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Executive Report on Strategies in Ethiopia - Product Image

Executive Report on Strategies in Ethiopia

  • ID: 603068
  • June 2007
  • Region: Ethiopia
  • 382 pages
  • ICON Group International

How to Strategically Evaluate Ethiopia

Perhaps the most efficient way of evaluating Ethiopia is to consider key dimensions which themselves are composites of multiple factors. Composite portfolio approaches have long been used by strategic planners. The biggest challenge in this approach is to choose the appropriate factors that are the most relevant to international planning. The two measures of greatest relevance are “latent demand” and “market accessibility”. The figure below summarizes the key dimensions and recommendations of such an approach. Using these two composites, one can prioritize all countries of the world. Countries of high latent demand and high relative accessibility (e.g. easier entry for one firm compared to other firms) are given highest priority. The figure below shows two different scenarios. Accessibility is defined as a firm’s ease of entering or supplying from or to a market (the “supply side”), and latent demand is an indicator of the potential in serving from or to the market (the “demand side”).
Framework for Prioritizing Countries

Demand/Market Potential Driven Firm

Relative READ MORE >

1 INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY 14
1.1 What Does This Report Cover? 14
1.2 How to Strategically Evaluate Ethiopia 14
1.3 Latent Demand and Accessibility in Ethiopia 16
2 MACRO-ACCESSIBILITY IN ETHIOPIA 17
2.1 Economic Fundamentals and Dynamics 17
2.1.1 Government Intervention Risks 17
2.1.2 Infrastructure Development 17
2.2 Political Risks 19
2.2.1 Economic Relationship with the United States 19
2.2.2 Politics and the Business Environment 19
2.2.3 The Political System 19
2.3 Marketing Strategies 20
2.3.1 Distribution Channel Options 20
2.3.2 Pricing Issues 20
2.3.3 Agents and Distributors 20
2.3.4 Franchising Activities 20
2.3.5 Joint Ventures and Licensing Options 20
2.3.6 Creating a Sales Office 20
2.3.7 Selling Strategies 21
2.3.8 Advertising and Trade Promotion 21
2.3.9 Pricing Issues 23
2.3.10 Supplying Customer Service 23
2.3.11 Public Sector Marketing 23
2.3.12 Intellectual Property Risks 23
2.3.13 Hiring Local Counsel 24
2.3.14 Performing Due Diligence 24
2.4 Import and Export Regulation Risks 24
2.4.1 Trade Barrier Risks 24
2.4.2 Licenses Required for Imports 25
2.4.3 Entering Temporary Imports 25
2.4.4 Additional Trade Issues 25
2.4.5 Labeling Issues 25
2.4.6 Restrictions on Imports 26
2.4.7 Warranty and Non-Warranty Repairs 26
2.4.8 Controls on Exports 26
2.4.9 Local Standards 26
2.4.10 Free Trade Zone Options 26
2.4.11 Adherence to Free Trade Agreements 26
2.4.12 Customs Contact Information 26
2.5 Investment Climate 27
2.5.1 Openness to Foreign Investment 27
2.5.2 Conversion and Transfer Policies 28
2.5.3 Expropriation and Compensation 28
2.5.4 Dispute Settlement 29
2.5.5 Performance Requirements and Incentives 29
2.5.6 Right to Private Ownership and Establishment 30
2.5.7 Intellectual Property Risks 30
2.5.8 Transparency of the Regulatory System 30
2.5.9 Capital Market Risks 31
2.5.10 Political Violence 31
2.5.11 Corruption 31
2.5.12 Bilateral Investment Agreements 32
