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Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites, Volume 2 2002 Product Image

Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites, Volume 2 2002

  • ID: 562214
  • January 2002
  • 430 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd

The extraordinary growth in the use of plastics in the last century is in response to a growing world population, with its increasing demands for more food, better health care, improved housing and numerous cheaper and abundant consumer products. What is expected of the chemical industry in the 21st century is to produce plastics while being aware of the environment, by reducing waste production, reducing the consumption of materials, reducing the demand for energy, reducing the use of non-renewable resources, and reducing risks, hazards and costs. Use of polymer blends and composites provides a very versatile strategy for designing new materials that fulfil these 'green' requirements:
- Lower costs without sacrificing properties
- Ability to tailor properties without creation of completely new polymer
- High performance blend from synergistically interacting polymers
- Recycling industrial and/or municipal scrap

The four volume handbook, Handbook of Polymer Blends and Composites is intended to provide an overview of the theory and application of polymer blends and composites. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with the state of the art of composites’ development, the characteristics of particulate fillers and fibre reinforcements, the main procedures of composites manufacture and their applications. Volume 3 deals with general aspects of polymer blend morphology, properties and behaviour in various conditions, while Volume 4 is mainly concerned with the various chemical classes of polymer blends.

The Handbook is available as a four-volume set or as individual volumes

1 An Overview of Composite Fabrication, Design and Cost
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Resin Selection
1.3 Prepregs
1.3.1 Designing from Prepregs
1.3.2 Adhesive Joints
1.4 Damage Mechanics
1.4.1 Repair of a Damaged Aircraft Structure
1.5 An Overview of Fabrication
1.5.1 Compression Moulding
1.5.2 Sheet Moulding Compounds (SMC)
1.5.3 Tooling
1.5.4 Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding
1.5.5 What is RTM?
1.5.6 Filament Winding
1.5.7 Tape Winding
1.5.8 Pultrusion
1.5.9 Vacuum Bagging
1.5.10 Autoclave Moulding
1.5.11 Inflatable Mandrel
1.5.12 The Pre-Form/Post-Form Technique
1.5.13 Thermoplastic Pultrusion
1.5.14 Neuroclave: The Intelligent Autoclave
1.5.15 Tape Placements
1.5.16 Pulforming
1.6 Special Moulding Systems
1.6.1 Injection-Compression Moulding
1.6.2 SCORIM Process
1.6.3 Direct Blending Injection Moulding
1.6.4 Multi-Live Feed Moulding
1.6.5 Artificial Neural Network Approach to Injection Moulding
1.6.6 Co-Injection
1.6.7 Combined Thermoplastic, Thermoset Moulding
1.6.8 Strata Reinforcement Method
1.7 Variants of Injection Moulding
1.7.1 In-Mould Surface Decoration (ISD)
1.7.2 Hot-Runner Moulding (HRM)
1.7.3 Gas-Assisted Moulding (GAM)
1.7.4 Fusible Core Moulding
1.7.5 Alpha 1 Moulding Machine
1.7.6 Other Moulding Techniques
1.8 Robotic Processing for Zero Defects
1.8.1 Types of Robots
1.9 Smart Composite Processing [7] Using ‘Sensor Technology’
1.10 Processing Problems in Glass Fibre Reinforced Thermosets
1.11 The Highest Performance to Cost Ratio and a Comprehensive Overview of Cost Savings by Composites
1.11.1 Fabric Cost
1.11.2 Resin Cost
1.11.3 Design Cost
1.11.4 Tooling Cost
1.11.5 Fabrication Cost
1.11.6 Product Cost
1.12 Scenario for 21st Century
References
2 Liquid Moulding Processes
2.1 The Resin Transfer Moulding Process
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Advantages
2.2 Process Description
2.2.1 Fibre Preforms and Preforming Techniques
2.2.2 Resin and Injection System
2.2.3 Tooling System
2.3 Process Modelling
2.3.1 Resin Flow
2.3.2 Darcy’s Law
2.3.3 Resin Flow Model
2.3.4 Edge Effects
2.3.5 Thermal Model and Cure
2.3.6 Mass Balance
2.3.7 Permeability
2.4 Derivative RTM Manufacturing Technologies
2.4.1 Resin Film Infusion
2.4.2 Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM)
2.4.3 Co-Injection Resin Transfer Moulding (CIRTM)
2.4.4 Structural Reaction Injection Moulding (SRIM)
Summary
References

