- Published: November 2009
- Region: Global
The Future Of Global Offshore Wind Power: The Technology, Economics And Impact Of Wind Power Generation
- Published: March 2004
- Region: Global
- 125 pages
- Scripp Business Insights
Recent environmental awareness resulting particularly from the phenomenon of global warming has pushed renewable sources of energy towards the top of the power generation agenda. This has helped promote wind power as the most cost effective of the renewable technologies.
The Future of Global Wind Power: the technology, economics and impact of wind power generation is a management report that analyses the prospects for offshore wind power generation across Europe, North America, Japan and the rest of the world. It provides key data on the trends in wind power generation, to help you predict where and when opportunities in offshore wind power generation will occur. The report explains how to identify potential sites and use advances in technology ensure the most effective use of resources. It also details the environmental costs and benefits of offshore wind farms with reference to key stakeholders. These impacts are examined with reference to national, European and International regulatory frameworks. Forecasts to 2020 are included in respect of future capacity and changes in costs resulting from scale and technological advances.
Key issues addressed in this new management
- The operational and installation costs of wind power
- Legislative and regulatory constraints on wind power
- Environmental costs and benefits
- Geographical potential for offshore wind farms
- Future outlook for future offshore capacity and generation
The Future of Global Offshore Wind Power: the technology,
economics and impact of wind power generation is based upon
unique expert analysis and research, the results of which will explain:
- How much of the world’s power consumption could be catered for by offshore wind.
- The factors must be taken into account when planning an offshore wind farm.
- Differences between the scale and distribution of costs for offshore and land wind farms
- The drivers and resistors likely to affect future development of offshore wind power
- Growth opportunities for the future.
- Forecasts for market trends until 2020
The Answers to Your Questions
- What are the main advantages and disadvantages of offshore wind power and which factors need to be addressed during an environmental impact assessment?
- What are offshore wind power generation costs, and how do they compare to other fuels such as coal, oil, nuclear and gas?
- What wind speed is needed to make offshore wind farms economically viable and where can these conditions be found?
- What is the expected lifespan of an offshore wind turbine, how will this change in the future?
- How has installed capacity grown over the last three years and what is the forecast growth between now and 2020?
- What is the threshold of offshore wind power as a percentage of national generating capacity?
The condtions for offshore wind farms vary in different parts of the globe. This report provides a closer look at the conditions under which offshore wind farms will thrive. Find out:
- National regulatory procedures relating to offshore wind power across the relevant EU states and the US.
- Why European renewable energy policy makes it the best region for immediate offshore wind development.
- The opportunities for wind power resulting from Renewable Portfolio Standards policy.
- How distance from shore, altitude, sea bed depth and maintenance schedules affect site potential and efficiency.
- Where are the geographical growth areas for offshore wind power.
- How to find the best wind speeds and hence maximise your potential generation and revenue.
The Value Proposition
Benefit from over 100 pages of expert insight and analysis, enabling you to:
- Understand the regulatory and legislative constraints on development of offshore sites.
- Identify where wind speeds are suitable and if access to transmission grids will allow cost effective development.
- Anticipate the environmental impact of installations and save significant time and money.
- Exploit existing technology and resources from the oil and gas industries.
- Develop the most cost effective construction and maintenance strategies.
- Predict changes in costs and revenues and associated profits.
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Table of Contents
The Future of Global Offshore Wind Power
Executive Summary 10
Offshore wind potential and site identification 10
Legislative and regulatory issues affecting offshore wind energy 11
Offshore wind technology 11
The environmental effects of offshore wind 12
The economics of offshore wind generation 13
The outlook for offshore wind 13
Chapter 1 An introduction to wind energy
and offshore wind generation 17
Report structure 18
Capacity development 22
Chapter 2 Offshore wind potential and site identification 25
Wind speed and energy output 27
Estimating wind speeds 29
Regional wind energy potential 30
North America 34
The rest of the World 36
Chapter 3 Legislative and regulatory issues affecting offshore wind energy 39
International law 41
European law 43
The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (1985) 43
European water policy 44
The Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (1979); The Directive on
the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (1992) 44
National policies 45
The Netherlands 48
United Kingdom 49
Chapter 4 Offshore wind technology 53
Wind turbine design 55
Offshore turbines 56
Turbine generating capacity 58
Wind turbine components 60
Drive train and generator 63
Support structures 66
Gravity base structures 68
Suction bucket 69
Floating wind farms 69
Grid connection 70
Energy storage 71
Operation and maintenance 72
Chapter 5 The environmental effects of offshore wind 75
The advantages of wind power 77
The disadvantages of wind power 79
Visual impact 79
Airborne noise 80
Underwater noise 81
Construction noise 82
Shipping and fishing 82
Impact on wildlife 84
Marine mammals 85
Seabed life 86
Environmental impact assessment 87
Chapter 6 The economics of offshore wind generation 89
Installation costs 92
Energy costs 94
External costs of power generation 98
Grid issues 99
Economic incentives 101
Financing offshore wind projects 102
Chapter 7 The outlook for offshore wind 105
Drivers and resistors 108
The future of offshore wind power generation 113
Costs and benefits 116
Index and references 119
References and notes 122
List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Growth in offshore wind generating capacity 23
Figure 2.2: European offshore wind energy resource 31
Figure 4.3: Wind turbine cost distribution 56
Figure 6.4: Comparing costs from recent offshore wind farms with costs of different generating technologies 96
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Offshore wind energy projects 20
Table 1.2: Growth in offshore wind generating capacity 22
Table 2.3: Annual energy production (MWh) 27
Table 2.4: European offshore wind energy resource 32
Table 2.5: UK offshore wind energy resources 33
Table 2.6: Japan's offshore wind resource 35
Table 3.7: Summary of national policies on offshore wind 51
Table 4.8: Wind turbine cost distribution 57
Table 4.9: Offshore wind farm turbine size 58
Table 5.10: Lifetime emissions of carbon dioxide for various power generation technologies 77
Table 6.11: Installation cost of offshore wind farms 92
Table 6.12: Energy yield as a function of wind speed 94
Table 6.13: The cost of electricity produced by offshore wind farms 95
Table 6.14: Competitive costs of different generating technologies 96
Table 6.15: External costs for various power generation technologies within the EU 98
Table 7.16: Proposed offshore wind projects 113
Table 7.17: Second round of UK offshore wind licences 114