2.5.13 OPIC and Other Investment Insurance 32
2.5.14 Labor 32
2.5.15 Free Trade Zone Options 33
2.6 Trade and Project Financing 33
2.6.1 The Banking System 33
2.6.2 Foreign Exchange Control Risks 34
2.6.3 General Financing Availability 34
2.6.4 Financing Export Strategies 34
2.6.5 Types of Available Export Financing and Insurance 34
2.6.6 Banks with Correspondent Banking Arrangements 35
2.7 Travel Risks 36
2.7.1 Local Business Practices 36
2.7.2 Visa Requirements 36
2.7.3 Infrastructure for Conducting Business 36
2.7.4 Country Data 36
2.8 Key Contacts 37
2.8.1 Ethiopian Federal Government Agencies 37
2.8.2 Trade Associations 38
2.8.3 Ethiopian Market Research Firms 39
2.8.4 U.S. Embassy Trade-Related Contacts 39
2.8.5 Contacts in Washington D.C. 40
3 ECONOMIC AND PRODUCT MARKETS IN ETHIOPIA 42
3.1 Introduction & Methodology 42
3.1.1 Overview & Methodology 42
3.1.2 Market Potential Estimation Methodology 42
3.2 Summary Rankings 48
3.3 Latent Demand Forecasts 62
3.3.1 60-Milligram Containers of Fromage Frais 62
3.3.2 Adhesives and Sealants 62
3.3.3 Advertising Services 63
3.3.4 Aerospace and Defense Equipment 63
3.3.5 Aftermarket Passenger Car Tires 64
3.3.6 Air Freight Services 64
3.3.7 Alcoholic Beverages 65
3.3.8 Ales and Stouts 65
3.3.9 Alimentary and Metabolism Pharmaceuticals 66
3.3.10 Aluminum Die-Casting Foundries 66
3.3.11 Amusement and Recreation Services 67
3.3.12 Analgesics 67
3.3.13 Analog Color Televisions 68
3.3.14 Antidepressant Pharmaceuticals 68
3.3.15 Antiperspirants and Deodorants 69
3.3.16 Apparel and Accessories 69
3.3.17 Appetizers and Dips 70
3.3.18 Apples 70
3.3.19 Applications Software 71
3.3.20 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) 71
3.3.21 Architectural Services 72
3.3.22 Athletic Footwear 72
3.3.23 Audio Components 73
3.3.24 Auto and Home Supply Stores 73
3.3.25 Aviation Services 74
3.3.26 Baby Formula 74
3.3.27 Bagged Chocolate Candy 75
3.3.28 Baked Goods 75
3.3.29 Bakery Products 76
3.3.30 Bananas 76
3.3.31 Bar Soap 77
3.3.32 Base Chemicals 77
3.3.33 Battery Eggs 78
3.3.34 Beauty and Barber Shops 78
3.3.35 Beer 79
3.3.36 Bicycles and Bicycle Accessories 79
3.3.37 Biotechnology 80
3.3.38 Bituminous Coal 80
3.3.39 Blended Whiskey 81
3.3.40 Board Games and Puzzles 81
3.3.41 Boat Building 82
3.3.42 Boilers 82
3.3.43 Book Publishing 83
3.3.44 Bottled Water 83
3.3.45 Bottles of Lager Beer 84
3.3.46 Boutique Hotels 84
3.3.47 Bras and Allied Garments 85
3.3.48 Bread 85
3.3.49 Breakfast Cereals 86
3.3.50 Breweries 86
3.3.51 Broadband Internet Access 87
3.3.52 Broadwoven Fabric Finishing Mills 87
3.3.53 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing 88
3.3.54 Brown and Wholemeal Bread 88
3.3.55 Building Materials and Garden Supplies 89
3.3.56 Built-In Electric Ovens 89
3.3.57 Business and School Supplies 90
3.3.58 Butcher Shops 90
3.3.59 Cable TV 91
3.3.60 CAD/CAM/CAE Software 91
3.3.61 Cafes and Restaurants 92
3.3.62 Cakes and Pastries 92
3.3.63 Camcorders 93
3.3.64 Camera and Photographic Supplies Stores 93
3.3.65 Campgrounds and Recreational Vehicle Parks 94
3.3.66 Candles 94
3.3.67 Candy 95
3.3.68 Cans of Lager Beer 95
3.3.69 Car Aftermarket Products 96
3.3.70 Casinos and Gambling 96
3.3.71 Cat Food 97
3.3.72 CD Players 97
3.3.73 Cellular Telephones 98
3.3.74 Cement Construction Materials 98
