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Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles on Land 2017-2027 - Product Image

Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles on Land 2017-2027

  • ID: 3987680
  • Report
  • December 2016
  • Region: Global
  • 390 Pages
  • IDTechEx
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The Only Up-to-date Report on the Largest Electric Vehicle Sector Today


  • Ayton Willow
  • Caproni JSC
  • John Deere
  • Kion Group GmbH
  • MAN Truck & Bus AG
  • Valence Technologies
  • MORE

Those selling components for electric vehicles and those wishing to make the vehicles themselves must seek where the majority of the money is spent and will be spent. That must lead them to industrial and commercial electric vehicles because today these represent 60% of the value of the electric vehicle market. Indeed, this sector is set to grow 4.5 times in the next decade. Industrial and commercial electric vehicles include heavy industrial vehicles, the term referring to heavy lifting, as with forklifts.
Global sales of industrial and commercial EVs by ex-factory unit price in US$ billion
Then we have buses, trucks, taxis and the other light industrial and commercial vehicles. There are also a few work boats and commercial boats and one day there will be commercial electric aircraft but this is really a story about the burgeoning demand for off-road industrial vehicles and on-road commercial vehicles. In particular, industrial electric vehicles make industry more efficient and commercial electric vehicles reduce congestion. Both of them greatly reduce pollution and align closely with government objectives concerning industry and the environment, yet they minimally depend on subsidy, in contrast with some other electric vehicle types.
This report covers the technical and market trends for industrial and commercial vehicles whether hybrid or pure electric, putting it in the context of electric vehicles overall and including the activities of a host of manufacturers of the vehicles and their components and even providing future technological development roadmaps.
The market for electric industrial vehicles is already large because, by law, forklifts have to be electric when used indoors. Little growth remains in this market but outdoors almost all earthmoving and lifting vehicles use the conventional internal combustion engine. That is about to change dramatically because hybrid electric versions reduce cost of ownership and exposure to price hikes with fossil fuels. Hybrids increasingly perform better as well, with more power from stationary, ability to supply electricity to other equipment and other benefits including less noise and pollution. On the other hand, airports, often government owned or funded, are under great pressure to finish converting their Ground Support Equipment GSE to pure electric versions both on and off the tarmac partly using federal grants.
Yet another industrial trend is for use of electric vehicles to replace slow and often dangerous manual procedures. Sometimes a self-powered indoor crane replaces scaffolding. An electric stair climber replaces human effort and possible injury. On the other hand, sit-on floor cleaners in buildings, sit-on ice cleaners in ice rinks, outrider vehicles carried on trash collection trucks and a host of similar solutions speed processes and reduce injuries and costs.
Buses, trucks, taxis and the other light industrial and commercial vehicles are going electric for similar reasons but we must add the desire of national and local governments, who buy many of them, to go green, even where there is no payback. However, the size and growth of the industrial and commercial sector is less dependent on government funding and tax breaks than the more fragile market for electric cars, particularly pure electric ones. Excitingly, most of the electric vehicle technologies are changing and improving hugely and innovation often comes here before it is seen in the more publicised electric vehicle sectors such as cars.
Asynchronous traction motors were first widely used on forklifts: their benefits of longer life, less maintenance, low cost and freedom from magnet price hikes and heating problems are only later being seen in a few cars. Ultracapacitors otherwise known as supercapacitors permit very fast charging of buses whether by the new Level 3 charging stations or regenerative braking and they release huge surges of power when the bus is full and starting on a hill.

Gas turbine range extenders have been on some buses for 12 years but they are only now being planned for cars. Fuel cells will be viable in fleets where the expensive hydrogen distribution is manageable - not for cars across the world. Energy harvesting shock absorbers about to hit the market will be very viable on buses and trucks where they can put up to 12 kW into the battery whereas such devices on cars will take longer to prove.
Nevertheless, it is important to look at industrial and commercial electric vehicles as part of all electric vehicles out there - as we do - because it is increasingly true that one company will produce EVs for many end uses and even make key components. This achieves the product reliability and cost advantages that come from highest volume manufacture based on standardisation and shared research.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • Ayton Willow
  • Caproni JSC
  • John Deere
  • Kion Group GmbH
  • MAN Truck & Bus AG
  • Valence Technologies
  • MORE

