In 2001, there were 2.2 million teleworkers in the UK, and we estimate that the figure for 2002 has reached 2.4 million, representing 8.6% of the total UK workforce.
The term teleworkers refers to individuals who work from home or another location outside their office, utilising information communications technology (ICT) such as personal computers (PCs), fixed and mobile phones and the Internet. It includes self-employed people and those who work on a freelance basis for a number of companies, those working on a flexible-contract basis or for employers, who allow for flexible working practices away from the office. For this report, the definition of teleworkers does not include homeworkers involved in unskilled piecework or those who are self-employed and working as trades people, for example carpenters, plumbers and builders.
Due to the nature of teleworking, there are large differences in its usage by different industrial sectors. Around two-thirds of all teleworkers are men, and three-quarters of those working in this manner are in the private sector. However, future developments are expected to create more ubiquitous usage of teleworking.
The increase in the number of people working as teleworkers in the future will be closely related to technological developments, which allow greater employment flexibility and freedom.
This report analyses a number of factors that affect levels of telework, including employment trends, demographic changes, technological developments, attitudes in the workplace, and UK- and EU-based legislative changes to employment practices and conditions. The distribution of teleworkers based on geography, socio-economic status, age and sex is also considered. The latter is based on exclusive research carried out for us by Access, the Omnibus Division at Bmrb International.
The effects of teleworking on key consumer durables such as information technology (IT) equipment, telecommunications equipment and mobile phones are also considered.
The advantages and disadvantages of teleworking are discussed, with respect to the points of view of the employer, employee or the self-employed. The increased use of teleworking influences a number of related factors, including employment rights, transport policy, urban-rural balance and the work-life balance of individuals.
As a result of government efforts to introduce more flexible working patterns and better access to equipment which allows people to work from home, this form of working will become more widespread in the future. We estimate that the number of teleworkers in the UK will increase to 4.5 million by 2007, representing 13.9% of the total UK workforce. SHOW LESS READ MORE >
TABLE OF CONTENTS:<BR><BR>Executive Summary 5<BR><BR>1. Introduction 6<BR><BR>BACKGROUND 6<BR>DEFINITION 6<BR>RESEARCH 7<BR><BR>2. Strategic Overview 8<BR><BR>BACKGROUND 8<BR>Advantages and Disadvantages 8<BR>Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleworking, 2002 9<BR>Requirements for Success 10<BR>Issues to Consider 11<BR>Measuring the Benefits 11<BR>Teleworking Agreements 12<BR>TELEWORK STRATEGIES 12<BR>What is Meant by Flexible Work? 12<BR>Flexible Location 12<BR>Flexible Time 12<BR>Flexible Contract 13<BR>THE TELEWORKFORCE 13<BR>The Total Teleworkforce 13<BR>Table 2: Number of Teleworkers in the UK and Percentage of the Total Workforce (million, index 1997=100 and %), 1997-2002 13<BR>Distribution of Teleworkers 14<BR>Employment Status 14<BR>Private and Public Sector 14<BR>Type of Employment 14<BR>The Male/Female Divide 15<BR>Table 3: UK Teleworkers by Type of Homeworking and Gender (%), 2002 16<BR>SOCIAL INFLUENCES 17<BR>Transport and Mobility 17<BR>Isolation 17<BR>Europe 17<BR>DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS 18<BR>Population Trends 18<BR>Table 4: The UK Population by Age Group and Gender (% and million), 1961-2026 19<BR>Table 5: Annual Average Changes in the UK Population (000), 2001-2026 20<BR>Age Structure of the UK Population 20<BR>Table 6: The UK Population by Age (million), e2002 21<BR>Figure 1: The UK Population by Age (million), 2002 21<BR>Changing Household Structure 22<BR>EMPLOYMENT OVERVIEW 22<BR>Table 7: Number of Workforce Jobs by Industry (000), 