3.3.75 Cemeteries and Crematories 99
3.3.76 Chemicals 99
3.3.77 Chewing and Bubble Gum 100
3.3.78 Childrens Chicken Nugget Ready Meals 100
3.3.79 Chilled and Deli Food 101
3.3.80 Chips and Crisps 101
3.3.81 Chocolate Candy 102
3.3.82 Cigarette Manufacturing 102
3.3.83 Cigars and Cigarillos 103
3.3.84 Citrus Fruit 103
3.3.85 Civil Aerospace Equipment 104
3.3.86 Clay Building Products 104
3.3.87 Clothing Accessories 105
3.3.88 Coated and Flavored Nuts 105
3.3.89 Coin-Operated Laundries and Dry Cleaners 106
3.3.90 Colas 106
3.3.91 Collection Agencies 107
3.3.92 Color Televisions 107
3.3.93 Combination Refrigerator-Freezers 108
3.3.94 Commercial Banking 108
3.3.95 Communications Services 109
3.3.96 Compact Discs (CDs) 109
3.3.97 Complete Dry Dog Food 110
3.3.98 Computer Hardware 110
3.3.99 Concrete Building Products 111
3.3.100 Console Video Games 111
3.3.101 Construction and Engineering Services 112
3.3.102 Consumer Chemicals 112
3.3.103 Contact Lenses 113
3.3.104 Continental and Specialty Plant Bread 113
3.3.105 Convenience Stores 114
3.3.106 Conventional Mineral Oil 114
3.3.107 Cookies and Crackers 115
3.3.108 Cooking Ranges 115
3.3.109 Copper Ores 116
3.3.110 Corporate Strategy Services 116
3.3.111 Cosmetics and Toiletries 117
3.3.112 Costume Jewelry 117
3.3.113 Cotton Yarn 118
3.3.114 Cough and Cold Remedies 118
3.3.115 Craft Bread 119
3.3.116 Credit Bureaus 119
3.3.117 Cross/utility Vehicles (CUVs) 120
3.3.118 Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction 120
3.3.119 Cruise Ship Tourism 121
3.3.120 Crushed and Broken Stone 121
3.3.121 Crushing Oilseeds and Tree Nuts Excluding Soybeans 122
3.3.122 Current-Carrying Wiring Device Manufacturing 122
3.3.123 Curtain and Drapery Mills 123
3.3.124 Custom Draperies 123
3.3.125 Daily Newspapers 124
3.3.126 Dairy Cream 124
3.3.127 Dark Brandy 125
3.3.128 Data Processing and Network Services 125
3.3.129 Defense Industry Equipment 126
3.3.130 Deli Food 126
3.3.131 Deluxe and Malt Whiskey 127
3.3.132 Department Stores 127
3.3.133 Depository Credit Intermediation 128
3.3.134 Designer Bath and Shower Products 128
3.3.135 Desktop Personal Computers 129
3.3.136 Dial-Up Internet Access 129
3.3.137 Diesel Trucks 130
3.3.138 Dietary Supplements 130
3.3.139 Digestion Aids 131
3.3.140 Digital Cameras 131
3.3.141 Dining Out 132
3.3.142 Dips 132
3.3.143 Direct Selling Establishments 133
3.3.144 Discount Superstores 133
3.3.145 Discrete Semiconductors 134
3.3.146 Dishwashing Products 134
3.3.147 Disposable Health Care Equipment and Supplies 135
3.3.148 Distillate Fuel Oil 135
3.3.149 Distilleries 136
3.3.150 Dog Food 136
3.3.151 Dolls and Figures 137
3.3.152 Domestic Water Utilities 137
3.3.153 DRAM (dynamic Random Access Memory) 138
3.3.154 Draught Lager Beer 138
3.3.155 Dried Food 139
3.3.156 Drug Delivery Systems 139
3.3.157 Durable Goods 140
3.3.158 DVD Players 140
3.3.159 Eating and Drinking Places 141
3.3.160 Economy Disposable Diapers 141
3.3.161 Edible Oils 142
3.3.162 Education and Training Services 142
3.3.163 Electron Tubes 143
3.3.164 Elementary and Secondary Schools 143
3.3.165 Engineering Services 144
3.3.166 Envelope Manufacturing 144
3.3.167 Environmental Consulting Services 145
3.3.168 Ethnic Hair Care Products 145
3.3.169 Everyday Cookies 146
3.3.170 Extended Stay and Business Suite Motels 146
3.3.171 Exterminating and Pest Control Services 147