1.1. Dominant electric commercial vehicle types and influences change
1.2. Market forecasts
1.3. Forecast for commercial vehicles 2017-2027
1.4. Latest progress
1.5. Examples of new industrial and commercial vehicles and projects announced in 2016
1.5.1. Powertrain choices change radically
1.6. Electrical machine systems take more cost, batteries less
1.7. The elephant in the room: conventional vehicles
1.8. News in 2016
1.8.1. June 2016
1.8.2. July 2016
1.8.3. August 2016
1.8.4. September 2016
1.8.5. October 2016
1.8.6. November 2016
1.9. Buses will be taxis will be buses
1.10. Powertrain situation in 2017
1.10.1. Leaders of change, move to hybrids
1.10.2. Move to 48V mild hybrids
1.10.3. Move to autonomy
1.10.4. Volvo electrification of mining vehicles
1.10.5. Forklifts change little

2.1. Urban logistics trends
2.2. Technology disagreement
2.3. The special case of China
2.3.1. Pollution control is urgent
2.3.2. Particulate matter - China the worst
2.3.3. Inadequate roads and parking
2.3.4. Example of action BYD
2.3.5. BYD begins expansion of manufacturing facility - September 2016
2.4. Biggest EV?
2.5. Different strategies
2.6. Battery Vehicle Work Rounds for Very Long Range
2.6.1. Light truck with fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor
2.7. Reusable electric powertrain
2.8. Here come the tougher emissions regulations
2.9. Cars are often fleets not private
2.10. US Postal Service 180,000 vehicles

3.1. Overview
3.2. Hydraulic vs electric efficiency
3.3. Market forecasts
3.4. Powertrain trends
3.5. Energy Independent Vehicles EIV
3.6. Projects and new industrial EVs
3.7. Wheel loaders
3.7.1. Hitachi
3.7.2. Oerlikon
3.7.3. HUDIG TIGON hybrid excavator and wheel loader
3.7.4. John Deere
3.7.5. Volvo Group
3.8. Star of the show
3.8.2. Future dreams!
3.9. Components and systems
3.9.1. Power electronics
3.10. Energy storage
3.10.1. Lithium Sulfur batteries
3.10.2. Motors
3.10.3. User needs and benefits

4.1. Trends
4.2. Advantages of electric commercial vehicles

5.1. What is included
5.2. Challenges
5.3. Forklifts
5.3.1. Small forklift success
5.3.2. A look at many FC forklifts across the world
5.3.3. Plug Power transforms the industry
5.3.4. Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies APFCT
5.3.5. Forklift market analysis
5.3.6. FC material handling fleets and standards
5.3.7. Market analysis
5.3.8. FC material handling fleets and standards
5.4. Listing of manufacturers
5.4.1. Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
5.4.2. Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs

6.1. Introduction
6.1.1. Overview
6.1.2. One quarter of commercial vehicles in Germany can be electric now?
6.2. Sub categories
6.3. Local services
6.4. Airport EVs
6.4.1. USA statistics
6.4.2. GSE by airline and airport
6.4.3. Here come hybrids
6.4.4. US incentives
6.4.5. Overall market
6.4.6. Airport applications widen
6.4.7. Sea-Tac Airport 2014
6.5. Small people-movers
6.6. Chrysler minivan in 2015
6.7. Dong Feng China big minivan order
6.8. Kargo Canada
6.9. Light industrial
6.10. All-terrain vehicles for commercial use
6.11. Listing of manufacturers

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Summary of technical preferences
7.3. Statistics issues
7.4. Successful pure electric buses vs addressable market
7.5. Chinese price/performance
7.6. Cost trends - China ready to pounce
7.7. Market drivers and impediments
7.8. Regional differences
7.9. China, India and cities
7.10. Radical change
7.11. Truly global market for similar buses
7.12. Large pure electric buses: first big orders 2014/5
7.13. Weak trend to larger buses but not in China
7.14. Value chain and powertrain
7.15. Hybrids becoming pure electric
7.16. Relative importance of technical options
7.17. Technology disagreement
7.18. Fuel cell buses: progress and potential
7.18.1. Use of solar on hybrid fuel cell shuttle buses
7.19. Background statistics: automotive industry and buses in general
7.19.1. Automotive industry
7.19.2. School buses
7.19.3. Largest bus manufacturers
7.20. E-bus news in 2016
7.21. Trucks
7.21.1. Which Electric Truck Powertrain Wins?
7.21.2. Medium and heavy duty trucks
7.21.3. Travel through Munich in a vehicle that is 100% electric, clean, quiet
7.21.4. News in June 2016 - Mack Trucks to Evaluate Wrightspeed Route Powertrain in Mack LR Model
7.21.5. News in July 2016 - Argonne to lead consortium for new CERC medium- and heavy-duty truck technical track
7.21.6. News in August 2016 - Daimler plan heavy duty trucks
7.21.7. News in August 2016 - Fuel cell truck
7.21.8. News in September 2016 - Volvo first in the world with self-driving truck in underground mine
7.21.9. News in October 2016 - BMW i supply agreement with Workhorse Group

