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Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites, 4 Volume Set, 2003

The extraordinary growth in the use of plastics in the last century is in response to a growing world population, with its increasing demands for more food, better health care, improved housing and numerous cheaper and abundant consumer products. What is expected of the chemical industry in the 21st century is to produce plastics while being aware of the environment, by reducing waste production, reducing the consumption of materials, reducing the demand for energy, reducing the use of non-renewable resources, and reducing risks, hazards and costs. Use of polymer blends and composites provides a very versatile strategy for designing new materials that fulfil these 'green' requirements:

- Lower costs without sacrificing properties
- Ability to tailor properties without creation of completely new polymer
- High performance blend from synergistically interacting polymers
- Recycling industrial and/or municipal scrap

The four volume handbook is intended to provide an overview of the theory and application of polymer blends and composites. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with the state of the art of composites’ development, the characteristics of particulate fillers and fibre reinforcements, the main procedures of composites manufacture and their applications. Volume 3 deals with general aspects of polymer blend morphology, properties and behaviour in various conditions, while Volume 4 is mainly concerned with the various chemical classes of polymer blends.

The Handbook is available as a four-volume set or as individual volumes

1 History of Composites
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Nature’s Composites
1.2.1 Wood (Composite of Cellulose with Lignin)
1.2.2 Bone (Nanocomposite)
1.2.3 Weaver Bird
1.2.4 Jute (Fibrous Composite)
1.2.5 Lessons from Biology
1.3 Ancient History
1.4 Reinforcements
1.4.2 Chronology
1.4.3 Boron Fibres
1.4.4 Carbon Fibres
1.4.5 Whiskers
1.5 Honeycombs
1.5.1 All Composite Aircraft
1.6 Resin Chemicals
1.7 Coupling Agents
1.8 Moulding Compounds
1.9 Fabrication (Figures 1.8 and 1.9)
1.10 Composites
1.11 Automotive Composites
1.12 Record Breaking Inventions
1.13 History of Sandwich Structures in Aircraft Flooring
1.14 Pressure Vessel History
1.15 Composites in Deepwater
1.16 Summary

2 Particulate Fillers and Fibre Reinforcements
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fillers and Reinforcements and Their Requirements
2.3 Particulate Fillers
2.3.1 General Description
2.3.2 Testing Methods
2.3.3 Uses and Problems and Examples of the Applications
2.4 Reinforcements
2.4.1 Inorganic Fibres
2.4.2 Classical Fibres
2.4.3 High Performance Fibres
2.4.4 Perspectives, Costs, Marketing Aspects

3 Composites in Asia
3.1 Composites in India
3.1.1 Introduction7
3.1.2 The non-aerospace composites industry
3.1.3 Overview
3.1.4 Integrated helmet for LCA
3.1.5 Existing opportunities in India
3.1.6 India’s monopoly: mica as filler
3.1.7 Preferred fabrication methods
3.1.8 The role of TIFAC
3.1.9 The first composites design centre
3.1.10 Composite structures laboratory
3.1.11 GRP industry
3.1.12 IPCL carbon fibres (Indcarf)
3.1.13 New Resins
3.1.14 Aerospace developments
3.1.15 Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP)
3.1.16 Landing gear door
3.1.17 Fin technology for high speed fighters
3.1.18 India’s first all-composite aircraft (Hansa)
3.1.19 Design and Development of Large Size Sandwich Radome Structure (June 1997)
3.1.20 Indigenous development
3.1.21 Repair technology for aircraft
3.1.22 Aerial Target System (Kapothaka)
3.1.23 Automotive Industry
3.1.24 Railways
3.1.25 Renewable energy
3.1.26 Defence
3.1.27 FRP modular container
3.1.28 Miscellaneous
3.1.29 Constraints
3.1.30 Future
3.1.31 Conclusion
3.2 Overview of Composites Technology in Korea
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Major Research Organisation and Their Research Areas
3.2.3 Production and Demand
3.2.4 Future Trends
3.2.5 Conclusions
3.3 Advances of CF/C Composites Research in Japan
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 R&D of C/C Composites
3.3.3 Properties
3.3.4 The Sequence of ‘Carbon Alloys’ and its Classification
3.3.5 Summary

4 Advances in Wood-based Composites in China
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Classification
4.1.2 General Properties of Wood-based Composites
4.2 Plywood Manufacturing
4.2.1 Categories of Plywood
4.2.2 Manufacturing Process
4.2.3 Physical and Mechanical Properties
4.3 Particleboard Industry
4.3.1 Categories of Particleboard
4.3.2 Manufacturing Procedure
4.3.3 Physical and Mechanical Properties
4.4 Fibreboard Industry
4.4.1 Categories of Fibreboard
4.4.2 Manufacturing Procedure
4.4.3 Physical and Mechanical Properties
4.5 Surface Decoration of Wood-based Composites
4.5.1 Classification of Decoration
4.5.2 Manufacturing Processes
4.5.3 Physical and Mechanical Properties

5 Overview of the Use of Composites Worldwide
5.1 Short History
5.2 Overview of Composites Production and Consumption
5.2.1 General Remarks
5.2.2 Advanced Polymer Composites
5.2.3 Composites Production and Consumption by Resin Type
5.2.4 Fillers, Reinforcements, Coupling Agents and Other Additives in Composites Production.
5.3 Composites Production and Consumption by Application
5.3.1 General Remarks
5.3.2 Aircraft/Aerospace Industry
5.3.3 Marine Sector
5.3.4 Automotive Industry
5.3.5 Building and Construction
5.3.6 Other Applications
5.4 Developments in the Procedures for Composites Manufacture
5.5 Composites Recycling
5.6 New Trends in Composite Developments

6 The Interface in Polymer Composites
6.1 The Importance of the Interface in Polymer Matrix Composites
6.2 Theories Concerning the Adhesion Between the Filling or Reinforcing Material and the Polymer Matrix
6.2.1 The Theory of Mechanical Adhesion
6.2.2 Theories of Specific Adhesion
6.3 Methods of Improving Adhesion at the Interface in Polymer Matrix Composites
6.3.1 Chemical Treatment with Low Molecular Weight Compounds
6.3.2 Treatment of the Filling Material’s Surface with Macromolecular Compounds
6.4 Methods of Interface Investigation
6.5 Influence of the Interface on the Mechanical Properties of Composites