3.3.172 External Sanitary Protection Products 147
3.3.173 Facial Cosmetics 148
3.3.174 Family Clothing Stores 148
3.3.175 Farm Machinery and Equipment 149
3.3.176 Fast Food 149
3.3.177 Fax Machines 150
3.3.178 Feminine Sanitary Protection 150
3.3.179 Fermented Sauces 151
3.3.180 Fiber-Optic Cable Manufacturing 151
3.3.181 Financial Services 152
3.3.182 Fixed-Line Telecommunications Services 152
3.3.183 Flash Memory 153
3.3.184 Flat Glass 153
3.3.185 Floor Coverings 154
3.3.186 Flour Milling 154
3.3.187 Folding Paperboard Boxes 155
3.3.188 Food Advertising 155
3.3.189 Forestry and Fishing 156
3.3.190 Fossil Fuel-Powered Electric Power Generation 156
3.3.191 Fragrances 157
3.3.192 Franchising 157
3.3.193 Free-Range Eggs 158
3.3.194 Freestanding Electric Ranges 158
3.3.195 Freeze-Dried Instant Coffee 159
3.3.196 Fresh Beef and Veal 159
3.3.197 Fruit Drinks 160
3.3.198 Fuel Dealers 160
3.3.199 Funeral Homes 161
3.3.200 Gambling 161
3.3.201 Gaming Computer Systems 162
3.3.202 Gardening Supplies, Outdoor Furniture, and Plants 162
3.3.203 General Merchandise stores 163
3.3.204 Generic Prescription Drugs 163
3.3.205 Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir Stores 164
3.3.206 Gifts 164
3.3.207 Gin 165
3.3.208 Girls Dresses and Blouses 165
3.3.209 Glass Container Manufacturing 166
3.3.210 Global Positioning System (GPS) Receivers 166
3.3.211 Gold Ores 167
3.3.212 Golf Equipment 167
3.3.213 Gourmet Potato Chips 168
3.3.214 Government Public Health Activities 168
3.3.215 Granola Bars and Breakfast Cereal Bars 169
3.3.216 Grape Juice 169
3.3.217 Graphic Design Services 170
3.3.218 Green Vegetables 170
3.3.219 Greeting Cards 171
3.3.220 Grocery Discounters 171
3.3.221 GSM-Based Cellular Telephones 172
3.3.222 Guided Missiles and Space Vehicles 172
3.3.223 Gypsum Products 173
3.3.224 Hair Tinting and Coloring Products 173
3.3.225 Hard Cheese 174
3.3.226 HDTV 174
3.3.227 Health Care Equipment and Supplies 175
3.3.228 Heating and Cooling Appliances 175
3.3.229 Highly Refined Mineral Oil 176
3.3.230 Highway and Street Construction 176
3.3.231 Hispanic Music Television 177
3.3.232 Hi-Tech Logistics 177
3.3.233 Hobby, Toy, and Game Stores 178
3.3.234 Home Improvement Retailers 178
3.3.235 Hospital Food Service 179
3.3.236 Household Textiles and Soft Furnishings 179
3.3.237 Human Resource Management Services 180
3.3.238 Hunting, Trapping, and Game Propagation 180
3.3.239 Ice Cream 181
3.3.240 Imported Whiskey 181
3.3.241 Impulse Ice Cream 182
3.3.242 In Vitro Diagnostic Equipment 182
3.3.243 IP-Based Enterprise Networking Equipment 183
3.3.244 Iron Ore Mining 183
3.3.245 Janitorial Services 184
3.3.246 Jewelry Stores 184
3.3.247 Juice 185
3.3.248 Kiln Furniture 185
3.3.249 Kitchen Appliances 186
3.3.250 Knitwear 186
3.3.251 Kraft Foods Brand Cookies 187
3.3.252 Lager Beer 187
3.3.253 Laptop Computers 188
3.3.254 Large Household Appliances 188
3.3.255 Lawn and Garden Equipment and Supplies Stores 189
3.3.256 Leather and Leather Products 189
3.3.257 Legal Services 190
3.3.258 Leisure Education 190
3.3.259 Lemonade 191
3.3.260 Lemon-Flavored Bottled Water 191
3.3.261 Life Insurance Sold by Life Insurance Companies 192
3.3.262 Linen and Uniform Supply 192
3.3.263 Lingerie 193
3.3.264 Lip and Multiuse Color Cosmetics 193
