This report discusses recycling in relation to environmental matters, with particular reference to the new government strategy.
A review is given of the potential effects of polluting emissions on air, land and water. Atmospheric pollution can be caused by nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, halogens and particulate matter, to mention a few. Recycling can reduce the amount of these emissions. Similarly land and water pollution can produce damage to plant, animal and human life, and again, recycling can help reduce these effects.
It is important, however, that recycling is understood in the context of the waste hierarchy, in which options for disposing of a particular waste stream are considered in turn viz:
- waste reduction
- energy recovery (including incineration) from waste
- landscaping of waste
- incineration without energy recovery.
A solution is sought by considering each option in turn, starting with waste reduction, and as a last resort, landfill or incineration without energy recovery.
Currently, some 40% of waste is recovered from the industrial and commercial sectors. Within this waste stream, there are some high recovery (mostly recycling) figures, e.g. metal and scrap equipment 89%, food 80%, paper and card 77%. Unfortunately, the recycling figures for the largest waste streams, general commercial and general industrial are much lower, 22% and 13% respectively.
The situation on the municipal front is poor, with 85% of the 27 million tonnes being sent to landfill and about 15% having value recovered through recycling, composting or energy from waste.
With a government target of 25% of municipal waste to be recycled or composted by 2005, the UK clearly has to work hard.
The report discusses Life Cycle Assessment as a way of estimating the environmental impact of a product from cradle to grave. After highlighting key legislation, the report gives an account of the present situation for major waste streams metals, plastics, end of life vehicles, etc., with details of statistics, specific legislation and future implications. An account is also given of companies involved in recycling the materials covered by the report.
Market Assessment commissioned market research to investigate consumer attitudes towards recycling. There were strong responses in favour of recycling and an understanding that landfill causes pollution. There was also a strong view that consumers would be more involved in recycling if they had kerbside collections using appropriate containers.
The report also gives details on new developing recycling technologies and gives examples of recycled products (where the final product is made from material recycled from products originally made for a different purpose). SHOW LESS READ MORE >
TABLE OF CONTENTS:<BR><BR>INTRODUCTION 13<BR><BR>ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATING TO WASTE DISPOSAL GENERALLY 14<BR><BR>AIR POLLUTION 14<BR>LAND POLLUTION 15<BR>WATER POLLUTION 16<BR>CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE UK 16<BR><BR>WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS 18<BR><BR>THE WASTE HIERARCHY 18<BR>WASTE REDUCTION 18<BR>RE-USE 19<BR>RECYCLING 19<BR>COMPOSTING 19<BR>ENERGY RECOVERY 20<BR>LAND SPREADING OF WASTE 21<BR>LANDFILL 21<BR>INCINERATION WITHOUT ENERGY RECOVERY 22<BR><BR>THE RECYCLING OPTION 23<BR><BR>WASTE STATISTICS 23<BR>RECYCLING ECONOMICS 28<BR>LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 29<BR>BENEFITS OF RECYLING 30<BR><BR>SWOT ANALYSIS 31<BR><BR>STRENGTHS 31<BR>WEAKNESSES 31<BR>OPPORTUNITIES 31<BR>THREATS 32<BR><BR>EU DIRECTIVES, DECISIONS and POLICIES 34<BR><BR>UK LEGISLATION AND REGULATIONS 36<BR><BR>UK WASTE STRATEGY 2000 37<BR><BR>TAX ISSUES 39<BR><BR>LANDFILL TAX 39<BR>CLIENT CHARGE LEVY 39<BR>AGGREGATES LEVY 39<BR><BR>PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY AND OBLIGATORY SCHEMES 40<BR><BR>PACKAGING REGULATIONS 41<BR>END-OF-LIFE VEHICLES 42<BR>ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC WASTE 42<BR><BR>Promotion of Recyling 43<BR><BR>Education and Recycling 45<BR><BR>BATTERIES 47<BR><BR>Construction, Demolition Waste and Quarrying 48<BR><BR>Electrical And Electronic Equipment 