7 Novel Multifunctional Epoxy Resins
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Multifunctional Epoxy Resins
7.2.1 Trifunctional Epoxy Resins
7.2.2 Tetrafunctional Epoxy Resins
7.2.3 Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins
7.2.4 Epoxy Novalac Resins
7.2.5 Naphthol-based Epoxy Resins
7.2.6 Other Tetrafunctional Epoxy Resins
7.3 Characterisation of Epoxy Resins
7.4 Curing of Epoxy Resins
7.4.1 Aliphatic amines
7.4.2 Aromatic amines
7.4.3 Anhydride curing agents
7.5 Modifiers for Epoxy Resins
7.5.1 Diluents
7.5.2 Fortifiers
7.5.3 Fillers
7.6 Thermal Properties of Epoxy Resins
7.7 Applications

8 Flame Retardant Polyester Resins
8.1 Flame Retardant Polyesters
8.1.1 Polyesters
8.1.2 Inorganic Flame Retardant Additives
8.1.3 Organic Flame Retardant Additives
8.1.4 Organic Plus Inorganic Flame Retardant Additives
8.1.5 Flame Retardant Components in Monomers
8.1.6 Flame Retardant Vinyl Monomer or Crosslinking Agents
8.1.6 Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polyesters
8.1.8 Applications
8.1.9 Test Methods for Flammability

9 Cure Kinetics of Vinyl Ester Resins
9.1 History
9.2 Chemical Definition
9.3 Type of Vinyl Ester Resins
9.3.1 Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins
9.3.2 Non Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins
9.4 The Chemistry of Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins
9.4.1 The Backbone
9.4.2 The Solvent
9.4.3 The Catalytic System
9.4.4 Additives
9.5 Curing Reaction
9.6 Reaction Mechanism
9.7 Kinetics
9.7.1 Measurement of Gel Times
9.7.2 Effect of Catalyst (MEKP) Concentration
9.7.3 Effect of Activator (Cobalt Salt) Concentration
9.7.4 Effect of Cure Temperature
9.7.5 Residual Reactivity Measurements
9.8 Trends in Resin and Process Developments
9.8.1 Low Styrene Emission Resins
9.8.2 Resin-infusing Techniques
9.9 Conclusion

10 Cure Monitoring
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Cure Chemistry
10.3 Time Temperature Transformation Diagram
10.4 Optimum Conditions for Cure
10.5 Kinetic Analysis of the Cure Process
10.6 Heat Transfer During Cure
10.7 Compaction and Resin Flow During Autoclave Cure
10.7.1 Resin Flow Normal to the Tool Plate
10.8 Selection of the Processing Conditions
10.9 Definition of Terms Used in Cure Monitoring
10.9.1 Application Time, Pot Life and Pour Time
10.9.2 Working Life or Working Time
10.9.3 Gel Time
10.9.4 Tack-free Time, Demould Time
10.9.5 Cure Time
10.10 Cure Monitoring
10.10.1 Viscosity Measurements
10.10.2 Vibrating Probe Methods
10.10.3 Vibrating Needle Curemeter (VNC)
10.10.4 Gelation and Cure Measurements Using the VNC
10.10.5 Strathclyde Cure Meter
10.11 Cure of Epoxy Resin System
10.12 Torsional Braid Method (TBA)
10.13 Plate Rheometers
10.14 Thermal Analysis of Cure Processes
10.15 Electrical Measurements of the Cure Process
10.16 Thermally Stimulated Discharge Measurements
10.17 Comparison of a Simple Curing System with One Showing Phase Separation - A Rubber Modified Thermoset System
10.18 Phase Separation of a Thermoplastic in a Thermoset
10.18.1 Polyether Sulphone Modified Thermoset Materials
10.18.2 Theoretical Molecular Modelling of the Cure Process
10.19 Rheological Behaviour of Reactive Polymer Systems
10.19.1 Simulation of Reaction Scheme
10.19.2 Validation of Software
10.19.3 Modelling of Linear Polymer Systems
10.19.4 Validation of the Theoretical Model
10.19.5 Predictions for a Linear Reaction System
10.19.6 Consideration of the Chain Topography
10.19.7 Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Star Branched Polyisoprenes
10.20 Conclusions

11 Curing and Bonding of Composites using Electron Beam Processing
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Advantages of EB Processing
11.1.2 Current Limitations to EB Processing
11.1.3 Background
11.2 Aerospace Composite Fabrication Using EB Curing and Bonding
11.2.1 Filament Wound Rocket Motors
11.2.2 EB-cured Aircraft Components
11.2.3 Integrated Aircraft Structures
11.2.4 Other EB-cured Components
11.3 Automotive and Vehicle Composite Demonstrations and Potential
11.3.1 An EB-cured Automotive Frame
11.3.2 EB Bonding of the Composite Concept Vehicle
11.3.3 Other Vehicle Applications
11.4 EB-curable Resin and Composite Development and Current Status
11.4.1 EB Curable Resin Chemistry
11.4.2 EB-curable Resin and Composite Properties
11.4.3 EB-curable Resins: Further Development
11.5 EB-curable Adhesive Development and Current Status
11.6 Equipment and Facilities for EB Curing and Bonding
11.7 Conclusions and Future Directions

12 Composites: At the Turn of Century
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Consumer Pattern
12.3 Smart Composites
12.4 Nanocomposites
12.5 Resin Development at NASA
12.6 Micromoulding
12.6.1 Benefits
12.7 Completely Recyclable Fabric Insert Moulding (for Auto Interiors)
12.8 Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Fabrication of Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Parts
12.9 Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) Fabrication Process
12.10 Monitoring ‘End of Cure’ Using Fibre Optics and Ultrasonics
12.11 GMT
12.12 Wood-Filled Thermoplastics
12.13 Morphology of Matrix and Reinforcement
12.13.1 Use of Poly(aryl ether ketone) PEEK in Composites
12.13.2 Turbostratic Structure of Carbon Fibres
12.14 Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Composites
12.15 Composites Recycling
12.16 ‘Glastic’ Composites from Recovered Waste
12.17 Composites to Replace Steel
12.18 Burning Behaviour of Post Crash Aircraft Composites
12.19 Polymer Composites in Underwater Applications
12.19.1 Oceanographic Applications
12.19.2 Submarine Applications
12.19.3 Offshore Applications Underwater
12.20 Naval Applications
12.21 Composite Containers for the Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Materials
12.22 Dental Polymer/Ceramic Composites
12.23 Medical Applications
12.24 Sports Equipment
12.25 Polymer Concrete
12.25.1 Composites for Civil Construction
12.25.2 Composites in Bridge Repair
12.26 Composites in Packaging
Abbreviations and Acronyms