3.3.265 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 194
3.3.266 Liqueurs 194
3.3.267 Local and Interurban Passenger Transit 195
3.3.268 Logging 195
3.3.269 Logistics for the Pharmaceutical Industry 196
3.3.270 Low-Carbohydrate Beer 196
3.3.271 Low-Fat Spreads 197
3.3.272 Lumber and Wood Products 197
3.3.273 Machine Tools 198
3.3.274 Machining Precision Turned Products 198
3.3.275 Magazines 199
3.3.276 Mainstream Tea 199
3.3.277 Malt Beverages 200
3.3.278 Management Consulting Services 200
3.3.279 Manifold Business Forms 201
3.3.280 Manmade Fabric Mills 201
3.3.281 Manufactured Mobile Home Dealers 202
3.3.282 Manufacturing Dog and Cat Food 202
3.3.283 Marine Freight Services 203
3.3.284 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling 203
3.3.285 Mass Reproduction of Computer Software 204
3.3.286 Materials Handling Machinery 204
3.3.287 Meal Replacement Drinks 205
3.3.288 Measuring and Controlling Instruments 205
3.3.289 Meat and Poultry 206
3.3.290 Media Advertising 206
3.3.291 Medical Biotechnology 207
3.3.292 Medicated Skin Care 207
3.3.293 Medium and Heavy Trucks 208
3.3.294 Men’s Accessories 208
3.3.295 Mens Grooming Products 209
3.3.296 Menswear 209
3.3.297 Menthol Cigarettes 210
3.3.298 Millwork 210
3.3.299 Mineral Water 211
3.3.300 Mixing Ingredients to Make Fertilizer 211
3.3.301 Model Wheeled Vehicles 212
3.3.302 Modems 212
3.3.303 Moist Cat Food 213
3.3.304 Morning Bakery Goods 213
3.3.305 Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment 214
3.3.306 Mountain Bikes 214
3.3.307 Mushrooms 215
3.3.308 Music and Video Game Stores 215
3.3.309 NAND Flash Memory Cards 216
3.3.310 National Newspapers 216
3.3.311 Net, Lace, and Voile Curtains 217
3.3.312 Network Hubs 217
3.3.313 New Car Dealers 218
3.3.314 Nitrogenous Fertilizer Manufacturing 218
3.3.315 Non-Airport Car Rentals 219
3.3.316 Non-Chocolate Confectionery Manufacturing 219
3.3.317 Non-Citrus Fruit 220
3.3.318 Non-Current-Carrying Wiring Device Manufacturing 220
3.3.319 Non-Daily Newspapers 221
3.3.320 Non-Depository Credit Intermediation 221
3.3.321 Non-Durable Goods 222
3.3.322 Non-Farm Housing Services 222
3.3.323 Non-Ferrous Forging 223
3.3.324 Non-Food Retail Sales 223
3.3.325 Non-Interest Commercial Banking 224
3.3.326 Non-Metallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 224
3.3.327 Non-Residential Construction and Engineering 225
3.3.328 Non-Store Retailers and Mail Order 225
3.3.329 Non-Wood Office Furniture Manufacturing 226
3.3.330 Nonwoven Fabric Mills 226
3.3.331 Nuclear Electric Power Generation 227
3.3.332 Nursery, Garden Center, and Farm Supply Stores 227
3.3.333 Nursing Homes 228
3.3.334 Office Supplies and Stationery Stores 228
3.3.335 Oil 229
3.3.336 Oil, Gas, and Mining Exploration Services 229
3.3.337 Oils and Fats 230
3.3.338 Onions and Shallots 230
3.3.339 Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) 231
3.3.340 Operations Management Services 231
3.3.341 Ophthalmic Goods Manufacturing 232
3.3.342 Optical Goods and Eye Care Products 232
3.3.343 Oral Drug Delivery Systems 233
3.3.344 Orange Juice 233
3.3.345 Organic Beverages 234
3.3.346 OTC Healthcare Products 234
3.3.347 Outdoor Games 235
3.3.348 Outerwear Clothing and Accessories 235
3.3.349 Outsourcing Services 236
3.3.350 Ovens and Stoves 236
3.3.351 Over-The-Counter Drugs 237
3.3.352 Packaged Nuts 237