49<BR><BR>END-OF-LIFE VEHICLES 50<BR><BR>Glass 51<BR><BR>Green Waste 52<BR><BR>Metals 53<BR><BR>Waste Oil 54<BR><BR>Packaging 55<BR><BR>Paper and Board 56<BR><BR>Plastics 57<BR><BR>SEWAGE SLUDGE 59<BR><BR>Textiles and Clothing 61<BR><BR>Tyres 62<BR><BR>Waste Wood 64<BR><BR>Nappies 65<BR>introduction 67<BR><BR>Waste Planning 68<BR><BR>MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 68<BR>NON-MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 71<BR><BR>Recycling Schemes and Numbers of Processors 72<BR><BR>DIFFICULTIES IN COLLECTION FOR RECYCLING 73<BR>DIFFICULTIES IN RECYCLING 73<BR>TECHNOLOGY AND RECYCLING EQUIPMENT 73<BR><BR>Products Made with Recycled Materials 75<BR><BR>GENERAL WASTE RECYCLING 77<BR><BR>INTRODUCTION 77<BR>BIFFA WASTE SERVICES 77<BR>WASTE RECYCLING GROUP 77<BR>CLEANAWAY 78<BR>ONYX ENVIRONMENTAL GROUP 78<BR>SHANKS GROUP 78<BR>SITA HOLDINGS UK 78<BR><BR>PAPER 79<BR><BR>AYLESFORD NEWSPRINT 79<BR>SEVERNSIDE RECYCLING 79<BR><BR>GLASS 80<BR><BR>BRITISH GLASS 80<BR>ROCKWARE GLASS 80<BR>UNITED GLASS 80<BR><BR>METALS 81<BR><BR>AMG RESOURCES 81<BR>ASW HOLDINGS 81<BR>CORUS STEEL PACKAGING RECYCLING 81<BR>ALUMINIUM PACKAGING RECYCLING ORGANISATION 82<BR>MAYER PARRY RECYCLING 82<BR>EUROPEAN METAL RECYCLING 82<BR>MOUNSTAR METAL CORPORATION 82<BR><BR>PLASTICS 83<BR><BR>RECOUP (RECYCLING OF USED PLASTIC CONTAINERS) 83<BR>BRITISH POLYTHENE INDUSTRIES 83<BR>SAVE A CUP RECYCLING COMPANY 83<BR>LINPAC PLASTICS 83<BR><BR>OTHER MATERIALS RECYCLING 85<BR><BR>TEXTILES 85<BR>Oxfam 85<BR>The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd 85<BR>TYRES 85<BR>SITA Tyre Recycling 85<BR>Blue Circle 85<BR>Dunlop 86<BR>OTR 86<BR>OIL 86<BR>OSS Group 86<BR>Greenway Holdings (PLC) 86<BR>ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 86<BR>ICER (Industry Council for Electronic Equipment Recycling) 86<BR>Vinton Batteries 87<BR>Cleanaway 87<BR>Lancashire County Council/G+P Batteries 87<BR><BR>Community Recycling 88<BR><BR>COMMUNITY RECYCLING VENTURE (CRV) 88<BR><BR>introduction 90<BR><BR>overall impressions 91<BR><BR>THE DISPOSAL OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN LANDFILL SITES PRODUCEs POLLUTION 94<BR><BR>AWARENESS OF GOVERNMENT TARGETS TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE SENT TO LANDFILL 96<BR><BR>POLLUTION BEING PRIMARILY A MATTER FOR GOVERNMENT TO DEAL WITH 98<BR><BR>PERSONAL EFFORTS TO REDUCE OR RECYCLE HOUSEHOLD WASTE HAVING VERY LITTLE IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 100<BR><BR>Incineration in purpose-built incinerators is an acceptable alternative to disposal of waste in landfill sites 102<BR><BR>Recycling and composting are acceptable alternatives to disposal of waste in landfill sites 104<BR><BR>Personal extensive use of various recycling bins in local areas 106<BR><BR>Recycling household waste materials more if special containers were available and collections were Made from the house 108<BR><BR>Increased recycling if detailed information were available from local councils on recycling policies and arrangements 110<BR><BR>A conscious Effort is made to buy products which have an environmentally-friendly design or logo on the label 112<BR><BR>PERSONAL EFFORTS TO BUY RECYCLABLE PRODUCTS 114<BR><BR>Personal efforts to buy products which have minimal packaging 116<BR><BR>Awareness of government's national waste awareness initiative 'are you doing your bit' 118<BR><BR>Overview 121<BR><BR>Government Targets for Recycling 122<BR><BR>Waste Collection and Disposal Schemes 123<BR><BR>New Technology, Processes and Re-Manufacturing Technology 124<BR><BR>ANEOROBIC DIGESTION 124<BR>FERMENTATION 124<BR>FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING 124<BR>FEEDSTOCK SUBSTITUTION 124<BR>GAS PLASMA ARC 124<BR>GASIFICATION 125<BR>PYROLYSIS 125<BR>WORMERIES 125<BR>CO-COMPOSTING 125<BR><BR>A-Z of DEFINITIONS 133<BR><BR>ABOVE-THE-LINE OR MAIN MEDIA EXPENDITURE 133<BR>ANNUAL GROWTH RATE 133<BR>BELOW-THE-LINE ADVERTISING 133<BR>CIF 133<BR>CONSTANT PRICES 133<BR>CURRENT PRICES 133<BR>FOB 133<BR>FORECASTS 134<BR>MSP 134<BR>`REAL' 134<BR>RSP 134<BR><BR>ABOUT THE SOURCES USED 135<BR><BR>ACNIELSEN MMS 135<BR>PRODCOM 135<BR>NOP 135<BR>TRADE ASSOCIATION DATA 136<BR>TRADE SOURCES 136