1 An Overview of Composite Fabrication, Design and Cost
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Resin Selection
1.3 Prepregs
1.3.1 Designing from Prepregs
1.3.2 Adhesive Joints
1.4 Damage Mechanics
1.4.1 Repair of a Damaged Aircraft Structure
1.5 An Overview of Fabrication
1.5.1 Compression Moulding
1.5.2 Sheet Moulding Compounds (SMC)
1.5.3 Tooling
1.5.4 Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding
1.5.5 What is RTM?
1.5.6 Filament Winding
1.5.7 Tape Winding
1.5.8 Pultrusion
1.5.9 Vacuum Bagging
1.5.10 Autoclave Moulding
1.5.11 Inflatable Mandrel
1.5.12 The Pre-Form/Post-Form Technique
1.5.13 Thermoplastic Pultrusion
1.5.14 Neuroclave: The Intelligent Autoclave
1.5.15 Tape Placements
1.5.16 Pulforming
1.6 Special Moulding Systems
1.6.1 Injection-Compression Moulding
1.6.2 SCORIM Process
1.6.3 Direct Blending Injection Moulding
1.6.4 Multi-Live Feed Moulding
1.6.5 Artificial Neural Network Approach to Injection Moulding
1.6.6 Co-Injection
1.6.7 Combined Thermoplastic, Thermoset Moulding
1.6.8 Strata Reinforcement Method
1.7 Variants of Injection Moulding
1.7.1 In-Mould Surface Decoration (ISD)
1.7.2 Hot-Runner Moulding (HRM)
1.7.3 Gas-Assisted Moulding (GAM)
1.7.4 Fusible Core Moulding
1.7.5 Alpha 1 Moulding Machine
1.7.6 Other Moulding Techniques
1.8 Robotic Processing for Zero Defects
1.8.1 Types of Robots
1.9 Smart Composite Processing [7] Using ‘Sensor Technology’
1.10 Processing Problems in Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermosets
1.11 The Highest Performance to Cost Ratio and a Comprehensive Overview of Cost Savings by Composites
1.11.1 Fabric Cost
1.11.2 Resin Cost
1.11.3 Design Cost
1.11.4 Tooling Cost
1.11.5 Fabrication Cost
1.11.6 Product Cost
1.12 Scenario for 21st Century

2 Liquid Moulding Processes
2.1 The Resin Transfer Moulding Process
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Advantages
2.2 Process Description
2.2.1 Fibre Preforms and Preforming Techniques
2.2.2 Resin and Injection System
2.2.3 Tooling System
2.3 Process Modelling
2.3.1 Resin Flow
2.3.2 Darcy’s Law
2.3.3 Resin Flow Model
2.3.4 Edge Effects
2.3.5 Thermal Model and Cure
2.3.6 Mass Balance
2.3.7 Permeability
2.4 Derivative RTM Manufacturing Technologies
2.4.1 Resin Film Infusion
2.4.2 Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM)
2.4.3 Co-Injection Resin Transfer Moulding (CIRTM)
2.4.4 Structural Reaction Injection Moulding (SRIM)

3 Use of Advanced Composite Materials in the Construction of Suspension Push-Rods for a Formula One Racing Car
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design and Manufacture of Suspension Push-rods
3.2.1 Design
3.2.2 Theoretical Predictions of Structural Behaviour
3.2.3 Manufacture
3.3 In-service Behaviour of Push-rods
3.4 Response of Push-rods to Compressive Loads
3.4.1 Gross Structural Response
3.4.2 Buckling Behaviour
3.4.3 Damage and Catastrophic Failure of Push-rods
3.5 Discussion
3.6 Conclusions

4 Corrosion Resistance of Polymers, Polymer Blends and Composites in Liquid Environments
4.1 Fundamentals of Degradation of Polymeric Materials
4.1.1 Physical Degradation
4.1.2 Chemical Degradation
4.2 Corrosion Resistance of Plastics
4.2.1 General Tendency
4.2.2 Characteristics of Plastics and Other Materials
4.2.3 Thermosetting Plastics for Corrosion Resistant GFRP
4.3 Corrosion Behaviour of Polymers and Composites
4.3.1 Corrosion Forms and Mechanisms of Resins
4.3.2 Corrosion Behaviour of Blended Polymers
4.3.3 Corrosion Behaviour of GFRP
4.4 Corrosion Resistance Data
4.5 Designing of Corrosion Resistant Structure
4.5.1 Laminate Construction
4.5.2 Rate Equations and Life Prediction
4.5.3 Factors Affecting Corrosion

5 New Approaches to Reduce Plastic Combustibility
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Mechanisms of action
5.2 Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers, Dioxins
5.3 Flame Retardant Systems
5.3.1 Intumescent Additives
5.3.2 Polymer - Organic Char Former
5.3.3 Polymer Nanocomposites
5.3.4 Intercacated Flame Retardant Based on Triphenylphosphine

6 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Biomedical Applications
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Strength of Biological Materials
6.3 Materials - Tissue Interaction of Composites in a Physiological Environment
6.4 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Orthopaedic Applications
6.4.1 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Carbon Composites (CFRC)
6.4.2 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites (CFRPC)
6.4.3 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics Composites
6.4.4 Polyethylene Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites
6.4.5 Polyester and Other Fibre Reinforced Plastics
6.5 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Dental Applications
6.5.1 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Poly Methyl Methacrylate Composites
6.5.2 Glass Fibre Reinforced Acrylate Composites
6.5.3 Glass Fibre Reinforced Polycarbonate and Polyester Composites
6.5.4 Polyethylene Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites
6.6 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for General Applications
6.7 Conclusion