3.3.353 Packaging and Labeling Services 238
3.3.354 Paid Internet Search Advertising 238
3.3.355 Paint and Wallpaper Stores 239
3.3.356 Paper Towels 239
3.3.357 Parking Lots, Garages, and Valet Parking Services 240
3.3.358 Passenger Transportation 240
3.3.359 Passive Components 241
3.3.360 Pasta and Noodles 241
3.3.361 PC Video Game Software 242
3.3.362 Pears 242
3.3.363 Periodicals 243
3.3.364 Perishable Prepared Foods Manufacturing 243
3.3.365 Permanent Employment Services 244
3.3.366 Personal Stationery 244
3.3.367 Pet Care Products 245
3.3.368 Pharmacies and Drug Stores 245
3.3.369 Phosphatic Fertilizer Manufacturing 246
3.3.370 Physicians Services 246
3.3.371 Pizzas 247
3.3.372 Plant Bread 247
3.3.373 Plastic Housewares 248
3.3.374 Plumbing Products 248
3.3.375 Plush Toys 249
3.3.376 Pollution Control Equipment and Services 249
3.3.377 Popcorn 250
3.3.378 Pork Pies 250
3.3.379 Port and Shipbuilding Equipment 251
3.3.380 Potash, Soda, and Boratic Minerals Mining 251
3.3.381 Potato Chips 252
3.3.382 Poultry Products 252
3.3.383 Powder Detergents 253
3.3.384 Precious Metal Jewelry and Personal Articles 253
3.3.385 Prefabricated Metal Buildings 254
3.3.386 Pre-Recorded Cassettes 254
3.3.387 Prerecorded Tape, Compact Disc, and Record Stores 255
3.3.388 Prescription Eyeglass Frames 255
3.3.389 Presentation Materials 256
3.3.390 Primary Metal Industries 256
3.3.391 Printed Circuit Boards 257
3.3.392 Printers 257
3.3.393 Printing Special Business Forms and Checkbooks 258
3.3.394 Private Residential Construction 258
3.3.395 Professional Computer Services 259
3.3.396 Programmable Logic Devices 259
3.3.397 Property and Casualty Insurance 260
3.3.398 Public Residential Construction 260
3.3.399 Publishing Advertising 261
3.3.400 Pubs, Clubs, and Nightclubs 261
3.3.401 Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems 262
3.3.402 Pulp Mills 262
3.3.403 Radiators and Pumps 263
3.3.404 Radio and Television Broadcasting 263
3.3.405 Railroad Freight Services 264
3.3.406 Ready Pasta 264
3.3.407 Real Jewelry 265
3.3.408 Reconstituted Wood Products 265
3.3.409 Recorded Music 266
3.3.410 Recreational Vehicle Dealers 266
3.3.411 Red Meat 267
3.3.412 Refining Cane Sugar from Raw Cane Sugar 267
3.3.413 Refrigeration Appliances 268
3.3.414 Regional Newspapers 268
3.3.415 Relays and Industrial Controls 269
3.3.416 Remediation Services 269
3.3.417 Rendering Animal Fat, Bones, and Meat Scraps 270
3.3.418 Renewable Energy Equipment 270
3.3.419 Replacement Tires for Cars and Light Vans 271
3.3.420 Residential Construction 271
3.3.421 Residual Fuel Oil 272
3.3.422 Retail Logistics 272
3.3.423 Retirement Savings Plans 273
3.3.424 Rice Milling 273
3.3.425 Ride-On Toys 274
3.3.426 Root Vegetables 274
3.3.427 Salon Hair Care Products 275
3.3.428 Salt and Vinegar Potato Chips 275
3.3.429 Sandwich Spreads 276
3.3.430 Sanitary Protection Products 276
3.3.431 Sauces, Salad Dressings, and Condiments 277
3.3.432 Savory Snacks 277
3.3.433 Sawmills 278
3.3.434 Scanners 278
3.3.435 School Food Service 279
3.3.436 Scrap Recycling 279
3.3.437 Screw Machine Products 280
3.3.438 Seasonal Cookies 280
3.3.439 Secondary Smelting and Alloying of Aluminum 281
3.3.440 Security and Commodity Brokers and Dealers 281
3.3.441 Sensors 282
3.3.442 Services 282
3.3.443 Sewer Facilities 283