3 Use of Advanced Composite Materials in the Construction of Suspension Push-Rods for a Formula One Racing Car
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design and Manufacture of Suspension Push-rods
3.2.1 Design
3.2.2 Theoretical Predictions of Structural Behaviour
3.2.3 Manufacture
3.3 In-service Behaviour of Push-rods
3.4 Response of Push-rods to Compressive Loads
3.4.1 Gross Structural Response
3.4.2 Buckling Behaviour
3.4.3 Damage and Catastrophic Failure of Push-rods
3.5 Discussion
3.6 Conclusions
Symbols
Acknowledgements
References

4 Corrosion Resistance of Polymers, Polymer Blends and Composites in Liquid Environments
4.1 Fundamentals of Degradation of Polymeric Materials
4.1.1 Physical Degradation
4.1.2 Chemical Degradation
4.2 Corrosion Resistance of Plastics
4.2.1 General Tendency
4.2.2 Characteristics of Plastics and Other Materials
4.2.3 Thermosetting Plastics for Corrosion Resistant GFRP
4.3 Corrosion Behaviour of Polymers and Composites
4.3.1 Corrosion Forms and Mechanisms of Resins
4.3.2 Corrosion Behaviour of Blended Polymers
4.3.3 Corrosion Behaviour of GFRP
4.4 Corrosion Resistance Data
4.5 Designing of Corrosion Resistant Structure
4.5.1 Laminate Construction
4.5.2 Rate Equations and Life Prediction
4.5.3 Factors Affecting Corrosion
Acknowledgement
References

5 New Approaches to Reduce Plastic Combustibility
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Mechanisms of action
5.2 Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers, Dioxins
5.3 Flame Retardant Systems
5.3.1 Intumescent Additives
5.3.2 Polymer - Organic Char Former
5.3.3 Polymer Nanocomposites
5.3.4 Intercacated Flame Retardant Based on Triphenylphosphine
References

6 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Biomedical Applications
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Strength of Biological Materials
6.3 Materials - Tissue Interaction of Composites in a Physiological Environment
6.4 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Orthopaedic Applications
6.4.1 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Carbon Composites (CFRC)
6.4.2 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites (CFRPC)
6.4.3 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics Composites
6.4.4 Polyethylene Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites
6.4.5 Polyester and Other Fibre Reinforced Plastics
6.5 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for Dental Applications
6.5.1 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Poly Methyl Methacrylate Composites
6.5.2 Glass Fibre Reinforced Acrylate Composites
6.5.3 Glass Fibre Reinforced Polycarbonate and Polyester Composites
6.5.4 Polyethylene Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites
6.6 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composites for General Applications
6.7 Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References

7 Composite Materials in the Nuclear and Space Industries: Specific Applications
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter
7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Photon Interaction
7.2.3 Neutron Interaction
7.2.4 Level of Damage
7.2.5 Radiation-induced Changes
7.2.6 Summary of Radiation Interaction Mechanisms
7.3 Overview of the Radiation Effects on Composites
7.3.1 Doses and Units of Radiation
7.3.2 Radiation Effects on Epoxy and Epoxy/Carbon Composites
7.3.3 Radiation Effects on PEEK and PEEK/Carbon Composites
7.4 Case Studies
7.4.1 Radiation (from a Nuclear Reactor) Effects on the Viscoelastic Behaviour of PEEK
7.4.2 Radiation Effects on Aluminum-epoxy Adhesive Joints
7.4.3 Radiation Effects on Aluminum-epoxy/Polyurethane IPN Joints
7.4.4 Container for Radioactive Waste Disposal made from Polymer-based Composites
7.5 General Summary
APPENDIX
References