7 Composite Materials in the Nuclear and Space Industries: Specific Applications
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter
7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Photon Interaction
7.2.3 Neutron Interaction
7.2.4 Level of Damage
7.2.5 Radiation-induced Changes
7.2.6 Summary of Radiation Interaction Mechanisms
7.3 Overview of the Radiation Effects on Composites
7.3.1 Doses and Units of Radiation
7.3.2 Radiation Effects on Epoxy and Epoxy/Carbon Composites
7.3.3 Radiation Effects on PEEK and PEEK/Carbon Composites
7.4 Case Studies
7.4.1 Radiation (from a Nuclear Reactor) Effects on the Viscoelastic Behaviour of PEEK
7.4.2 Radiation Effects on Aluminum-epoxy Adhesive Joints
7.4.3 Radiation Effects on Aluminum-epoxy/Polyurethane IPN Joints
7.4.4 Container for Radioactive Waste Disposal made from Polymer-based Composites
7.5 General Summary

8 Advanced Composites for Offshore Developments
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Offshore Development Concepts
8.3 Properties of Composite Materials
8.3.1 Fibres
8.3.2 Resin
8.4 Composite Manufacturing
8.4.1 Processes
8.4.2 Inspection
8.4.3 Quality Assurance
8.5 Design of Composites
8.6 Damage Tolerance
8.7 Durability
8.7.1 Fire Resistance
8.7.2 Durability in Seawater
8.8 Joining
8.9 Repair
8.10 Regulation and Codes
8.11 Common Applications of Composites
8.12 New Offshore Applications
8.12.1 Spoolable Composite Pipes
8.12.2 Composite Risers
8.12.3 Tethers
8.13 Market Potential for Composites

9 Functional Polymer Composites
9.1 Introduction to Functional Materials
9.2 Theoretical Background
9.2.1 Connectivity
9.2.2 Percolation Theory
9.2.3 Effective Medium Theories
9.2.4 Electrical Conductivity
9.3 Thermistors
9.4 Piezoresistive Effect
9.5 Chemical Sensing
9.6 Varistor Composites
9.7 Piezoelectric Effect
9.7.1 0-3 Composites
9.7.2 1-3 Composites
9.7.3 3-3 Composites
9.8 Electrostrictive Ion Exchange Composites
9.9 Shape Memory Composites
9.10 Nonlinear Dielectric Composites
9.11 Optical Effects
9.12 Conclusions

10 Conducting Polymer Composites
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Tunable ICP/Carbon Black Additives
10.2.1 Stability
10.2.2 Tuning Ability
10.2.3 Mechanical Properties of ICP/CB Composites
10.2.4 ESD Protection Capability
10.2.5 Purity
10.2.6 Multi-phase Systems
10.3 Interpenetrating Networks in ICP-polymer Blends
10.3.1 Network Formation in Polymer Blends
10.3.2 Mechanical Properties
10.3.3 Optimal ESD Performance
10.3.4 Processing
10.3.5 Stability
10.3.6 Purity
10.4 Conclusions

11 Recycling of Automotive Composites
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Composites in Cars: An Overview
11.2.1 Engine and Powertrain
11.2.2 Chassis and Suspension
11.2.3 Body Assembly
11.2.4 Composite-rich Cars
11.3 Recycling Strategies
11.3.1 Shredder Waste from Discarded Cars
11.3.2 Assembly and Disassembly of Cars
11.3.3 The Economics of Recycling
11.3.4 Logistics
11.3.5 Recycling Management
11.3.6 Materials Preparation for Recycling
11.3.7 Recycling of Automotive Parts
11.3.8 Thermal and Chemical Technologies for Recycling
11.3.9 Landfill Source Reduction: Recycling of Thermoset Moulding Scrap
11.3.10 Processing of Scrap Composite Obtained from Junked Cars
11.3.11 Recovery of PU Foam from Old Car Seats
11.4 Research and Technology (R&T) Targets
11.5 Recycling Strategy and Targets for 2000
11.6 The Future
11.6.1 Shredder Waste Recycling
11.6.2 Future of Composites in Cars
11.6.3 Future of Automotive Composites Recycling
Abbreviations and Acronyms

1 Terminology
1.1 Miscibility and Compatibility
1.2 Related Terms used for Polymer Blends

2 Thermodynamics of Multicomponent Polymer Systems
2.1 Approaches Developed in Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends
2.1.1 Basic Principles
2.1.2 Flory-Huggins - Simple Mean Field, Rigid Lattice Treatment
2.1.3 Solubility Parameter Approach
2.1.4 Equation-of-State Theories
2.1.5 Thermodynamics of Ternary Polymer - Polymer - Solvent Systems
2.1.6 Thermodynamics of Polymer-Polymer-Polymer Systems
2.1.7 Some Thermodynamic Aspects of Homopolymer/Copolymer and Copolymer/Copolymer Mixtures
2.1.8 Some Experimental Data on Thermodynamic Properties of the Polymer Blends
2.1.9 New Models for Thermodynamic Description of Polymer Mixtures

3 Phase Behaviour
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Phase Diagrams of Binary Polymer Blends and Conditions of Phase Separation
3.3 Factors Determining and Affecting Phase Behaviour
3.3.1 Structure
3.3.2 Tacticity
3.3.3 Branching
3.3.4 Molecular Weight
3.3.5 Pressure
3.3.6 Thermal History
3.3.7 Filler Effect
3.4 Mechanism and Kinetics of Phase Separation [17, 24]
3.4.1 Nucleation and Growth
3.4.2 Spinodal Decomposition
3.5 Phase Separation in Crystalline Polymer Blends
3.6 Experimental Data on the Mechanism of Phase Separation
3.7 Reaction Induced Phase Separation
3.8 Methods for Determination of Multiphase Behaviour
3.8.1 Phase Equilibria Methods
3.8.2 Evaluation of the Interaction Parameter
3.8.3 Indirect Methods
3.9 Compatibilisation and Stabilisation Methods