3.3.444 Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods Stores 283
3.3.445 Shampoo 284
3.3.446 Shaving Razors and Blades 284
3.3.447 Sheer Window Furnishings 285
3.3.448 Shellfish 285
3.3.449 Ship Building and Repairing 286
3.3.450 Single-Serving Dry Ambient Snacks 286
3.3.451 Skin Care Products 287
3.3.452 Slaughtering Animals Excluding Poultry 287
3.3.453 Sliced Cooked Meat 288
3.3.454 Slow-Release Household Fresheners 288
3.3.455 Smoothies 289
3.3.456 Socks, Stockings, and Tights 289
3.3.457 Soup 290
3.3.458 Space Heaters 290
3.3.459 Spice and Extract Manufacturing 291
3.3.460 Sporting Goods Retailers 291
3.3.461 Sports and Energy Drinks 292
3.3.462 Spreads and Margarines 292
3.3.463 Stacking Potato Chips 293
3.3.464 Standard and Bulk Ice Cream 293
3.3.465 Stationary Bicycles 294
3.3.466 Steel Mill Products 294
3.3.467 Stella Artois Lager Beer 295
3.3.468 Still Bottled Water 295
3.3.469 Stone Fruit 296
3.3.470 Storage Battery Manufacturing 296
3.3.471 Sugar Candy 297
3.3.472 Support Activities for Air Transportation 297
3.3.473 Surface Cleaners 298
3.3.474 Switchgear and Switchboard Apparatus 298
3.3.475 Synthetic Rubber 299
3.3.476 Taxicabs 299
3.3.477 Telecommunications Equipment 300
3.3.478 Telephone and Telegraph Facilities 300
3.3.479 Television Broadcasting 301
3.3.480 Temporary Employment Services 301
3.3.481 Tequila and Mescal Spirits 302
3.3.482 Testing Laboratories 302
3.3.483 Textile Fabrics 303
3.3.484 Tire Cord and Tire Fabric Mills 303
3.3.485 Tissues 304
3.3.486 Tobacco Products 304
3.3.487 Tortilla Manufacturing 305
3.3.488 Toy Stores 305
3.3.489 Traditional Toys 306
3.3.490 Trail Mix 306
3.3.491 Transformers 307
3.3.492 Transportation Equipment 307
3.3.493 Travel Trailer and Camper Manufacturing 308
3.3.494 Truck Trailer Manufacturing 308
3.3.495 Turkey Pieces 309
3.3.496 Ultra Disposable Diapers 309
3.3.497 Underwear, Nightwear, and Swimwear 310
3.3.498 Underwire Bras 310
3.3.499 Unleaded Gasoline 311
3.3.500 Upholstered Household Furniture Manufacturing 311
3.3.501 Used Car Dealers 312
3.3.502 Utilities 312
3.3.503 Vacuum Cleaners 313
3.3.504 Valves and Pipe Fittings 313
3.3.505 Vegetarian Foods 314
3.3.506 Venture Capital 314
3.3.507 Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs) 315
3.3.508 Vienna and French Bread 315
3.3.509 Vodka 316
3.3.510 VoIP Telephone Service 316
3.3.511 Washing Machines 317
3.3.512 Watches 317
3.3.513 Water Utilities 318
3.3.514 Web Servers 318
3.3.515 Wedding Dresses 319
3.3.516 Weft Knit Fabric Mills 319
3.3.517 Welding and Soldering Equipment Manufacturing 320
3.3.518 Whiskey 320
3.3.519 White Bread 321
3.3.520 Whole Chicken Poultry 321
3.3.521 Window Blinds 322
3.3.522 Wine 322
3.3.523 Wineries 323
3.3.524 Wipes 323
3.3.525 Wireless Communication Services 324
3.3.526 Wiring Devices 324
3.3.527 Women’s Apparel and Accessories 325
3.3.528 Womenswear and Lingerie 325
3.3.529 Wood Preservation 326
3.3.530 Wool Yarn 326
3.3.531 Workers Compensation Insurance 327
3.3.532 Writing Instruments 327
3.3.533 Yarn Spinning Mills 328
3.3.534 Yellow Fats 328
3.3.535 Yogurt with Live Cultures 329
3.3.536 Definition of Terms 330
4 DISCLAIMERS, WARRANTEES, AND USER AGREEMENT PROVISIONS 380
4.1 Disclaimers & Safe Harbor 380
4.2 ICON Group International, Inc. User Agreement Provisions 381

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