8 Advanced Composites for Offshore Developments
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Offshore Development Concepts
8.3 Properties of Composite Materials
8.3.1 Fibres
8.3.2 Resin
8.4 Composite Manufacturing
8.4.1 Processes
8.4.2 Inspection
8.4.3 Quality Assurance
8.5 Design of Composites
8.6 Damage Tolerance
8.7 Durability
8.7.1 Fire Resistance
8.7.2 Durability in Seawater
8.8 Joining
8.9 Repair
8.10 Regulation and Codes
8.11 Common Applications of Composites
8.12 New Offshore Applications
8.12.1 Spoolable Composite Pipes
8.12.2 Composite Risers
8.12.3 Tethers
8.13 Market Potential for Composites
References

9 Functional Polymer Composites
9.1 Introduction to Functional Materials
9.2 Theoretical Background
9.2.1 Connectivity
9.2.2 Percolation Theory
9.2.3 Effective Medium Theories
9.2.4 Electrical Conductivity
9.3 Thermistors
9.4 Piezoresistive Effect
9.5 Chemical Sensing
9.6 Varistor Composites
9.7 Piezoelectric Effect
9.7.1 0-3 Composites
9.7.2 1-3 Composites
9.7.3 3-3 Composites
9.8 Electrostrictive Ion Exchange Composites
9.9 Shape Memory Composites
9.10 Nonlinear Dielectric Composites
9.11 Optical Effects
9.12 Conclusions
Acknowledgement
References

10 Conducting Polymer Composites
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Tunable ICP/Carbon Black Additives
10.2.1 Stability
10.2.2 Tuning Ability
10.2.3 Mechanical Properties of ICP/CB Composites
10.2.4 ESD Protection Capability
10.2.5 Purity
10.2.6 Multi-phase Systems
10.3 Interpenetrating Networks in ICP-polymer Blends
10.3.1 Network Formation in Polymer Blends
10.3.2 Mechanical Properties
10.3.3 Optimal ESD Performance
10.3.4 Processing
10.3.5 Stability
10.3.6 Purity
10.4 Conclusions
References

11 Recycling of Automotive Composites
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Composites in Cars: An Overview
11.2.1 Engine and Powertrain
11.2.2 Chassis and Suspension
11.2.3 Body Assembly
11.2.4 Composite-rich Cars
11.3 Recycling Strategies
11.3.1 Shredder Waste from Discarded Cars
11.3.2 Assembly and Disassembly of Cars
11.3.3 The Economics of Recycling
11.3.4 Logistics
11.3.5 Recycling Management
11.3.6 Materials Preparation for Recycling
11.3.7 Recycling of Automotive Parts
11.3.8 Thermal and Chemical Technologies for Recycling
11.3.9 Landfill Source Reduction: Recycling of Thermoset Moulding Scrap
11.3.10 Processing of Scrap Composite Obtained from Junked Cars
11.3.11 Recovery of PU Foam from Old Car Seats
11.4 Research and Technology (R&T) Targets
11.5 Recycling Strategy and Targets for 2000
11.6 The Future
11.6.1 Shredder Waste Recycling
11.6.2 Future of Composites in Cars
11.6.3 Future of Automotive Composites Recycling

References
Bibliography
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Contributors
Index

Anand Kumar Kulshreshtha is Senior Manager (R&D) and Leader for Polymer and Information Groups at the Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd., Vadodara. He is on the editorial board of the journal, ‘Popular Plastics & Packaging’ and author of about 200 research papers, articles and book chapters.

Cornelia Vasile is senior researcher at the Romanian Academy, ‘P.Poni’ Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania and Associate Professor at Laval University-Quebec Canada, ‘Gh. Asachi’ Technical University of Iasi and ‘Al.I.Cuza’ University of Iasi. She is the author or co-author of seven books, 250 scientific articles and 75 technical reports, as well as the holder of 38 patents.

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