4 Interface (Interphase) in Demixed Polymer Systems
4.1 Interface Characteristics
4.2 Theoretical Approaches
4.2.1 Kammer’s Theory
4.2.2 Helfand and Tagami Theory
4.2.3 Sanchez-Lacombe Theory
4.3 Interface in Systems Containing Copolymers
4.3.1 The Interface in Block Copolymers
4.3.2 Homopolymer/Copolymer Blends
4.3.3 Binary Polymer Blends with a Copolymer as Compatibiliser
4.4 Experimental Methods for Interfacial Tension Determination
4.4.1 Pendent Drop Method
4.4.2 Capillary Breakup Method
4.5 Experimental Methods for Determination of Concentration Profile
4.6 Experimental Data on Interfacial Properties of Polymer Blends
4.7 Concluding Remarks

5 Water Soluble Polymer Systems - Phase Behaviour and Complex Formation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Classification
5.3 Water Soluble Polymers in Solution - Phase Behaviour
5.4 Phase Behaviour of Mixtures of Water Soluble Polymers
5.5 Interpolymer Complexes
5.6 Hydrogen-Bonding Interpolymer Complexes
5.6.1 Investigation Methods
5.6.2 Weak Polyacid/Non-Ionic Polybase/Water Ternary Systems
5.6.3 Miscibility Enhancement by Hydrogen Bonding
5.7 Polyelectrolyte Complexes
5.7.1 Water-Insoluble Stoichiometric Polyelectrolyte Complexes
5.7.2 Colloidal Complexes
5.7.3 Water Soluble Non-Stoichiometric Polyelectrolyte Complexes
5.8 Polymer-Protein Complexes
5.9 Three-Component Interpolymer Complexes

6 Water Soluble Polymer Systems - Applications of Interpolymer Complexes and Blends
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Applications of Interpolymer Complexes
6.3 Applications of Polysaccharide-Based Systems
6.3.1 Gelation Behaviour
6.3.2 Edible Films and Packaging Materials
6.3.3 Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications
6.3.4 Other Applications

7 Reactive Blending
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Requirements and Conditions for Operation
7.3 Reactive Extrusion or Reactive Compounding
7.4 Compatibiliser Efficiency and Problems Associated with the Concentration of the Reactive Groups
7.5 Chemical Reactions Occurring During Reactive Blending
7.5.1 Polymer Functionalisation
7.5.2 Degree of Functionalisation (FD)
7.5.3 Compatibilisation Reactions
7.6 Morphology
7.7 Reactive Compatibilised Polymer Blends
7.7.1 Rubber-Toughened PA
7.7.2 PC/ABS
7.7.3 Reactive Core – Shell Impact Modifiers
7.7.4 PA/PO Blends
7.7.5 Rubber Toughened PP
7.7.6 PPE/PA
7.7.7 PP/Wood Flour-Reactive Extrusion
7.7.8 Polyalkanoates-based Blends
7.7.9 Complex Blends
7.8 Compatibilisation by Using Ionomers
7.9 Charge Transfer Electron Donor-Electron Acceptor Complexation
7.10 Thermoplastics/Thermoset Systems and IPN
7.11 Reactive Extrusion of Water Soluble Polymers
7.12 Other Applications of the Reactive Blending
7.13 Future Trends

8 Advanced Polymers: Interpenetrating Networks
8.1 Short History
8.2 Introduction
8.3 IPN Characterisation
8.4 Types of IPN
8.4.1 Simultaneous IPN
8.4.2 Sequential IPN
8.4.3 Semi-IPN
8.4.4 Full-IPN
8.4.5 Main IPN Subtypes
8.5 Applications
8.6 Conclusions

9 Heterofibres
9.1 Terms, Definitions and Classification of the Heterofibres
9.2 Manufacture of Heterofibres
9.2.1 Background
9.2.2 Spinning Devices
9.2.3 S/S Fibre Production
9.2.4 C/S Fibre Production
9.2.5 M/F Fibre Production
9.2.6 MF Production using BF
9.2.7 Polyblend Fibres
9.2.8 Mixed Fibre Products
9.3 Properties of Bicomponent Fibres
9.3.1 Properties of C/S Structure
9.3.2 Properties of S/S Structure
9.3.3 Properties of M/F Structure
9.4 Applications of Heterofibres
9.4.1 Patent Research and Production of Heterofibres
9.4.2 Uses of C/S Fibres
9.4.3 Uses of S/S Fibres
9.4.4 Uses of M/F Fibres
9.4.5 Uses for Microfibres
9.5 Future Trends

10 Glass Transition in Polymer Blends
10.1 Introduction
10.2 About Additivity of Glass Transition Temperatures
10.2.1 Composition Dependence of the Glass Transition Temperature of Compatible Polymer Blends
10.2.2 About the Kinetic Character of the Glass Transition
10.3 Probability of Hetero-contact Formation and Polymer Miscibility
10.3.1 Attempts to Predict the Tg Behaviour of Miscible Polymer Blends

11 Crystallisation, Morphology and Melting in Polymer Blends
11.1 Introduction
11.2 General Review
11.3 Isothermal Crystallisation
11.3.1 Experimental Observations
11.4 Non-isothermal Crystallisation
11.4.1 Experimental Observations
11.5 Morphology
11.6 Melting Behaviour

12 Radiation-Effects on Polymer Blends
12.1 Plasma Treatments
12.1.1 Plasma Pretreatment
12.1.2 Plasma Treatment
12.2 Treatment with Charged Particle Beams
12.2.1 Ion Beam Interactions
12.2.2 Electron Beam Interactions
12.3 Gamma Irradiation
12.4 Recent Developments

13 Ageing of Polymer Blends and Composites
13.1 Physical and Chemical Ageing
13.2 Photodegradation
13.3 Biodegradation
13.4 Temperature Effect on the Properties of Polymer Blends and Composites
13.5 Restabilisation/Recompatibilisation
13.5.1 Restabilisation
13.5.2 Compatibilisers in Polymer System Recyclates

14 Degradation Behaviour of Polymer Blends and Thermal Treatment of Polymer Waste
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Mechanisms and Kinetics of Degradation of Polymer Blends
14.2.1 The Mechanism of Thermal Degradation
14.2.2 The Mechanism of Thermal Oxidation
14.2.3 The Kinetics of Polymer Degradation
14.3 Degradation of Polymer Blends During Their Preparation and Service Life
14.3.1 Thermomechanical Degradation
14.3.2 Thermal Degradation of Polymer Blends
14.3.3 Polyolefin Blends
14.3.4 Polystyrene Blends
14.3.5 PVC Blends
14.3.6 Miscellaneous Polymer Blends
14.4 Thermal Recycling of Polymer Waste
14.4.1 Mechanical Reprocessing of Polymer Wastes
14.4.2 Pyrolysis of Polymer Blends
14.4.3 Pyrolytic Processes
14.4.4 Catalytic Pyrolysis
14.4.5 Pyrolysis of Used Tyres
14.4.6 Plastic Waste from the Automotive Industry
14.4.7 Incineration of Polymer Wastes

15 Singular Thermal Behaviour of Polystyrene/Polydimethylsiloxane Blends
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Experimental
15.2.1 Thermal Analysis
15.2.2 Gas Chromatography (GC) Analysis
15.2.3 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) Analysis
15.3 Results and Discussion
15.3.1 Kinetic Study of Blends Thermal Degradation
15.4 Polypropylene/Polypropylene-co-Polyethylene (PP/PP-co-PE) Compositions

1 Polyolefin Blends
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Blends of Polyolefins
1.3 Blends of Polyolefins with Other Polymers

2 The Property Trends and Applications of Blends of Metallocene Plastics with other Plastics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Broadening the MWD of Metallocene Resins
2.2.1 Mixed Metallocene Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
2.2.2 Bimodal Single-Site Resins
2.3 Reactor Blends of Polyolefins
2.3.1 Reactor Blends and Alloys (HDPE for Pipe Applications)
2.4 Catalloy and Hivalloy
2.5 Impact Modification of PP by m-Plastomers
2.5.1 Reduction in Stress-Whitening
2.6 Downgauging Potential of Metallocene Polyolefin Blend (mLLDPE-HDPE) Films
2.6.1 Results on Metallocene Blend Overwrap Films
2.7 Impact Modification of PP by Polyolefin Elastomers (POE)
2.8 Metallocene Materials for Medical Devices
2.9 Metallocene PE Grades
2.9.1 Blend Properties of Metallocene PE Grades
2.10 m-Plastomer Modified Polyolefin Alloys
2.10.1 Impact Modification of Unfilled Blends
2.10.2 Stress-Whitening
2.11 Polyolefin Blends
2.11.1 Effect of Branching and Sequence Distribution
2.12 Metallocene Copolymers as Blend Compatibilisers
2.13 Thermoplastic Polyolefins (TPO) for Automotive Applications
2.14 Flame Retardant m-Blends
2.15 Miscellaneous Blends

3 Polyvinyl Chloride-Based Blends
3.1 Introduction
3.2 PVC/Polyalkene Blends
3.3 PVC/Polystyrene or Styrene Copolymer Blends
3.4 PVC/Acrylic Blends
3.5 PVC/PVC and other Vinylic Polymer Blends
3.6 PVC/Engineering Polymer Blends
3.6.1 PVC/Polyester Blends
3.7 PVC/Polycarbonate Blends
3.8 PVC/Elastomer Blends
3.9 PVC/Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer Blends
3.10 PVC/SBR Blends

4 Polystyrene and Styrene Copolymer ¡V Based Blends
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Elastomer Modified PS (High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS))
4.3 PS/Polyolefins (Polyethylene (PE) and Polypropylene (PP)) Blends
4.4 Blends Containing Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)
4.4.1 SAN/Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate
4.4.2 SAN/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA)
4.4.3 SAN/Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Random Copolymer (SMA)
4.4.4 SAN/Poly(e-Caprolactone) (PCL)
4.5 PS/Poly(Vinyl) Methyl Ether (PVME)
4.6 PS/Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO)
4.7 PS/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA)
4.8 PS/Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET)
4.9 PS/Polyamide (PA)
4.10 PS/Polycarbonate (PC)
4.11 PS/Tetramethylbisphenol A Polycarbonate (TMPC)
4.12 Miscellaneous Blends
4.13 Recycling of Polystyrene Containing Mixed Polymer Waste
4.14 Applications
4.15 Conclusions

5 Ionomer Polyblends
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Intermolecular Attractions
5.2.1 Ion-Coordination Interactions
5.2.2 Ion-Ion Interactions
5.2.3 Similar Ion Pairs
5.2.4 Ion-Dipole Interactions
5.2.5 Other Intermolecular Attractions
5.3 Polymer Backbones and Properties

6 Polyamide-Based Blends
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 PA/Polyalkene Blends
6.1.2 PA/Polystyrene or Styrenic Copolymer Blends
6.1.3 PA/Vinylic Blends
6.1.4 PA/Acrylics Blends
6.1.5 PA/Elastomer Blends
6.1.6 PA/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Blends
6.1.7 PA/Santoprene
6.1.8 PA/PA Blends
6.1.9 PA/Polyester Blends
6.1.10 PA/Polycarbonate Blends
6.1.11 PA/Polyoxymethylene Blends
6.1.12 PA/Polysulfone Blends
6.1.13 PA/Polyphenylene Sulfide Blends

7 Polyester-Based Blends
7.1 Introduction
7.2 PEST/Polyalkene Blends
7.3 PEST/Polystyrene or Styrene Copolymer Blends
7.4 PEST/Acrylic Blends
7.5 PEST/Vinyl Blends
7.6 PEST/Elastomer Blends
7.7 PEST/PEST Blends
7.8 PEST/Polyarylate Blends
7.9 PEST/Polycarbonate Blends
7.10 PEST/Polyamide Blends
7.11 PEST/Polyphenylene Ether Blends

8 Blends Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and the Products Based on This Polymer
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 PVA Characteristics
8.1.2 PVA Blending
8.2 PVA Blends with Hydrocarbon Polymers Containing Conjugated Double Bonds
8.2.1 PVA/Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) PPV) Blends
8.3 PVA Blends with Polyelectrolytes
8.3.1 PVA/Poly(Acrylic Acid) (PAA) Blends
8.3.2 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Poly(Sodium Acrylate) (PSAc) Blends
8.3.3 PVA Blends with Polymers with Sulfonic Groups
8.3.4 PVA/Poly(1,1-Dimethyl-3,5-Dimethylenepiperidinium Chloride) (PDMeDMPCl) Blends
8.3.5 PVA/Sodium Alginate (Salg) Blends
8.3.6 PVA/Poly (Sodium a,?-D,L-Aspartate) (PSA) Blends
8.3.7 PVA/Poly(Sodium L-Glutamate) (PSLG) Blends
8.3.8 PVA/Poly(dimethyl acrylamide-co-3-methacrylamido-phenylboronic acid-co-(N,N-dimethylamino) propyl-acrylamidecobutyl methacrylate (DMAA-co-MAPB-co-DMAPAA-co-BMA)[poly phenylboronic compounds; PPB] Blends
8.3.9 PVA/Polyesters with Quaternary Ammonium Groups in the Side Chains Blends (PQ)
8.3.10 PVA/Poly(3 Hydroxy Butyric Acid) (PHB) and PVA/Poly(3 Hydroxybutyrate) (P3HBE) Blends
8.4 Blends of PVA with Polymers with Polar Nonionisable Groups
8.4.1 PVA/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Blends
8.4.2 PVA/Poly(Acrylamide) (PAAM) Blends
8.4.3 PVA/Poly(Ethylene-co-Ethyl Acrylate) (PEEA) Blends
8.4.4 PVA/Poly(Acrylonitrile-Acrylamide-Acrylic Acid)(P(AN-AM-AcAc)) Blends
8.4.5 PVA/Modified PVA
8.4.6 PVA/Poly(Vinyl Acetate) (PVAc) Blends
8.4.7 PVA/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) (PEG) Blends
8.4.8 PVA/Poly Ethylene Oxide (PEO) Blends
8.4.9 PVA/Polyaniline (PANI) Blends
8.4.10 PVA/Poly(2-Methyl-2-Oxazoline) (PMO) Blends
8.4.11 PVA/Polyamide 6 (PA6) Blends
8.4.12 PVA/Polypyrrole (PPy) Blends
8.4.13 PVA/Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone) (PVP) Blends
8.4.14 PVA/Aqueous Polyurethane (APU) Blends
8.4.15 PVA/Poly(Carbonate-Urethane) (PCU) Blends
8.4.16 PVA/Poly(Salicylidene Allyl Amine) (PSAAm) Blends
8.4.17 PVA/Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Blends
8.5 PVA/Natural Polymers Blends
8.5.1 PVA Crosslinked with p-Formaldehyde (PVA-F)/Polysaccharide-Chitosan (PSC)/Salicylic Acid ¡VResorcinol-Formaldehyde Polymeric Resin (SRF) Blends
8.5.2 PVA/?]-Cyclodextrin (?]-CD) Blends
8.5.3 PVA/Cellulose (CELL) Blends
8.5.4 PVA/Starch Blends
8.5.5 PVA/Soluble Collagen (SC) Blends
8.5.6 PVA/Gelatin Blends
8.5.7 PVA/(Regenerated) Silk Fibroin ((R)SF) Blends
8.5.8 PVA/?] -Chitin Blends
8.5.9 PVA/Chitin Derivatives Blends
8.5.10 PVA/Poly(Allylbiguanido-co-Allylamine) (PAB) Blends
8.6 Blends of Polyvinyl Alcohol Copolymers with Natural and Synthetic Polymers
8.6.1 Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH)/Starch Blends
8.6.2 EVOH/Starch/Hydroxylapatite (HA) Blends
8.6.3 EVOH/Poly(styrenecomaleic anhydride) (SMA) Blends
8.6.4 EVOH/Polyolefin (PO) Blends
8.6.5 EVOH/PA Blends
8.6.6 EVOH/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Blends
8.6.7 EVOH/Poly(Ethyloxazoline) (PEOX) Blends
8.7 Concluding Remarks

9 Polyacrylic-Based Polymer Blends
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Methods of Obtaining Acrylic Polymer Blends
9.2.1 Casting Method and Specific Interactions in Binary and Ternary Blends Containing Acrylic Polymers
9.2.2 Self-Propagating Frontal Polymerisation
9.2.3 IPN Method
9.2.4 Functionalising Chains Method
9.2.5 Aggregation Method
9.2.6 Ternary Blends
9.2.7 Reactive Blending Using Acrylic Monomers
9.2.8 Non-Conventional Methods for Obtaining Blends
9.3 Characterisation of Blends with Polyacrylics in Composition
9.3.1 Acrylic/PVC - Blends
9.3.2 PC/SAN - Copolymers
9.3.3 PS and Styrene Copolymer/Acrylics Systems
9.3.4 PSF/Acrylic Blends
9.3.5 Acrylates/Other
9.3.6 Specific Interactions in Blends Containing Acrylics
9.3.7 PMMA/PEO Blends
9.3.8 PBT/ABS Blends
9.3.9 Blends with PBzMA
9.3.10 Acrylic/PO Blends
9.3.11 PMMA/Others
9.3.12 Ion-Containing Polymer Blends

10 Rubber Toughened Epoxies/Thermosets
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Various Approaches to Toughening Epoxy Resins
10.1.2 Measurement of Toughness
10.2 Modification of Epoxy Resins by Rubbers
10.2.1 CTBN
10.2.2 Toughening by other Acrylonitrile - Butadiene Copolymers
10.2.3 Use of a Few Unconventional Rubbers to Toughen Epoxies
10.3 Toughening of High Performance Epoxy Resin
10.4 Toughening by Preformed Core-Shell Particles
10.4.1 Procedure for Blending
10.5 Toughening of Epoxy Resin with Engineering Thermoplastics
10.6 Toughening of Polyester Resin and its Composites
10.7 Toughening of Composites
10.8 Summary

11 Blends Containing Thermostable Heterocyclic Polymers
11.1 General Background
11.2 Polyimide Blends
11.2.1 Blends of Different Polyimides
11.2.2 Blends of Polyimides with Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketones
11.2.3 Blends of Polyimides with Polyamides
11.2.4 Blends of Polyimides with Polyesters
11.2.5 Blends of Polyimides with Polytetrafluoroethylene
11.2.6 Blends of Polyimides with Polysulfones
11.2.7 Blends of Polyimides with Polycarbonates
11.2.8 Blends of Polyimides with Polyurethanes
11.2.9 Blends of Polyimides with Silicones
11.2.10 Blends of Polyimides with Polyaniline
11.2.11 Other Blends Containing Polyimides
11.3 Polybenzimidazole Blends
11.4 Polyquinoxaline Blends
11.5 Polyoxadiazole Blends

12 Blends and Interpenetrating Networks Based on Polyurethanes
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Polyurethane Blends
12.2.1 Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers
12.2.2 Blends Based on Polyurethane Elastomers
12.2.3 Polyurethane Blending
12.2.4 Morphology of Elastomeric Polyurethane Blends
12.3 Properties of Polyurethane Blends
12.3.1 Glass Transition
12.3.2 Degradation
12.3.3 Mechanical Behaviour
12.3.4 Electrical Properties
12.4 Applications of Polyurethane Blends
12.5 Polyurethane Interpenetrating Networks
12.5.1 Preparation of Polyurethane IPN
12.5.2 Properties of Polyurethane IPN
12.5.3 Applications of Polyurethane IPN

13 Blends and Networks Containing Silicon-Based Polymers
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Blend Systems of Silicon-based Polymers
13.2.1 Thermodynamic Aspects
13.2.2 Influence of Additives on s
13.2.3 Miscibility - Compatible Blends
13.2.4 Rheology
13.2.5 Properties and Applications of Blends Containing Silicon-based Polymers
13.3 Copolymer Networks and Interpenetrating Networks
13.3.1 Copolymer Networks (CPN)
13.3.2 Interpenetrating Networks (IPN)
13.4 Conclusion

14 Lignin-Based Blends
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Lignin/Epoxy Resin Blends
14.3 Lignin/Phenolic Resin Blends
14.4 Lignin/Polyolefin Blends
14.5 Lignin/Polyurethane Blends
14.6 Lignin/Polyester Blends
14.7 Lignin/Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Blends
14.8 Lignin/Other Synthetic Polymer Blends
14.9 Lignin/Natural Polymer Blends
14.9.1 Lignin/Starch Blends
14.9.2 Lignin/Cellulose Blends
14.9.3 Lignin/Polyhydroxyalkanoates
14.10 Concluding Remarks

15 Environmentally-Friendly Polymers and Blends
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Corn: A Renewable Source of Eco-Friendly Plastic
15.3 The Role of Legislation
15.3.1 Japan
15.3.2 Germany
15.3.3 Asia
15.4 Biodegradability: Definitions and Standards
15.4.1 Assessment of Biodegradable Polymers
15.4.2 Biodegradability of Starch/Polymer Blends
15.5 Biopolymer Materials for Making Blends
15.5.1 Starch Ester Technology
15.5.2 Microbial Polyesters
15.5.3 Property Improvements of PLLA and other Biodegradable Plastics
15.6 Plan to Produce L-Lactic Acid from Kitchen and Food Waste
15.7 Whey-Protein Films
15.8 Processing of Biopolymer Blends
15.8.1 Starch-Polycaprolactone Blends
15.8.2 Melt Rheology of Polylactide Blends
15.9 Blends of Starch with Biodegradable Polymers
15.9.1 Blends of Starch with PLA
15.9.2 Commercial Compostable Plastic for Blending with Starch
15.10 Applications
15.10.1 Edible Packaging Films
15.10.2 Compostable Plastic Bags
15.10.3 McDonald¡¦s Approves Degradable Container Product Design
15.10.4 Degradable Polymer Blends for Innovative Medical Devices
15.10.5 Degradable Polymers for Synthetic Organs
15.10.6 Green Games
15.10.7 Improved Polymer Blend for Agricultural Mulching Film Commercialisation
15.10.8 Biodegradable Fishing Line from Toray
15.11 Developing World Markets for Biodegradable Plastics
15.12 Cost of EDP
15.12.1 Resin Cost
15.12.2 Injection Moulding
15.12.3 Improvements in PCL Resin Reduces the Extrusion Costs of Film to the Level of PE Film
15.12.4 Competitively Priced Ball Point Pen Made of Corn
15.12.5 Topy Green's Marketing Situation of Biodegradable Mulching Films
15.13 Conclusions

16 Liquid Crystalline Polymers in Polymer Blends
16.1 Introduction to Liquid Crystals
16.2 Liquid Crystalline Polymers and Their Properties
16.3 The Effect of Liquid Crystalline Polymers on the Processing and on the Physical Properties of Polymer Blends
16.4 Specific Interactions in Polymer Blends Containing Liquid Crystalline Polymers
16.4.1 Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions
16.4.2 Hydrogen Bond Interactions
16.5 Rheology of the Blends Containing Liquid Crystalline Polymers
16.5.1 Experimental Data on the Blend Viscosity
16.5.2 Theoretical Expressions for the Blend Viscosity
16.5.3 Model Describing Rheological Behaviour of Immiscible Blends
16.5.4 Factors Influencing Rheological Behaviour
16.6 Liquid Crystalline Polymers as Reinforcements
16.6.1 Reinforcing Action of Hydroxybenzoic Acid Based Liquid Crystalline Polymer Blends
16.6.2 Reinforcement by Rigid Rod Polyester Blends
16.6.3 Aromatic Liquid Crystalline Polymers as Reinforcements
16.6.4 Poly (amide imide) Blends
16.7 Concluding Remarks
Cornelia Vasile is senior researcher at the Romanian Academy, ‘P.Poni’ Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania and Associate Professor at Laval University-Quebec Canada, ‘Gh. Asachi’ Technical University of Iasi and ‘Al.I.Cuza’ University of Iasi. She is the author or co-author of seven books, 250 scientific articles and 75 technical reports, as well as the holder of 38 patents.

Anand Kumar Kulshreshtha is Senior Manager (R&D) and Leader for Polymer and Information Groups at the Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd., Vadodara. He is on the editorial board of the journal, ‘Popular Plastics & Packaging’ and author of about 200 research papers, articles and book chapters.
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