8.1. Electric taxi projects in China, Europe, Mexico, UK, UK, Japan
8.2. Huge order from the Philippines?
8.3. Terra Motors Interview Tokyo September 2015
8.3.1. Introduction
8.3.2. Latest market appraisal
8.3.3. View of India
8.3.4. View of Bangladesh
8.3.5. View of Vietnam
8.3.6. View of Philippines
8.3.7. View of Japan
8.3.8. Conclusion

9.1. Background
9.2. Three wheelers as crossover products
9.3. Operational benefit of three wheel
9.3.1. Introduction
9.3.2. Nissan DeltaWing
9.3.3. The basics driving us to three wheel
9.3.4. Energy efficiency
9.3.5. Relative magnitude of energy dissipation
9.3.6. Occupancy trend favours 3 wheel?
9.3.7. Low cost three wheel vehicle market
9.3.8. The Indian three wheel market - the largest globally
9.3.9. Electric three wheeler penetration
9.4. Benefits of three wheelers
9.5. Three wheel electric vehicles: varied positioning in the market
9.5.1. Twike, Piaggio, Xingui and others contrasted
9.5.2. Toyota scenario
9.5.3. Spira4u in 2015
9.6. Mule: Modern Electric Workhorse to Slice Through Urban Traffic Easily
9.7. Barriers for adoption of three wheel EVs

10.1. Overview
10.2. Value proposition and environmental restrictions
10.3. Autonomous vehicles for agriculture and mining
10.4. Energy and work synchronization in mining
10.5. Light manned vehicles - PapaBravo Canada
10.6. Examples of cranes and lifters
10.7. Caterpillar and Komatsu: energy harvesting on large hybrid vehicles
10.7.1. CALSTART partnerships
10.7.2. Other electrification of large vehicles

11.1. Types of electric vehicle
11.2. Many fuels
11.3. Born electric
11.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving
11.5. Series vs parallel hybrid
11.6. Modes of operation of hybrids
11.6.1. Plug in hybrids
11.6.2. Charge-depleting mode
11.6.3. Blended mode
11.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode
11.6.5. Mixed mode
11.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer
11.8. Deep hybridisation
11.9. Hybrid vehicle price premium
11.10. Battery cost and performance are key
11.11. Trade-off of energy storage technologies
11.12. Ultracapacitors = supercapacitors
11.12.1. Where supercapacitors fit in
11.12.2. Advantages and disadvantages
11.12.3. Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
11.12.4. Supercapacitors - a work round for troublesome batteries
11.12.5. Supercabatteries: lithium-ion capacitors
11.13. Range extenders
11.13.1. What will be required of a range extender?
11.13.2. Three generations of range extender
11.13.3. Fuel cell range extenders
11.13.4. Single cylinder range extenders
11.14. Big effect of many modest electricity sources combined
11.15. Energy harvesting
11.16. Trend to high voltage
11.17. Structural components
11.18. Trend to distributed components
11.19. Trend to flatness then smart skin
11.20. Traction batteries
11.20.1. After the shakeout in car traction batteries
11.20.2. The needs have radically changed
11.20.3. It started with cobalt
11.20.4. Great variety of recipes
11.20.5. Other factors
11.20.6. Check with reality
11.20.7. Lithium winners today and soon
11.20.8. Reasons for winning
11.20.9. Lithium polymer electrolyte now important
11.20.10. Winning chemistry
11.20.11. Titanate establishes a place
11.20.12. Laminar structure
11.20.13. Niche winners
11.20.14. Fluid situation
11.21. Traction motors
11.21.1. Overview
11.21.2. Examples of motors in action
11.22. Power electronics

12.1. Ayton Willow
12.2. Bradshaw Electric
12.3. Caproni JSC
12.4. Crown Equipment Corporation
12.5. Hyster-Yale
12.6. John Deere
12.7. Jungheinrich AG
12.8. Kion Group GmbH
12.9. Liberty Electric Cars
12.10. MAN Truck & Bus AG
12.11. Toyota Motor
12.12. Valence Technologies
12.13. VISEDO Oy
12.14. ZNTK Radom


Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • Ayton Willow
  • Bradshaw Electric
  • Caproni JSC
  • Crown Equipment Corporation
  • Hyster-Yale
  • John Deere
  • Jungheinrich AG
  • Kion Group GmbH
  • Liberty Electric Cars
  • MAN Truck & Bus AG
  • Toyota Motor
  • Valence Technologies
  • ZNTK Radom
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown