in the main types of polymers now in use commercially, but also the analysis of minor non-polymeric components of the polymer formulation, whether they be deliberately added, such as processing additives, or whether they occur adventitiously, such as residual volatiles and monomers and water. Fingerprinting techniques for the rapid identification of polymers and methods for the examination of polymer surfaces and polymer defects are also discussed.

The book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state-of-the-art of the theory and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. Over 1,800 references are included. The book should be of great interest to all those who are engaged in the examination of polymers in industry, university research establishments and general education. The book is intended for all staff who are concerned with instrumentation in the polymer laboratory, including laboratory designers, work planners, chemists, engineers, chemical engineers and those concerned with the implementation of specifications and process control.

About the Author

Roy Crompton was Head of the polymer analysis research department of a major international polymer producer for some 15 years. In the early fifties he was heavily engaged in the development of methods of analysis for low-pressure polyolefins produced by the Ziegler-Natta route, including work on high-density polyethylene and polypropylene. He was responsible for the development of methods of analysis of the organoaluminum catalysts used for the synthesis of these polymers. He was also responsible for the development of thin-layer chromatography for the determination of various types of additives in polymers and did pioneering work on the use of TLC to separate polymer additives and to examine the separated additives by infrared and mass spectrometry. He retired in 1958 and has since been engaged as a consultant in the field of analytical chemistry and has written extensively on this subject, with some 20 books published.
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1 Determination of Metals
1.1 Destructive Techniques
1.1.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.2 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.3 Atom Trapping Technique
1.1.4 Vapour Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.5 Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
1.1.6 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
1.1.7 Hybrid Inductively Coupled Plasma Techniques
1.1.8 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry–Mass Spectrometry
1.1.9 Pre-concentration Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Techniques
1.1.10 Microprocessors
1.11 Autosamplers
1.1.12 Applications: Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Metals
1.1.13 Visible and UV Spectroscopy
1.1.14 Polarography and Voltammetry
1.1.15 Ion Chromatography
1.2 Non-destructive Methods
1.2.1 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
1.2.2 Neutron Activation Analysis

2 Non-metallic Elements
2.1 Instrumentation: Furnace Combustion Methods
2.1.1 Halogens
2.1.2 Sulfur
2.1.3 Total Sulfur/Total Halogen
2.1.4 Total Bound Nitrogen
2.1.5 Nitrogen, Carbon, and Sulfur
2.1.6 Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
2.1.7 Total Organic Carbon
2.2 Oxygen Flask Combustion Methods
2.2.1 Total Halogens
2.2.2 Sulfur
2.2.3 Oxygen Flask Combustion: Ion Chromatography
2.2.4 Instrumentation
2.2.5 Applications
2.3 Acid and Solid Digestions of Polymers
2.3.1 Chlorine
2.3.2 Nitrogen
2.3.3 Phosphorus
2.3.4 Silica
2.4 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
2.5 Antec 9000 Nitrogen/Sulfur Analyser

3 Functional Groups and Polymer Structure
3.1 Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
3.1.1 Instrumentation
3.1.2 Applications
3.2 Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy
3.2.1 Theory
3.2.2 Instrumentation
3.2.3 Applications
3.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
3.3.1 Instrumentation
3.3.2 Applications
3.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
3.4.1 Instrumentation
3.4.2 Applications
3.5 Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR) Spectroscopy
3.5.1 Instrumentation
3.5.2 Applications
3.6 Reaction Gas Chromatography
3.6.1 Instrumentation
3.6.2 Applications
3.7 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
3.7.1 Theory
3.7.2 Instrumentation
3.7.3 Applications
3.8 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
3.8.1 Instrumentation
3.8.2 Applications
3.9 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
3.10 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
3.11 Mass Spectrometric Techniques
3.11.1 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
3.11.2 XPS
3.11.3 Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS)
3.11.4 Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry
3.11.5 MALDI-MS
3.11.6 Radio Frequency Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry
3.12 Microthermal Analysis
3.13 Atomic Force Microscopy
3.13.1 Applications
3.14 Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Analysis using X-rays

4 Examination of Polymer Surfaces and Defects
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Electron Microprobe X-ray Emission Spectrometry
4.2.1 Applications
4.3 NMR Micro-imaging
4.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
4.4.1 Instrumentation
4.4.2 Applications
4.5 Diffusion Reflectance FT-IR Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.6 Attenuated Total Infrared Internal Reflectance (ATR) Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.7 External Reflectance Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.8 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
4.8.1 Instrumentation
4.8.2 Applications
4.9 X-ray Diffraction/Infrared Microscopy of Synthetic Fibres
4.10 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM)
4.11 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
4.12 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
4.12.1 Electron Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography
4.12.2 Supersonic Jet Spectrometry
4.13 ToF SIMS
4.14 Laser-Induced Photoelectron Ionisation with Laser Desorption
4.15 Atomic Force Microscopy
4.16 Microthermal Analysis

5 Volatiles and Water
5.1 Gas Chromatography
5.1.1 Instrumentation
5.1.2 Applications
5.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
5.2.1 Instrumentation
5.2.2 Applications
5.3 Polarography
5.3.1 Instrumentation
5.3.2 Applications
5.4 Headspace Analysis
5.4.1 Instrumentation
5.4.2 Applications
5.5 Headspace Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
5.5.1 Instrumentation
5.6 Purge and Trap Analysis
5.6.1 Instrumentation

6 Fingerprinting Techniques
6.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) and Melting Temperature (Tm)
6.2 Pyrolysis Techniques
6.2.1 Conventional Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.2 Laser Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.3 Photolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.4 Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry
6.3 Infrared Spectroscopy
6.3.1 Potassium Bromide Discs
6.3.2 Hot Pressed Film
6.4 Pyrolysis Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
6.4.1 Theory
6.4.2 Instrumentation
6.4.3 Applications
6.5 Raman Spectroscopy
6.6 Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy
6.7 Radio Frequency and Low Discharge Mass Spectrometry

7 Polymer Additives
7.1 IR and Raman Spectroscopy
7.1.1 Instrumentation
7.1.2 Applications
7.2 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
7.2.1 Instrumentation
7.2.2 Applications
7.3 Luminescence and Fluorescence Spectroscopy
7.3.1 Instrumentation
7.3.2 Applications
7.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
7.5 Mass Spectrometry
7.5.1 Instrumentation
7.5.2 Applications
7.6 Gas Chromatography
7.6.1 Instrumentation
7.6.2 Applications
7.7 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
7.7.1 Theory
7.7.2 Instrumentation
7.7.3 Applications
7.8 Complementary Techniques
7.8.1 HPLC with Mass Spectrometry
7.8.2 HPLC with IR Spectroscopy
7.9 Ion Chromatography
7.10 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
7.10.1 Theory
7.10.2 Instrumentation
7.10.3 Applications
7.11 Thin-Layer Chromatography
7.11.1 Theory
7.11.2 Applications
7.12 Polarography
7.12.1 Instrumentation
7.12.2 Applications
7.13 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
7.14 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
7.15 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
7.16 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
7.17 Solvent Extraction Systems

8 Polymer Fractionation and Molecular Weight
8.1 Introduction
8.2 High-Performance GPC and SEC
8.2.1 Theory
8.2.2 Applications
8.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
8.3.1 Instrumentation
8.3.2 Applications
8.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
8.4.1 Theory
8.4.2 Instrumentation
8.4.3 Applications
8.5 Gas Chromatography
8.6 Thin-Layer Chromatography
8.7 NMR Spectroscopy
8.8 Osmometry
8.9 Light Scattering Methods
8.10 Viscometry
8.11 Ultracentrifugation
8.12 Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry
8.13 Capillary Electrophoresis
8.14 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
8.15 Ion Exchange Chromatography
8.16 Liquid Adsorption Chromatography
8.17 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF SIMS)
8.19 Thermal Field Flow Fractionation
8.20 Desorption Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
8.21 Grazing Emission X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

9 Thermal and Chemical Stability
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Theory
9.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.2.2 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.2.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.2.4 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.2.5 Evolved Gas Analysis
9.3 Instrumentation
9.3.1 Instrumentation for TGA, DTA, and DSC
9.3.2 Instrumentation for TVA and EGA
9.4 Applications
9.4.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.4.2 TGA–FT-IR Spectroscopy and DSC–FT-IR Spectroscopy
9.4.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.4.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.4.5 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.4.6 EGA–TGA–Gas Chromatogravimetry and TGA–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
9.4.7 Mass Spectrometric Methods
9.5 Examination of Thermal Stability by a Variety of Techniques
9.6 Heat Stability of Polypropylene
9.6.1 Influence of Pigmentation and UV Stabilisation on Heat Ageing Life

10 Monitoring of Resin Cure
10.1 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
10.1.1 Theory
10.1.2 Instrumentation
10.1.3 Applications
10.2 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
10.2.1 Theory
10.2.2 Instrumentation
10.2.3 Applications
10.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
10.4 Fibre Optic Sensor to Monitor Resin Cure

11 Oxidative Stability
11.1 Theory and Instrumentation
11.2 Applications
11.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
11.2.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
11.2.3 Evolved Gas Analysis
11.2.4 Infrared Spectroscopy of Oxidised Polymers
11.2.5 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
11.2.6 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
11.2.7 Imaging Chemiluminescence

12 Examination of Photopolymers
12.1 Differential Photocalorimetry
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