1999-2002 23<BR>Employment Trends 23<BR>Table 8: Working Status of UK Adults† (000 and %), 2002 24<BR>Table 9: UK Households by Number of Full-Time† Earners (000 and %), 2002 25<BR>TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY ISSUES 25<BR>BROADBAND EXPANSION 26<BR>Recent Developments 27<BR>LEGISLATION 28<BR>Code of Practice 28<BR>Legal Implications for Employers 28<BR>Maternity Rights 28<BR>Looking After Children 29<BR>DISTRIBUTION 29<BR>COMPETITIVE STRUCTURE 30<BR>ADVERTISING 30<BR>THE CONSUMER 30<BR>AA Case Study 31<BR>IBM Case Study 31<BR>BT Case Study 31<BR>MARKET FORECASTS 32<BR>Table 10: Forecast Number of Teleworkers in the UK and Percentage of the Total Workforce (million, index 2003=100 and %), 2003-2007 32<BR><BR>3. The Consumer 33<BR><BR>TELEWORKERS AS CONSUMERS 33<BR>TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT MARKET 34<BR>Table 11: UK Annual Household Expenditure on Telecommunications (£bn), 1995-1999 34<BR>Fixed-Line Telephony 35<BR>Table 12: Percentage of UK Households with Telephones (%), 1995/1996-2000/2001 35<BR>Table 13: Telephone Usage in the UK (% of respondents), 2002 36<BR>Mobile Communications 37<BR>Table 14: UK Ownership of Mobile Telephones by Income Quintile Group (%), 1996/1997 and 2000/2001 37<BR>PERSONAL COMPUTERS 38<BR>Table 15: Percentage of UK Households Owning Home Computers by Working Status of Head of Household (%), 2000 39<BR>Table 16: Personal Computer Usage in the UK (% of respondents), 2002 40<BR>CONSUMER RESEARCH 41<BR>Working Status 41<BR>Table 17: Working Status of Adults in the UK (% of respondents), 2003 42<BR>Attitudes to Teleworking 43<BR><BR>4. An International Perspective 45<BR><BR>MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 45<BR>COMPETITOR ENVIRONMENT 45<BR>US 45<BR>Europe 46<BR>Table 18: Number of Teleworkers in the EU (million), 1999 and 2005 46<BR><BR>5. PEST Analysis 48<BR><BR>POLITICAL FACTORS 48<BR>Flexible Working 48<BR>Code of Practice 48<BR>Maternity Rights 48<BR>ECONOMIC FACTORS 49<BR>Effect of the Economy on Working Conditions 49<BR>UK Economic Growth 2002 49<BR>Economic Uncertainty 50<BR>SOCIAL FACTORS 50<BR>Quality of Life 50<BR>Changes in Household Structure 50<BR>TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS 51<BR>Broadband 51<BR>Electronic Face-to-Face 52<BR>Tablet Personal Computer 52<BR><BR>6. Consumer Dynamics 53<BR><BR>CONSUMER RESEARCH 53<BR>Table 19: Summary of Attitudes Towards Working From Home (% of respondents), 2003 53<BR>Work Too Specialised (S1) 54<BR>Lack of Social Contacts (S2) 55<BR>Table 20: Work Too Specialised and Lack of Social Contacts (% of respondents), 2003 56<BR>Equipment Not Available (S3) 57<BR>Homeworking Not Allowed (S4) 58<BR>Table 21: Equipment Not Available at Home and Employer Does Not Allow Homeworking (% of respondents), 2003 59<BR>Work at Home Sometimes (S5) 60<BR>Harder to Switch Off (S6) 61<BR>Table 22: Work at Home Sometimes and Harder to Switch Off (% of respondents), 2003 62<BR>Employers' Attitudes Towards Homeworking (S7) 63<BR>Employees' Desire to Work From Home (S8) 63<BR>Table 23: Employers' Attitudes Towards Working From Home and Employees' Desire to Work From Home (% of respondents), 2003 64<BR>Professional Status (S9) 66<BR>Promotion (S10) 66<BR>Table 24: Professional Status and Promotion (% of respondents), 2003 67<BR>No Commuting Stress (S11) 68<BR>More Effective Working (S12) 69<BR>Table 25: No Commuting Stress and More Effective Working (% of respondents), 2003 69<BR>Working From Home Now (S13) 70<BR>Working From Home in the Future (S14) 71<BR>Table 26: Working from Home Now and in the Future (% of respondents), 2003 71<BR><BR>7. The Future 73<BR><BR>BACKGROUND 73<BR>Distribution of Teleworkers 73<BR>Technological Advances 73<BR>Social Aspects 73<BR>Legislation 73<BR>Broadband 74<BR>Flexible Location 74<BR>FORECASTS 74<BR>Table 27: Forecast Number of Teleworkers in the UK and Percentage of the Total Workforce (million, index 2003=100 and %), 2003-2007 75<BR>Figure 2: Forecast Number of Teleworkers in the UK (million), 2003-2007 75<BR><BR>9. Further Sources 76<BR><BR>Associations 76<BR>General Sources 76<BR>Bonnier Information Sources 77<BR>Government and Official Sources 78<BR>Other Sources 78