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The Future of Distributed Power Generation: New Technologies, Changing Economics and the Impact of Fuel Cells
Scripp Business Insights, October 2007, Pages: 125
Distributed power generation undergoing significant change as disparate pools of capacity give way to the establishment of integrated local generation. While distributed generation can reduce network losses and improve network stability, there are still a number of barriers including network connection costs, the operation of net metering and in some cases the application of market liberalisation. Resolution of these issues and efficiency gains in conventional, advanced fuel cell and renewable technologies will eventually lead to easier and faster integration of distributed generation and significant growth in distributed generating capacity. ‘The Future of Distributed Power Generation’ is a new report published by Business Insights that examines key environmental and legislative issues and analyses the technologies, efficiency and economics of conventional fossil fuel and advanced distributed generation. This new report analyses how demand for distributed generation capacity is likely to change as concern over energy security and network stability grows.
This new report will enable you to...
-Identify the country level initiatives that are driving forward distributed capacity growth and forecast the role of distributed power generation in the energy mix.
-Assess the role of renewable power generation technologies, their suitability to distributed power applications and their capacity growth.
-Understand key network issues, including the effects of market liberalization, net metering, active distribution systems, the role of virtual power plants and system efficiency and stability.
-Anticipate the impact of key environmental, legislative and policy issues and concerns over energy security on the future of distributed power generation in developing and mature economies.
-Benchmark leading power generation technologies in terms of costs and emissions for distributed power generation.
Key findings from this report...
-Additional wind power capacity of 66,200MW was added between 1997 and 2006, an increase of 451%. However, the economics of distributed generation are prohibitive to small installations.
-Almost all distributed power generation technologies can provide better performance than US fossil fuels. Distributed generation technologies (apart from diesel engines) also outperform the average emissions from US power generation.
-Fuel cells are approaching competitiveness. A 200kW PAFC with CHP produces electricity for $0.14-$0.24/kWh. However, fuel cells without CHP are uncompetitive with generating costs around $0.6/kWh or more.
-The total distributed generation market in the US between 2010 and 2020 is likely to be 35,000MW. While much of this capacity will be based on gas turbines fuel cells could capture almost 20% of capacity.
Your questions answered...
-How do the key network issues around distributed power generation act as barriers to capacity growth?
-Which conventional power generation technologies have the best application in terms of costs and emissions for distributed power generation?
-How do renewable energy technologies compare to conventional distributed power generation?
-Which of the emerging fuel cells technologies will be most suitable for use in distributed power generation?
-How do key environmental, legislative, policy and energy security issues impact on the future of distributed power generation?
-In which countries are local initiatives driving forward distributed capacity growth?
The Future of Distributed Power Generation
Conventional fossil-fuel based distributed generation
Advanced fossil-fuel based distributed generation
Renewable technologies for distributed generation
Environmental and legislative issues
The economics of distributed generation
The outlook for distributed generation
Chapter 1 Introduction
The history of distributed generation
Definition of distributed generation
Advantages of distributed generation
Types of distributed generation
The structure of the report
Chapter 2 Network issues
Distribution network requirements
Effects of market liberalization
Distributed generation and the distribution network
DG behind the meter
Active distribution systems
Efficiency and losses
Virtual power plants
Chapter 3 Conventional fossil-fuel based
technologies for distributed
Cogeneration with reciprocating engines
Turbine types and sizes
Gas turbines for cogeneration
Advanced gas turbine cycles
Gas turbine emissions
Gas turbine costs
Chapter 4 Advanced fossil fuel-based
technologies for distributed
generation: Fuel cells
The fuel cell principle
Phosphoric acid fuel cell
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
Molten carbonate fuel cell
Solid oxide fuel cell
The fuel cell market
Chapter 5 Renewable technologies for
Solar thermal power generation
Solar photovoltaic power generation
Small hydro technology
Small hydro costs
Ocean (tidal) stream generation
Comparison of distributed generation technologies
Chapter 6 Environmental and legislative
Distributed generation based on fossil fuel combustion
Distributed generation based on renewable technologies
The environmental impact of distributed generation
Conflict of interest
Chapter 7 The economics of distributed
The cost of electricity
Distributed generation installation costs
Cost of electricity
Chapter 8 The outlook for distributed
The effect of market liberalization and policy initiatives
List of Figures
Figure 4.1: Annual fuel cell power plant sales (units sold), 1996-2007
Figure 5.2: Annual solar cell production and cumulative capacity (MW), 1999-2006
Figure 5.3: Cost comparison of solar technologies ($/kW)
Figure 5.4: Global wind capacity additions (MW)
Figure 5.5: Renewable distributed generation technology cost comparison ($/kW)
Figure 6.6: Efficiencies of fossil fuel generating technologies (%)
Figure 6.7: Nitrogen oxides emissions from fossil fuel units (g/MWh)
Figure 7.8: The value of electricity in the UK market (£/kWh)
Figure 7.9: Cost of electricity from distributed generation technologies ($/kWh)
Figure 8.10: Distributed generation market drivers and inhibitors
Figure 8.11: Forecast distributed generation capacity on the UK distribution network (MW)
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Installed Distributed Generation Units in US
Table 1.2: Definition of Distributed Generation
Table 2.3: Passive and active distribution networks
Table 3.4: Engines types
Table 3.5: Gas turbine types
Table 3.6: Technology comparison
Table 4.7: Phosphoric acid fuel cell
Table 4.8: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
Table 4.9: Molten carbonate fuel cell
Table 4.10: Solid oxide fuel cell
Table 4.11: Annual fuel cell power plant sales (units sold), 1996-2007
Table 4.12: Technology comparison
Table 5.13: Annual solar cell production and cumulative capacity (MW), 1999-2006
Table 5.14: Comparison of solar technologies by size (MW) and cost ($/kW)
Table 5.15: Global wind capacity additions (MW)
Table 5.16: Small hydropower categories
Table 5.17: Renewable distributed generation technology comparison, capacity (kW/MW) and
Table 6.18: Efficiencies of fossil fuel generating technologies (%)
Table 6.19: Nitrogen oxides emissions from fossil fuel units (g/MWh)
Table 7.20: The value of electricity in the UK market (£/kWh)
Table 7.21: Distributed generation installation costs
Table 7.22: Cost of electricity from distributed generation technologies ($/kWh)
Table 7.23: Further costs of electricity from distributed generation technologies ($/kWh)
Table 8.24: Forecast distributed generation capacity on the UK distribution network (MW)
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